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Thread: Timeline of Pre-Islamic Arabs and Arabia

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    Timeline of Pre-Islamic Arabs and Arabia

    source:http://docenti.unimc.it/marco.lauri/...ancient-arabia

    10th century BC

    The earliest securely dated writing in an
    indigenous script in Arabia: a document carved
    on a stick in the South Arabian script, dated by
    14C to between 1055 and 901 BC.

    853 BC

    First reference to an ‘Arab’. The annals of the
    Assyrian king Shalmaneser III (858–824 BC)
    record that ‘Gindibu the Arab’ brought 1000
    camels to the alliance of kings against Assyria at
    the battle of Qarqar (central Syria).

    Late 9th/early 8th century BC

    Yariris, the regent of the city of Carchemish (now
    southern Turkey), boasts that he can read what is
    probably the script of Taymāʾ (perhaps meaning
    alphabets of the South Semitic script family).

    8th century BC

    The Neo-Assyrian governor of Su ḫu, on the west
    bank of the Euphrates, attacks a caravan of ‘the
    people of Taymāʾ and Sabaʾ ’.

    738 BC

    Zabibe ‘Queen of the Arabs’, along with many
    kings of states in the Levant, Syria and southern
    Anatolia, sends tribute to the Assyrian king
    Tiglath-Pileser III (744–727 BC).

    734–716 BC

    The reign of Samsi ‘Queen of the Arabs’, of the
    tribe of Qēdār, based at the oasis of Dūmat.
    734 BC Samsi swears allegiance to Tiglath-Pileser III.

    733 BC

    Samsi, together with the inhabitants of the oasis
    of Taymāʾ, plus various Arab tribes, and possibly
    with the assistance of the kingdom of Sabaʾ,
    rebels against Tiglath-Pileser III, but is defeated.
    The Assyrians claim that 9400 of her soldiers
    were killed and over 1000 taken captive along
    with 30,000 camels, 20,000 sheep, and 5000
    measures of all sorts of spices. Samsi is allowed
    to remain queen, but an Assyrian official is
    placed over her.

    732–705 BC

    Assyrian officials in Syria write to the king at
    Kalḫu (modern Nimrud) about relations with
    Arabs in their provinces.

    716 BC

    Sargon II (720–705 BC) settles Arab tribes from
    North Arabia in Samaria.

    c. 716 BC

    Samsi, together with ‘Itaʾamara the Sabaean’ and
    the Pharaoh of Egypt, sends gifts to Sargon II.

    703 BC

    Arabs living in walled towns and in villages in
    western Babylonia support Merodach-Baladan II,
    king of Babylon (722–710, and 702 BC), against
    the Assyrians, but are defeated and Basqanu,
    brother of Iatiʾe, queen of the Arabs, is captured.
    Ancient North Arabian inscriptions (in the South
    Semitic script) are written in Babylonian cities
    probably at this period.

    From the 7th century BC

    Sabaean colonists begin to settle in the region of
    Axum, Ethiopia.

    691–689 BC

    Teʾelḫunu, queen of the Arabs based at Adumatu
    (Dūmat) and Hazaʾel, king of Qēdār, are defeated
    by Sennacherib, king of Assyria (705–681 BC).
    Dūmat is captured and Teʾelḫunu is carried off to
    Assyria, along with the images of the gods of the
    Arabs. Tabūa, an Arab girl (possibly daughter of
    Teʾelḫunu) is also carried off and is brought up at
    the court of Senacherib. Hazaʾel surrenders to
    Senacherib and a heavy tribute is imposed upon
    him.

    685 BC

    Karibilu (Karibʾil Watar bin Dhamarʿali), king of
    Sabaʾ, sends a gift (nāmurtu) to Senacherib who
    places it in the foundation of the Bīt Akītu (New
    Year festival) temple.

    685 BC

    The great inscription of Karibʾil Watar in the
    temple to ʾAlmaqah at Ṣirwāḥ records his victory
    over the king of Awsān and his allies as well as
    the destruction of his palace and capital in Wādī
    Markha. Qataban and Ḥaḍramawt form an
    alliance with Sabaʾ. The king of Nashshān in the
    Yemeni Jawf is defeated. Najrān (north of Yemen
    and a focal point on the frankincense traderoutes)
    is conquered. Sabaʾ becomes the
    dominant power in South Arabia. The upper
    storey of the Salḥīn palace in Mārib is built.

    681–676 BC

    Esarhaddon king of Assyria (680–669 BC)
    restores the images of the gods to Dūmat and
    makes Tabūa queen of the Arabs, in place of
    Teʾelhunu. He confirms Hazaʾel as king of Qēdār,
    imposing an extra tribute upon him. Hazaʾel dies,
    and Esarhaddon confirms the succession of
    Hazaʾel's son, Iautaʾ, in return for a heavy extra
    annual tribute of 10 minas of gold, 1000 choice
    jewels, 50 camels and 1000 bags of spices.

    676–673 BC

    Esarhaddon suppresses a rebellion against Iautaʾ.

    673–669 BC

    Iautaʾ rebels against Esarhaddon but is defeated
    and the images of the gods are again taken from
    Dūmat.

    671 BC

    Arab tribes in Sinai help Esarhaddon's troops to
    cross Sinai and to invade Egypt.

    668 BC

    The Assyrian king Ashurbanipal (688–631 BC)
    returns the image of the deity ‘Atar-samain to
    Iautaʾ king of Qēdār.

    Before 652 BC

    Iauta ʾ and his wife Adiya, ‘queen of the Arabs’,
    attack Assyria's vassal states in Transjordan. They
    are defeated and Adiya is captured. Iautaʾ takes
    refuge with Natnū king of the Nabaioth (south of
    Taymāʾ) but eventually gives himself up to the
    Assyrians. Ashurbanipal replaces Iautaʾ as king
    of Qēdār by Abiyataʾ son of Teʾri.

    651–648 BC

    Abiyataʾ supports Shamash-shum-ukin king of
    Babylon (667–648 BC) against Ashurbanipal,
    who, however, defeats them in Syria.

    After 646 BC

    Ashurbanipal attacks and defeats the Arab tribes
    of Qēdār and Nabaioth in central Syria.

    Mid-7th century BC

    The Sabaean mukarrib, Yadaʿʾil Dhariḥ, builds a
    wall around the principal sanctuary of ʾAlmaqah,
    the god of the Sabaean kingdom, at Mārib, and
    the temple of ʾAlmaqah at Ṣirwāḥ.

    c. 600 BC

    First Greek references (in Sappho) to
    frankincense, using a word of Semitic origin.

