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Thread: mtDNA I2 from an Egyptian mummy

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    mtDNA I2 from an Egyptian mummy

    http://tobias-lib.uni-tuebingen.de/volltexte/2013/6993/

    Dissertation by Rabab Khairat Ibrahim Abd Elhay

    In the current study, DNA samples from eight Egyptian mummies were obtained and tested for the first time using the NGS technology. They were radiocarbon dated and placed within a time period between the Third Intermediate and the Graeco-Roman times (806 BC–124 AD). Initial characterization experiments using different established protocols for DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and NGS showed variabilities in the retrievability and amplifiablitiy of the extracted DNA from the various Egyptian mummy samples. This can be due to the differences in the preservation status of the mummies or to the technical handling through the NGS multistep protocol. The inadequate storage environment within the mummy collection was the inducer of a bacterial bloom in the Egyptian mummy samples. This could be inferred from the reversal of the Eukaryota/Bacteria ratio in different samples taken from the same mummy after a lapse of time interval of 1.5-2.0 years.

    We found that increasing the DNA concentration for NGS had a positive effect on the quality of the NGS library and the subsequent sequencing. As a result of a series of optimization experiments, the complete human mitochondrial genome of one mummy was recovered with an average coverage of 190 folds using the unique mapped reads. Using the identified mitochondrial SNPs of this mummy, haplogroup I2 was defined with a quality score of 97.7%. In addition, we address some of the SNPs that might be associated with certain human disease.
    This is the first study of Egyptian mummies using Next Generation Sequencing.
    Last edited by Jean M; 11-02-2013 at 01:20 PM.

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    That seems unusual.
    Y-DNA: I1* (Ware, Hertfordshire)
    MT-DNA: U5a1b4 (Boughton Aluph, Kent)
    Father's MT-DNA: J1c8 (Wolverhampton, Staffordshire)
    Grandfather's MT-DNA: H1b (Littlehampton, Sussex)

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    This is quite a late mummy - 402-385 BC, which is after the Greek takeover. The details are now in my online North African aDNA table. http://www.ancestraljourneys.org/nafricaadna.shtml

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    Quote Originally Posted by Anglecynn View Post
    That seems unusual.
    Quick lift from Wikipedia:

    Haplogroup I is found at very low frequencies (generally < 3%) throughout Europe, West Asia and South Asia. Quote from Fernandes 2012:

    Haplogroup I, which is by far the most frequent clade within N1, dates to ∼25 ka ago and is overall most frequent in Europe, but the facts that it has a frequency peak in the Gulf region and that its highest diversity values are in the Gulf, Anatolia, and southeast Europe suggest that its origin is most likely in the Near East and/or Arabia.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Jean M View Post
    Quick lift from Wikipedia:

    Haplogroup I is found at very low frequencies (generally < 3%) throughout Europe, West Asia and South Asia. Quote from Fernandes 2012:
    Ahh that makes sense then.
    Y-DNA: I1* (Ware, Hertfordshire)
    MT-DNA: U5a1b4 (Boughton Aluph, Kent)
    Father's MT-DNA: J1c8 (Wolverhampton, Staffordshire)
    Grandfather's MT-DNA: H1b (Littlehampton, Sussex)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Jean M View Post
    http://tobias-lib.uni-tuebingen.de/volltexte/2013/6993/

    Dissertation by Rabab Khairat Ibrahim Abd Elhay



    This is the first study of Egyptian mummies using Next Generation Sequencing.
    My dad is I2 and it seems very Atlantic European, but also found at low frequency throughout the Caucasus. Perhaps this signals human trafficking at a very early date between Europe and Egypt? Not sure....

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    Quote Originally Posted by ADW_1981 View Post
    My dad is I2 and it seems very Atlantic European..
    We have a bit of a problem with I2 in that it is one of the rarer haplogroups and so we might need to do a lot more testing of ancient DNA before we pick it up in Europe. I would guess that it arrived in Europe with the early farmers from the Near East. So far we have mtDNA I appearing in Spain with farmers 4090-3960 BC, and I1 also in Spain a bit later.
    Last edited by Jean M; 11-02-2013 at 03:26 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Jean M View Post
    We have a bit of a problem with I2 in that it is one of the rarer haplogroups and so we might need to do a lot more testing of ancient DNA before we pick it up in Europe. I would guess that it arrived in Europe with the early farmers from the Near East. So far we have mtDNA I appearing in Spain with farmers 4090-3960 BC, and I1 also in Spain a bit later.
    Possibly, but I2 is a pretty specific designation, and would not necessarily represent all of I. I have not seen I2 turn up in Spain, but I suppose it could. I have seen it in Greece and Georgia though...

    I just ran through the mutations, thanks to your website and saw only 2 differences between my father's sequence and the mummy. While we are on the topic of mtDNA, Jean, you might want to take a look at the Icelandic, pre-Christian mtdna I. There are similar sequences there as well, some of which are I2. I noticed your site doesn't have that aDNA data there.
    Last edited by ADW_1981; 11-02-2013 at 08:51 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by ADW_1981 View Post
    Icelandic, pre-Christian mtdna I.
    What paper was that?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Jean M View Post
    What paper was that?
    Here you go

    http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/...l.pgen.1000343

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