    6th century BC

    The first reference to ‘Arabs’ in South Arabia
    occurs in a Minaic inscription, though it is
    unclear from the context whether it is the name of
    a people or a word for ‘nomads’.

    599–598 BC

    Under Nebuchadnezzar II (604–562 BC), the
    Babylonian army plunders Arab nomads in Syria.

    552–543 BC

    Nabonidus, last king of Babylon (555–539 BC)
    conquers 6 important oases in north-west Arabia,
    including Taymāʾ and Dadan whose kings he
    kills. He sets up his residence in Taymāʾ for 10
    years (probably 552–543 BC).

    c. 550 BC

    The records of an unnamed Sabaean mukkarrib,
    probably Yithaʿʾamar Bayyin son of Sumuhuʿalī
    Yanūf, mention a war against Qataban, a
    campaign against the Minaeans and their
    kingdom of Maʿīn, as well as the siege of Yathill
    in the north of the Yemeni Jawf, the heartland of
    the Minaeans. Towers and gates were added to
    the city wall of Mārib. The northern and southern
    sluices of the great dam at Mārib were built. The
    rise of Qataban and Maʿīn.

    540 BC

    A king of ‘Arabia’ (in northern Mesopotamia)
    brings 100 chariots, 10,000 horsemen and a large
    number of infantry armed with slings to join the
    kings of Greater Phrygia, and Cappadocia in
    support of Nabonidus against Cyrus the Great
    (559–530 BC), who defeats them. The Arabians
    and ‘Assyrians’ put up the strongest fight
    ‘because they were on their own land’, and are
    massacred.

    539–331 BC

    All the ‘Arabias’ known at the time are ruled by
    the Achaemenid empire. But the Arabs in
    southern Palestine, centred on Gaza, within the
    5th satrapy, are the only people in the empire
    (apart from the Colchians in the far north and the
    Ethiopians in the far south) not to pay taxes, but
    instead to give an annual ‘gift’ to the treasury of
    1000 talents (c. 30 tonnes) of frankincense.

    525 BC

    Arabs in Sinai assist the Persian king Cambyses
    (530–522 BC) in his invasion of Egypt.

    c. 520 BC

    Darius I (521–486 BC) sends Scylax of Caryanda
    on a voyage of exploration from the Indus to
    Egypt in which he travels along the southern
    coast of the Peninsula and up the Red Sea, noting
    that the Kamaran Islands (at the southern end of
    the Red Sea) are inhabited by ‘Arabs’. The
    information gathered by Scylax was incorporated,
    rather inaccurately, in a map by the Ionian
    geographer Hecataeus.

    from the 5th century BC

    Qatabanian dominance of South Arabia until the
    second half of the 2nd century AD.

    mid 5th century BC

    Herodotus describes ‘Arabia’ as being in eastern
    Egypt between the Nile and the Red Sea.

    after 445 BC

    ‘Geshem (Gashm ū) the Arab’, probably an
    official in the Arab area in southern Palestine
    which was semi-autonomous under Achaemenid
    rule, together with officials from other parts of
    the same satrapy, clashes with Nehemiah over the
    rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem.

    410 BC

    Pharnabazus, Persian satrap of Hellespontine
    Phrygia, sends the Phoenician fleet to support
    Sparta in a war against Athens, but at a crucial
    moment withdraws it ‘on receiving information
    [probably false] that the king of the Arabs
    [probably based at Gaza] and the king of the
    Egyptians had designs upon Phoenicia.’
    401 BC Xenophon encounters Arabs living in central
    Mesopotamia.

    c. 400 BC

    Maʿīn and Ḥaḍramawt become independent of
    Sabaʾ.

    343 BC

    Minaean merchants working in Egypt flee from
    the invading Persians and safely reach the
    Minaean capital Qarnaw, north of Mārib, in the
    Yemeni Jawf.

    332 BC

    Alexander III, the Great, (336–323 BC) attacks
    Arab peasants in the Anti-Lebanon mountains
    during his siege of Tyre.

    332 BC

    Alexander attacks Gaza, which is defended by the
    Persian governor with the help of many Arabs,
    one of whom is said to have wounded Alexander.

    He then sweeps on into north-eastern Egypt
    where he conquered ‘the greater part of [this]
    Arabia’.

    326 BC

    Alexander sends Nearchos on a voyage of
    discovery from the mouth of the Indus to the head
    of the Persian Gulf and the Greeks become aware
    for the first time of the eastern coast of the
    Arabian Peninsula.

    325 BC

    Alexander sends three other naval expeditions to
    try to circumnavigate the Peninsula, one of which
    identified for the first time in Greek geography
    that Southern Arabia was the true source of
    frankincense.

    312 BC

    The Seleucid king, Antigonus ‘the One-eyed’,
    attacks the Nabataeans, a nomadic Arab tribe in
    southern Jordan involved in the northern end of
    the incense trade.

    3rd century BC

    The Nabataeans settle in southern Jordan,
    southern Palestine and parts of the Nile Delta,
    eventually expanding their kingdom to the
    Ḥawrān in the north and to north-west Arabia in
    the south. They develop highly sophisticated
    water-conservation systems and irrigation
    agriculture, as well as profiting greatly from the
    trade in luxury goods from southern and eastern
    Arabia.

    3rd/2nd century BC

    The Greek geographer Eratosthenes describes the
    Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains and the
    Beqaʿ plain as being inhabited by Ituraeans and
    Arabs, and the eastern foothills of the AntiLebanon
    as ‘the Arabian mountains’.

    218 BC

    In the struggle between the Seleucids and the
    Ptolemies for possession of the Levant, the Arabs
    of the rich agricultural land of north-west
    Transjordan and the city of ‘Rabbatamana of the
    Arabs’ [Biblical Rabbat Banī ʿAmmōn, modern
    ʿAmmān] help the Seleucid king, Antiochus III.

    3rd–1st century BC

    A series of queens, with the throne-name of
    ‘Abiel’, issue coins (imitations of Alexander the
    Great's coinage) on the north-west coast of the
    Persian Gulf, probably Baḥrain. Their name and
    patronyms are written in Aramaic

    2nd century BC

    Agatharchides of Cnidus describes the west coast
    of the Arabian Peninsula.

    2nd century BC

    A kingdom of Hagar in the north of the Peninsula
    mints coins (imitations of Alexander the Great's
    coinage) in the name of a king named Ḥarethat.
    The name and title are written in the Ancient
    South Arabian script.

    168 BC

    At the time of the Maccabees, Jason, the
    Hellenizing Jewish High Priest, flees to the
    Nabataean king, Aretas I, who, however,
    imprisons him.

    166 BC

    At the beginning of the Maccabean revolt against
    the Seleucid state, the Nabataeans support the
    leaders of the Jewish national party (Judas
    Maccabaeus 164 BC, Jonathan 160 BC).

    153 BC

    Alexander I Balas seizes the Seleucid throne. He
    sends his young son, Antiochus [VI], to be
    educated by ‘Imalkoue [or Iamblikhos, or
    Malkhos] the Arab’, probably in northern Syria.

    145 BC

    Alexander Balas is deposed and seeks protection
    in an ‘Arabia’ probably around Ḥimṣ in central
    Syria, but the Zabadaioi Arabs there cut off his
    head and send it to Ptolemy VIII of Egypt.

    141–139 BC

    The Arab kingdom of Characene (Mesene) is
    established at the head of the Persian Gulf and
    lasts until AD 222.

    110 BC

    The theoretical starting date of the Himyarite era
    which was used in South Arabia sporadically
    from the 2nd century AD, and universally from
    the mid-4th to the mid-6th century.

    before 100 BC

    Himyar establishes its independence from
    Qataban.

    1st century BC (?)

    The earliest text which may be in a form of the
    Arabic language, a 10-line funerary stele written
    in the Sabaic script is set up at Qaryat Dhāt Kahl
    (modern Qaryat al-Faʾw) in central Arabia.

    93 BC

    The Jewish leader Alexander Jannaeus attacks the
    Nabataean king, Obodas I, who inflicts a crushing
    defeat upon him.

    87 BC

    The Seleucid king of Syria, Antiochus XII,
    attacks the (Nabataean ?) Arabs who defeat him
    at the battle of Qana [= Qanawāt ?] (in southern
    Syria), where Antiochus is killed.

    c. 85 BC

    The Nabataean king Aretas III gains possession
    of Coele (i.e. southern) Syria and Damascus.

    83 BC

    Tigranes the Great, king of Armenia (died c. 55
    BC), invades Syria and by 80 BC has ended the
    Seleucid kingdom. He rules the north of Syria,
    while the south is divided between the Ituraeans
    and the Nabataeans. He moves Arab nomads into
    the Amanus region (at the north-east corner of the
    Mediterranean).

    83–80 BC

    The Jewish ruler, Alexander Jannaeus, conquers
    large areas of northern Transjordan from the
    Nabataeans.

    72 BC

    Tigranes takes Damascus from the Nabataeans.

    69 BC

    Tigranes is supported by Arabs from northern
    Syria and from ‘the Sea of Babylon’, i.e. the head
    of the Persian Gulf, but these are defeated by the
    Roman general Lucius Licinius Lucullus.

    after 67 BC

    ‘Azizus the Arab’ crowns a Seleucid pretender,
    Antiochus XIII, in Antioch, with the support of
    Sampsigeramus, the Arab king of Arethusa and
    Emesa [modern Ḥimṣ].

    67-65 BC

    The Nabataean king, Aretas III, sides with the
    Jewish ruler Hyrcanus in his struggle against his
    brother Aristobulus II, defeats Aristobulus and
    besieges him on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
    66/65 BC Pompey’s general Afranius (died 62 BC),
    followed by Pompey himself, subdues and
    receives the submissions of the Arabs around
    Mount Amanus, of the king of Osrhoene, of a
    certain ‘Alkhaudonios, the Arab who also
    attached himself to the stronger party’, and of the
    Ituraeans.

    65 BC

    Pompey’s general, Scaurus, having completed the
    conquest of Syria enters Judaea, sides with
    Aristobulus and forces Aretas III to withdraw.
    Scaurus then withdraws to Damascus, and
    Aristobulus pursues Aretas, inflicting a crushing
    defeat upon him.

    64 BC

    Pompey declares Syria a Roman Province and
    marches on Petra, but has to divert his forces to
    Judaea because of the hostility of Aristobulus.

    62 BC

    Pompey sends Scaurus against Petra, but Aretas
    buys him off. Pompey, however, boasts of the
    subjugation of Aretas and mints coins celebrating
    it.

    47 BC

    The Nabataean king, Malichus I, provides Julius
    Caesar with cavalry in the Alexandrian War.

    46–44 BC

    Arabs in Syria support the insurrection against
    Rome which Caecilius Bassus started in Apamea
    of Syria.

    40 BC

    The Nabataean king, Malichus I, sides with the
    Parthians, led by Pacorus and the Roman defector
    Labienus, when they invade Syria and Palestine,
    and when the Parthians are defeated in 38 BC by
    the Roman general Publius Ventidius Bassus,
    Malichus is punished by the Romans with the
    exaction of a large tribute.

    Between 37 and 34 BC

    Marcus Antonius gives the children of Cleopatra
    VII (51–30 BC) parts of the Judaean, Ituraean,
    and Nabataean kingdoms in southern Syria, and
    ends the Ituraean kingdom.

    32 BC

    Malichus I sends troops to support Marcus
    Antonius at the battle of Actium. However,
    because the Nabataeans were not paying tribute
    for the part of their kingdom given to Cleopatra’s
    children, Marcus Antonius orders Herod the
    Great to invade the kingdom. In 32/31, after
    initial strong resistance from the Nabataeans,
    Herod is successful.

    25–24 BC

    The Praefectus Aegypti, Gaius Aelius Gallus
    leads an expedition to Southern Arabia. The
    Nabataeans provide 1000 auxiliaries and, as a
    guide, Syllaeus a high-ranking politician and
    close associate of the Nabataean king, who was
    later accused of deliberately misleading the
    expedition.

    12–9/8 BC

    Herod the Great makes war on the Nabataeans.
    9 BC Aretas IV (probably a usurper) becomes king of
    Nabataea. The emperor Augustus disapproves,
    but is eventually persuaded not to intervene.

    7/6 BC

    A Nabataean-Sabaic bilingual inscription dated to
    year 3 of the Nabataean king Aretas [IV] is set up
    in the temple of ʾAlmaqah at Sirwāḥ, not far from
    the Sabaean capital Mārib.

    c. 5 BC

    Syllaeus is executed at Rome.

    after 4 BC

    Aretas IV provides troops to Varus, the legate of
    Syria, in his expedition against the Jews,
    following the death of Herod the Great.
    First half of the 1st century AD
    Sabaʾ conquers Maʿīn.

    c. AD 25

    The Qatabanian capital Timnaʿ, is destroyed by
    the armies of the kingdom of Ḥaḍramawt.

    AD 36/37

    Herod Antipas marries one of the daughters of
    Aretas IV, but divorces her in order to marry
    Herodias, the wife of his half-brother. This insult,
    together with border disputes, leads to a war in
    which Aretas defeats Herod Antipas.

    c. AD 36/37

    Saint Paul escapes from Damascus despite the
    guards placed at the gates by the ethnarch of king
    Aretas IV.

    AD 40

    Malichus II (Mankū, in Nabataean) succeeds
    Aretas IV.

    mid 1st century AD

    Malichus [II] the king of the Nabataeans, Karib ʾil
    Watar Yuhanʿim [I] king of Sabaʾ and Dhū
    Raydān, and Ilʿazz Yalit king of Ḥaḍramawt are
    mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea,
    a maritime handbook, written in Greek, which
    describes the sea-route from Egypt to India, with
    details of all the ports on the way and the goods
    which can be exported to them and bought at
    them. It provides valuable information on the
    western and southern coasts of the Arabian
    Peninsula at this period.

    AD 58/67 –122

    The composition of six Nabataean legal papyri
    which were among the documents belonging to
    Jews who fled from the village/district of
    Maḥôzāʾ at the south-eastern end of the Dead Sea
    to a cave on its western edge during the Second
    Jewish Revolt (led by Bar-Kokhba) AD 132–135.

    AD 67

    Malichus II provides the future Roman emperor
    Vespasian with 1000 cavalry and 5000 infantry,
    mainly archers, when the latter is suppressing the
    First Jewish Revolt.

    c. AD 75

    Pliny the Elder mentions Ẓafār, the capital of
    Ḥimyar, and describes the length of the
    frankincense route from Timnaʿ (capital of
    Qataban) to Gaza on the Mediterranean.

    AD 106

    The Nabataean king Rabbel II dies and the
    Romans annex the Nabataean kingdom naming it
    Provincia Arabia, with its capital at Boṣrā, in
    southern Syria.

    From AD 111

    The Roman emperor Trajan orders the
    construction of a road, the Via Nova Traiana,
    from Boṣrā to the Red Sea at Aila (modern al-
    ʿAqaba).

    AD 114–115

    After his victory against the Parthians in
    Armenia, Trajan received the submission of
    Abgar VII of Edessa and the chief of the Arabs of
    Singara (modern Sinjār, in the Syrian Jazīra).

    AD 117

    Trajan lays siege to Hatra in an area (in the Iraqi
    Jazīra) called ʿArab, but fails to take it.

    c. AD 120

    A detachment of the Legio VI Ferrata is stationed
    on the largest island in the Farasān archipelago
    off the coast of Yemen, and sets up a Latin
    inscription.

    AD 121

    A Greek document from Dura Europos on the
    middle Euphrates mentions an Arabarchēs (‘ruler
    of Arabs’) in that area, subject to the Parthian
    King of Kings, Vologases II. Later a Greek
    document of AD 133/134 and another of AD 180
    are said to be written in ‘Europos at Arabia’.

    Between AD 126 and130

    The governor of the Province of Arabia, Sextius
    Florentinus, is buried in an elaborate tomb at
    Petra.

    AD 132–135

    The Second Jewish Revolt, into which Jews, and
    possibly others, from the neighbouring Province
    of Arabia are drawn. The governors of the
    Provinces of Syria and Arabia are apparently
    involved in its suppression since afterwards they
    receive the ornamenta triumphalia.

    AD 144

    A detachment of the Legio II Traiana Fortis and
    its auxiliary troops are stationed at the port on the
    largest island in the Farasan archipelago off the
    coast of Yemen, and set up a Latin inscription to
    the emperor Antoninus Pius.

    AD 163–165

    Lucius Verus and Avidius Cassius wage what the
    emperor Marcus Aurelius describes as ‘that
    Arabian and Parthian war’ in the Jazīra between
    the Tigris and Euphrates.

    2nd half of the 2nd century AD

    Qataban is annexed by Hadramawt.

    AD 164–169

    A temple, probably for the worship of the god ʾlh,
    is built at Ruwāfah, a small site in north-west
    Arabia, by a military unit levied from the Arab
    tribe of Thamūd under the auspices of two
    successive Roman governors of the Province of
    Arabia (Quintus Antistius Adventus and Lucius
    Claudius Modestus). It is furnished with a
    dedication in Greek and Nabataean Aramaic to
    the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus,
    and another in Greek recording the completion of
    the temple, as well as a separate inscription in
    Nabataean.

    AD 175–177

    The ‘chief citizen’ (primus civitatis) and people
    of the former Nabataean city of Ḥegrā (modern
    Madāʾin Ṣāliḥ, in north-west Arabia), set up a
    Latin inscription dedicated to the emperor
    Marcus Aurelius recording the restoration of the
    city walls by the (previously unknown) governor
    of the Province, Iulius Firmanus, and a centurion
    of the Legio III Cyrenaica.

    AD 187

    While he is governor of Syria, Septimius Severus
    marries Iulia Domna of the Arab priestly ruling
    family of Emesa (modern Ḥimṣ, in central Syria).
    She, with her sister Iulia Maesa, her niece Iulia
    Mammaea, and her descendants, remain a major
    force in Roman politics until AD 235.

    AD 190-275

    The first invasions of South Arabia by the
    Abyssinians, who settle in the Tihāma, along the
    Red Sea coast of Yemen, and intervene on behalf
    of a succession of different parties in the wars
    between the South Arabian polities.

    AD 193

    Septimius Severus becomes Roman emperor.

    AD 195–204

    The Province of Syria is split into two provinces
    and the northern Ḥawrān is added to the Province
    of Arabia.

    AD 195

    Septimius Severus attacks the Osrhoenians,
    Adiabenians and the ‘inner’ Arabs i.e. (those of
    the Jazīra, within the Roman empire). As a result,
    he takes the titles Parthicus, Arabicus and
    Adiabenicus.

    AD 199

    Septimius Severus attacks Hatra, with its many
    ‘Arab’ subjects, but fails to take it.

    Early 3rd century AD

    First evidence of Christianity in Bo ṣrā, the capital
    of the Province of Arabia.

    AD 200

    Septimius Severus attacks Hatra again and lays
    siege to it, but again fails to take it.

    AD 218–222

    Elagabalus, from the ‘Arab’ city of Emesa
    (modern Ḥimṣ, in central Syria) reigns as Roman
    emperor.

    c. AD 200

    The kingdom of Ḥaḍramawt reaches the height of
    its power.

    First quarter of the 3rd century AD

    The king of Sabaʾ, Shaʿirum Awtar, launches two
    expeditions against the capital of the Arab tribe of
    Kinda, Qaryat Dhāt Kahl (modern Qaryat alFaʾw,
    on the north-west edge of the Empty
    Quarter). In another expedition, he conquers
    Ḥaḍramawt, destroying its capital, Shabwa.

    AD 224

    The Sasanian dynasty overthrows the Parthians
    and takes power in Iran.

    AD 230–240

    Origen calls two Church Councils in the Province
    of Arabia.

    AD 241

    The Sasanian King of Kings, Shāpūr I, captures
    Hatra.

    AD 244

    Marcus Iulius Philippus Araps (‘the Arab’), from
    Shahbāʾ in the Ḥawrān (southern Syria), becomes
    emperor. The soubriquet Araps refers to his
    origins in the Province of Arabia.

    Mid 3rd century AD

    A gravestone in Nabataean and Greek is set up at
    Umm al-Jimāl (northern-eastern Jordan) to the
    memory of Fahru son of Sulay, the tutor of
    Gadhīma king of the Arab tribe of Tanūkh which
    had moved from Baḥrain and settled on the
    Euphrates.

    c. AD 250

    The Sabaean king Ilsharaḥ Yaḥḍib II and his
    brother Yaʾzil Bayyin campaign against the
    Abyssinians in the western coastal plain, against
    the city of Najrān in the north, and against the
    Himyarite kings Shammar Yuhaḥmid and Karibʾil
    Ayfaʿ.

    AD 253–260

    The Sasanian King of Kings, Shāpūr I, overruns
    the whole of Roman Asia Minor, Syria (including
    Arabia in the Jazīra), and the Province of Arabia,
    defeating the Roman army and capturing the
    emperor Valerian I in 259.

    AD 262

    Odainathus, king of Palmyra, expels the
    Sasanians from Syria (including ‘Arabia’ in the
    Jazīra) and the Province of Arabia, and invades
    Mesopotamia reaching the Sasanian capital,
    Ctesiphon.

    AD 267

    Odainathus is murdered and is succeeded by his
    son Vaballatus, though the real power is wielded
    by Odenathus’ widow Zenobia.

    AD 269–270

    Zenobia abandons the Mesopotamian conquests
    and initiates the conquest of Egypt and Asia
    Minor. Vaballatus declares himself emperor and
    takes as one of his titles Arabicus Maximus,
    probably referring to the expulsion (by his father)
    of the Sasanians from the ‘Arabiaʾ in the Jazīra.
    Note, however, that there is no evidence that
    Odenathus, Zenobia or Vaballatus saw
    themselves, or were seen by others as ‘Arabs’.

    AD 272

    The emperor Aurelian defeats Zenobia and takes
    Palmyra.

    c. AD 280

    The Himyarite king Yasirum Yuhanʿim and/or his
    son Shammar Yuharʿish finally conquers the
    Sabaean kingdom.

    AD 293

    The Sasanian King of Kings, Narses (AD 293–
    302), erects an inscription in Middle Persian and
    Parthian at Paikuli (Kurdistan) listing the rulers
    who paid homage to him, among whom is an
    ʾAm[rw] Lhmʾdyn ml(ka) / ʾAmrw Lhmyšn mlka,
    which is probably the earliest reference to the
    Arab Nasrid dynasty (of the tribal group of
    Lakhm) ruling in southern Iraq.

    AD 298

    Peace is established between Rome and Iran
    leaving the Jazīra as far east as the Tigris in the
    hands of the Romans.

    By AD 298

    The Roman emperor Diocletian extends the
    northern border of the Province of Arabia almost
    to Damascus, and north-west roughly to the River
    Jordan at the latitude of Tyre. At the same time,
    all the territory which had belonged to Arabia
    south and south-west of the Wādī al-Ḥasā (at the
    latitude of the southern end of the Dead Sea), was
    now included in the Province of Palaestina
    Salutaris.

    end of the 3rd century AD

    The Himyarite king Shammar Yuharʿish conquers
    Ḥaḍramawt and unites South Arabia in a single
    kingdom.

    By the end of the 3rd century AD

    The nomadic Arab tribe of Ṭayyiʾ had moved
    from northern Arabia into Mesopotamia. Its name
    soon became the normal term (Ṭayyāyē) for
    ‘Arab nomads’ in Syriac literature.

    early 4th century AD

    A large part of the Arab tribe of Kinda, which had
    taken part in the Himyarite conquest of the
    kingdom of Ḥaḍramawt, establish themselves in
    the west of Wādī Ḥaḍramawt.

    AD 325

    The list of those attending the First Council of
    Nicaea includes five bishops from the Province of
    Arabia.

    AD 326

    The Sasanian King of Kings, Shāpūr II, launches
    an attack which crosses the northern part of the
    Arabian Peninsula from the oasis of al-Ḥasā [alAḥsāʾ]
    in the north-east to Yathrib (modern alMadīna)
    in the west.

    AD 328

    Maraʾ al-Qays son of ʿAmrw, ‘king of all [the
    country called] ʿArab’ and possibly the second
    Nasrid king, is buried near a Roman fort at a
    watering-place called al-Namāra in the Syrian
    desert. His five-line epitaph, written in the
    Arabic language using the Nabataean script,
    describes his achievements, including the
    conquest of a number of powerful Arab tribes and
    even an attack on the South Arabian city of
    Najrān in the realm of king Shammar Yuharʿish,
    the founder of the Himyarite empire.

    c. AD 345

    The Abyssinian king ʿEzānā IV converts to
    Christianity.

    c. AD 350

    The ecclesiastical writer Philostorgios reports on
    the first Christian and Jewish missionary activity
    in South Arabia. Churches are built in Ẓafār and
    other parts of the kingdom. From this point
    onwards almost all the Ancient South Arabian
    religious inscriptions are monotheist, and pagan
    temples start to be abandoned.

    2nd half of the 4th century AD

    The first epigraphic evidence for the breaking of
    the Mārib dam.

    c. AD 358

    The Province of Palaestina is divided into three
    and the southern area formerly part of Provincia
    Arabia becomes Palaestina Tertia.

    AD 363

    The emperor Julian (‘the Apostate’, AD 361–363)
    invades the part of Mesopotamia under Iranian
    control, with Saracens (nomadic Arabs) taking an
    active part on both sides. According to the
    rhetorician Libanius of Antioch, Julian was killed
    by a Saracen.

    AD 373–378

    Unidentified Saracens attack and massacre
    Christian hermits in the vicinity of Mount Sinai.
    At the same time, other Saracens try to defend the
    monastery of Rhaithou (also in Sinai) from an
    attack by the Blemmyes (from the Sudan) who,
    however, defeat them and massacre the monks.
    However, more Saracens from Pharan (also in
    Sinai) attack the Blemmyes as they return to their
    ships and annihilate them.

    c. AD 375–378

    Mavia (Arabic Māwiya), queen of those Saracens
    who had been allies of the Romans, attacks and
    devastates the border regions of the Provinces of
    Phoenicia, Arabia, and Palestine as far as Egypt.
    She and her tribesmen are only persuaded to
    withdraw on the promise that, Moses, a Christian
    hermit, would be consecrated as their bishop.
    When this was done, he proceeds to convert
    many Saracens to Christianity. Mavia marries her
    daughter to Victor, the Roman Magister Equitum
    of Oriens, a match requiring special dispensation
    from the emperor.

    AD 378

    During the siege of Constantinople by the Goths,
    the emperor Valens (AD 364–378) brings in
    Saracen troops who terrify the Goths.

    AD 383

    A revolt by Saracen foederati (allies of the
    Romans) is crushed by the Romans under
    Theodosius I (AD 379–395).

    AD 383

    The king of Ḥimyar, Malkikarib Yuhanʿim, and
    his sons profess monotheism. Although the deity
    is described simply as ‘Lord of heaven and earth’,
    it is thought that they espoused Judaism, possibly
    as an expression of neutrality since Ḥimyar was
    situated between Christian Ethiopia and
    Zoroastrian Iran.

    first third of the 5th century AD

    Under the king Abikarib Asʿad, the Himyarite
    kingdom reached its greatest territorial extent.

    AD 421–422

    The Nasrid Arab king, Mundhir I, intervenes on
    the Sasanian side in Theodosius II‘s (AD 408–
    450) first war against Iran, but suffers a
    disastrous defeat at Nisibis.

    AD 441

    Saracens, probably from within the Sasanian
    empire, join the Iranian attack on Nisibis in
    Theodosius II’s second war with Iran.

    Between AD 451 and 535

    The southern frontier of the Province of Arabia is
    brought further north probably to the Wādī Mujib
    (between Madaba and Kerak in modern Jordan).

    AD 454

    Another breach of the Mārib dam is repaired by
    the Himyarite king Shuraḥbiʾil Yaʿfur

    Before AD 459

    Large numbers of ‘Saracens’, as well as some
    ‘Himyarites’, come to visit St Simeon Stylites at
    Telanissos (modern Dayr Simʿan, in northern
    Syria) and are converted to Christianity.

    Between AD 470 and 475

    According to a tradition known only from a
    Geʿez manuscript, a South Arabian Christian
    priest named Azqīr was martyred at Najrān on the
    orders of the Himyarite king Shuraḥbiʾīl Yakkuf.

    Before AD 473

    A Saracen chief called Amorkesos (Imru ʾ alQays?)
    leaves the Iranians, with whom he has
    been allied, and fights other Saracens in Roman
    territory on the border with the Iranian empire.
    He then establishes himself on the island of
    Iotabe, at the mouth of the Gulf of Aqaba, driving
    out the Roman customs officers and enriching
    himself on the customs dues. Having sent, Petrus,
    the bishop of his tribe, to negotiate with the
    emperor Leo (AD 457–474), he is invited to
    Constantinople in 473 and is showered with
    honours including the title of phylarch. The
    island was recovered by the Byzantines in 498.

    AD 497–502

    Jabala the Jafnid with Maʿdikarib and Ḥujr sons
    of al-Ḥārith the Thaʿlabite raid the Roman
    frontier. In 502, the emperor Anastasius (AD
    491–518) concludes a treaty with them, and with
    another al-Ḥārith, leader of the tribe of Kinda.

    c. AD 500

    Abyssinian forces, under a general called Ḥyōnaʾ,
    invade South Arabia and make Marthadʾīlān
    Yanūf king of Ḥimyar. Persecutions of the Jews
    begin.

    AD 502–506

    The Nasrids and the Jafnids fight each other
    within the context of the war between the
    Iranians and the Byzantines.

    AD 503

    The Nasrids under al-Mundhir (later to be alMundhir
    III, reigned AD 505–554) invade the
    Provinces of Arabia and Palaestina Prima
    reaching the monasteries of the Judaean Desert.

    c. AD 519

    Probably as a result of the refusal by Justin I to
    renew the Byzantine ‘subsidy’ to Iran, the Nasrid,
    al-Mundhir III, attacks Byzantine territory
    capturing two Byzantine commanders,
    Timostratus son of Silvanus and John son of
    Lucas.

    AD 519

    The Abyssinians invade South Arabia and place
    the Christian Maʿdīkarib Yaʿfur on the throne.

    AD 521

    Maʿdīkarib Yaʿfur leads an expedition into central
    Arabia against the Iranians and their Arab allies.
    He receives the support of the Banū Thaʿlaba
    (called in the commemorative inscription, ‘the
    Arabs of the Romans’) and the tribe of Muḍar.

    AD 522

    Following the death of Maʿdīkarib Yaʿfur, Yūsuf
    Ashʿar (Dhū Nuwās), a follower of Judaism,
    seizes the Himyarite throne.

    AD 522–523

    The Himyarite king Yūsuf attacks the South
    Arabian Christians and their Abyssinian allies in
    the capital Ẓafār and on the western coast. With
    the help of the Arab tribe of Kinda, he besieges
    Najrān, and after its surrender he massacres the
    Christian inhabitants.

    AD 524

    (January-February) The emperor Justin I (AD
    518–527) sends an emissary, Abraham father of
    Nonnosus, to the Nasrid king al-Mundhir III, to
    negotiate the release of the Byzantine
    commanders he captured in about AD 519.
    Negotiations take place at the Conference of
    Ramla (south-east of al-Ḥīra, in southern
    Mesopotamia), at which the participants also
    receive reports of the massacre of the Christians
    of Najrān.

    AD 525

    An Abyssinian expedition, under Kālēb Ella
    Aṣbeḥa, defeats and kills Yūsuf and installs
    Simyafaʿ Ashwaʿ on the throne, bringing South
    Arabia under Abyssinian (and thus Christian)
    control. Gregentius, bishop of Ẓafār, rebuilds the
    cathedral there which had been destroyed by
    Yūsuf.

    c. AD 525–528

    The Nasrid al-Mundhir III is expelled from his
    capital al-Ḥīra, and is replaced by al-Ḥārith
    (Arethas) of Kinda, who eventually gives his
    daughter Hind in marriage to al-Mundhir. She
    remains a devout Christian, while al-Mundhir
    remains a pagan.

    AD 526

    A great earthquake in Syria in which 250,000
    people are said to have died in Antioch alone.
    AD 527 Al-Mundhir III invades the vicinity of Emesa and
    Apamaea in central Syria carrying off many
    captives including, it is said, 400 virgins whom
    he sacrificed to the goddess al-ʿUzzā.

    AD 528

    Following the accession of the emperor Justinian
    I (AD 527) the Jafnids return to Byzantine
    service and participate in a punitive expedition
    against al-Mundhir III, as well as in the battle of
    Thannuris (528, where the Byzantines were
    defeated and Jabala the Jafnid phylarch was
    killed), the suppression of the Samaritan revolt
    (529), and the battle of Callinicum on the
    Euphrates (531), at which al-Mundhir III was
    victorious.

    AD 528/529

    One of the two earliest documents in the Arabic
    script, a graffito at Jabal Usays, southern Syria,
    records that the author, Ruqaym son of Muʿarrif
    of the tribe of Aws, was sent there by the Jafnid
    king al-Ḥārith (died AD 559), presumably during
    the campaign against al-Mundhir III.

    c. AD 530

    Justinian I installs members of the tribe of Kinda
    in Palestine.

    AD 530/531 Justinian I (AD 527–565) sends an embassy to
    Hellēstheaios, king of the Abyssinians, at Aksum,
    and the latter's vassal, Esimiphaios the Christian
    king of Ḥimyar, to try to forge an alliance against
    the Iranians.

    after AD 531

    An Abyssinian, Abraha, makes himself king of
    Ḥimyar, independent of the king in Aksum, and
    under him and his sons, the country remains
    officially Christian until AD 575.

    AD 536

    A massive volcanic explosion, probably that of
    Rabaul near Papua New Guinea, resulted in the
    Middle East in 18 months during which the sun
    shone weakly for no more than 4 hours per day
    and the massive loss of crops. Drought in the 1
    Arabian Peninsula drives some 15,000 Saracens
    into the Byzantine province of Euphratensis, after
    they had been refused help by the Nasrid alMundhir
    III.

    AD 537/539

    A ‘border dispute’ between the Nasrids and the
    Jafnids ends in the second war with Iran (540–
    545) of Justinian I’s reign.

    AD 541

    The ‘Plague of Justinian’ of plague raged
    throughout Europe, North Africa, the Middle
    East, and South Asia and continued to ebb and
    flow until the middle of the 8th century.

    AD 548

    Another breach of the Mārib dam. It is renovated
    by Abraha

    AD 552

    Abraha’s fourth campaign in Central Arabia

    AD 546–561

    Spasmodic warfare between the Jafnids and the
    Nasrids.

    AD 554

    The Nasrid al-Mundhir III is killed in a battle
    against the Jafnid al-Ḥārith at Qinnasrīn (north
    central Syria).

    AD 559–560

    The last dated South Arabian monumental
    inscription so far discovered. [Note that the most
    recent dated everyday document, on a stick, dates
    to AD 522]

    AD 569

    The Jafnid leader al-Ḥārith dies and is succeeded
    by his son al-Mundhir.

    AD 569

    The Nasrid king ʿAmrw son of Hind is killed by
    the poet ʿAmrw son of Kulthūm.

    AD 569–570

    The Nasrid king Qabūs invades Jafnid territory
    but is driven back and crushingly defeated by alMundhir
    near the Nasrid capital al-Ḥīra.

    AD 569/570

    A Syriac letter is ‘subscribed’ by 137
    Archimandrites (abbots of monasteries) who
    identify themselves as coming from the Province
    of Arabia.

    c. AD 570

    The birth of the Prophet Muḥammad in Mecca.

    AD 572–575

    The Jafnid al-Mundhir withdraws from Byzantine
    service after Justin II (AD 565–578), on the verge
    of insanity, tries to have him overthrown. The
    Nasrids and the Iranians take the opportunity to
    ravage the Byzantine eastern provinces.

    AD 575

    The Jafnid al-Mundhir restores relations with the
    Byzantines and, shortly after, attacks the Nasrids.

    AD 575

    The Sasanians conquer South Arabia. Yemen
    becomes an Iranian province.

    c. AD 578 Al-Mundhir again defeats the Nasrids.

    AD 580

    Al-Mundhir travels to Constantinople where he is
    crowned by the emperor Tiberius II (AD 578–
    582).

    AD 580/581

    Al-Mundhir and a Jafnid army participate in a
    Byzantine attempt to attack the Sasanian capital
    Ctesiphon, under the leadership of the future
    emperor Maurice. The expedition is a failure, but
    al-Mundhir defeats a Nasrid army.

    AD 581

    Al-Mundhir is captured and taken to
    Constantinople where he is held under housearrest
    until the accession of the emperor Maurice
    in 582, after which he is exiled to Sicily.

    AD 581–582

    In anger at the treatment of al-Mundhir, his son,
    al-Nuʿmān, leads a Jafnid army in rebellion
    against the Byzantines, repeatedly overrunning
    and plundering towns and districts in the
    provinces of Syria and Arabia, and retiring to the
    inner desert with the spoils. Eventually, he
    overpowers and kills the dux of Boṣrā who had
    refused to hand over al-Mundhir’s property in the
    city. However, when the citizens produce it the
    Jafnids refrain from looting the city.

    AD 582

    Shortly after the accession of the emperor
    Maurice (AD 582–602), al-Nuʿmān travels to
    Constantinople to attempt to negotiate the release
    of his father, al-Mundhir. Maurice tries
    unsuccessfully to make him renounce
    Miaphysitism and accept the Chalcedonian
    doctrine. Al-Nuʿmān refuses and leaves in anger
    but is arrested on his way home and kept prisoner
    in Constantinople.

    End of the 6th century AD

    The final bursting of the Mārib Dam and the
    desertion of the oasis.

    AD 602

    With the accession of the emperor Phocas (AD
    602–610), al-Mundhir is allowed to return home
    from exile.

    c. AD 602

    The Nasrid king, al-Nuʿmān III is murdered on
    the orders of the Iranian King of Kings, Khusraw
    II Parviz, and this brings to an end Nasrid rule in
    al-Ḥīra.

    AD 604

    The Arab tribe of Bakr defeats Iranian forces at
    the battle of Dhū Qār.

    AD 613

    The Jafnid army is defeated by the Iranian army
    during the Sasanian invasion of the eastern
    Byzantine provinces.

    AD 622

    The Hijra, the Prophet Muḥammad’s emigration
    from Mecca to the oasis of Yathrib (later alMadīna).
    The theoretical beginning of the
    Muslim era, though it does not come into use
    until AH 17 (AD 638).

    AD 622/623

    ‘Long-haired Saracens’ fighting for the Iranians,
    probably in Armenia, are captured by the
    Byzantine emperor Heraclius.

    AD 628

    Saracens form part of the emperor Heraclius’
    army at his victory over the Iranians at Nineveh.

    AD 629

    The Prophet Muḥammad returns to Mecca.

    AD 632

    The death of the Prophet Muḥammad and the
    election of the first Caliph, Abu Bakr.

    AD 632

    The Iranian governor of Ṣanʿāʾ, the capital of
    Yemen, converts to Islam and sends troops to
    augment the armies of the nascent Islamic state in
    the wars of conquest, but the conversion of the
    whole of Yemen takes much longer.

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  3. #2
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    This was a great read, thanks for sharing

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    Quote Originally Posted by jonahst View Post
    This was a great read, thanks for sharing
    You're welcome, notice how many queens in the early history of the Arabs, it's a sad situation now.

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    Afaik , classical Arabic derives from language spoken by Southern Levantines like Nabateans or further South in the Shammar region in Saudi Arabia. I was under the impression , South Semitic languages like those found in Yemen and Socotra were common in the Arabian peninsula before Arabic spread. Awale would provide more info on this.

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    Quote Originally Posted by pegasus View Post
    Afaik , classical Arabic derives from language spoken by Southern Levantines like Nabateans or further South in the Shammar region in Saudi Arabia. I was under the impression , South Semitic languages like those found in Yemen and Socotra were common in the Arabian peninsula before Arabic spread. Awale would provide more info on this.
    Well, the word "Arab" is first mentioned in 853 BC, "Gindebu the Arab" is one of the kings present in the battle of Qarqar. Gindeb was a common name in pre-Islamic Arab tribes.

    South Semitic, which is distinct from Arabic, was indeed spoken in southern Arabia and their colonies in the Hejaz, I've read once that Sabaeans engaged in battle against "filthy Arabs" to their north, so the name of the people who spoke the language is old enough, I think its reasonable to suggest that the language itself is as old as that.

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    Quote Originally Posted by pegasus View Post
    Afaik , classical Arabic derives from language spoken by Southern Levantines like Nabateans or further South in the Shammar region in Saudi Arabia. I was under the impression , South Semitic languages like those found in Yemen and Socotra were common in the Arabian peninsula before Arabic spread. Awale would provide more info on this.
    Classical Arabic is actually closely related to (or even descended from) Safaitic and Hismaic, both of which could be described as dialects of Old Arabic.
    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

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    Quote Originally Posted by IronHorse View Post
    Well, the word "Arab" is first mentioned in 853 BC, "Gindebu the Arab" is one of the kings present in the battle of Qarqar. Gindeb was a common name in pre-Islamic Arab tribes.

    South Semitic, which is distinct from Arabic, was indeed spoken in southern Arabia and their colonies in the Hejaz, I've read once that Sabaeans engaged in battle against "filthy Arabs" to their north, so the name of the people who spoke the language is old enough, I think its reasonable to suggest that the language itself is as old as that.
    Hmm, I always just understood it more as Arab being a much more general term in the past for the overall inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula (whether Arabic speaking or not) and some other regions such as parts of the Southern Levant, the Sinai and Syria. For instance, the Romans referred to much of what is now Yemen as Arabia-Felix despite many (not all) in that general area not being Arabic speakers.

    I think we're looking at a situation much like the term Scythian or even how the Greeks and Romans referred to Coastal-Erythraeans/Cushites from Southeastern Egypt down to Northeastern Somalia quite generally as Eastern Barbaroi (non-Greek speakers). Basically some general term for peoples they saw as having an overall similar culture whilst inhabiting one large, continuous region. Those earliest Arabs probably weren't speaking something ancestral to Classical Arabic but Agamemnon would know more than myself here.

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    How significant was this migration:

    From the 7th century BC

    Sabaean colonists begin to settle in the region of
    Axum, Ethiopia.
    Genetically or culturally?

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    Quote Originally Posted by IronHorse View Post
    How significant was this migration:



    Genetically or culturally?
    Culturally, I'd say a lot of modern Habesha culture is pretty indigenous (that is to say, derived from Erythraeic speakers they're either descended from or lived close-by to until the modern era); but, some notable influences from Southern-Arabia do exist... I'd say they were more notable earlier on, though; I mean, the Aksumites followed some form of Southern Arabian paganism, for god's sake. And let's not forget the most notable cultural impacts in the form of the Ethiosemitic languages themselves + the Ge'ez script which is just plainly descended from Musnad.

    Genetically, I used to think there was an earlier pulse of Iran-Chalcolithic ancestry carriers into Horn (via Sudan) which would've left the Southern-Arabian admixture at about 10-15% but recent data seems to imply it's more along the lines of 20-25% in Habeshas and that there probably wasn't an earlier pulse from Sudan. Although, this pulse from Southern-Arabia has also, supposedly, left a smaller (10-15%) effect on several neighboring Erythraeic speaking groups as well:

     
    distance%=0.8991

    Tigray-Tigrinya

    Dinka 34.5
    Natufian 31.6
    Saudi 23.1
    Mota 10.8

    .

    distance%=0.4594

    Oromo

    Dinka 40.9
    Natufian 30.9
    Mota 16.8
    Saudi 11.4

    .

    distance%=0.5415

    Somali

    Dinka 53.6
    Natufian 33.7
    Saudi 10.4
    Mota 2.3

    Global-10 (nMonte1). I still use G10 for Horners because I'm convinced it produces the most sensible overall results for our region. I'm pretty skeptical of what I see coming out of G25 and even some formal stats.


    So there you have it.

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