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Thread: Paleolithic DNA from the Caucasus reveals core of West Eurasian ancestry

  1. #21
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    Quote Originally Posted by Eihwaz View Post
    This paper could prove to be rather revolutionary to ancient genomes, if I'm grokking it correctly. A Taforalt source without SSA inputting ancestry into SSA? That's new...
    Taforalt is modeled as 45% “Ancient North African” in the main graph of the pre-print; the rest of their ancentry is a mix of general Western Eurasian and Basal Eurasian. This ANA population appears to branch off soon after Mota, which would make sense. The 13% migration arrow into the Yoruba is from a sister group of Taforalt; based on other lines of evidence, this group would’ve been more rich in ANA than Taforalt.
    Last edited by gihanga.rwanda; 09-22-2018 at 12:13 AM.

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  3. #22
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    Quote Originally Posted by Mansamusa View Post
    The paper reports North African ancestry in Sub Saharan Africans and Eurasians, not Eurasian ancestry in SSA.
    Check out the admixture graph. They have a 13% contribution into Yoruba from a Taforalt related population with the same proportions of Eurasian and North African admixture as Taforalt: 55% Eurasian and 45% North African. This would make Yoruba about 7% Eurasian.

    Screenshot_20180921-114721.png

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  5. #23
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    Interesting that in their qpgraph the Palaeolithic Siberian Mal'ta boy (MA1) is modelled as 24% Tianyuan-related (Palaeolithic East Asian) and 76% UGH related to the Palaeolithic Russians Kostenki14 and Sunghir3...

    So ANE isn't simply a divergent population related to European hunter gatherers, but a mixture between palaeolithic Eastern European hunter gatherers (or a population related to them) and early ENA's.

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  7. #24
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    Dzudzuana reminds me of the old idea of the "womb of nations", a single source population admixing into others and forming clusters, to Europe this seems to have happened in post-Neolithic times, but in the Near East and more mysteriously North Africa, when did that movement happen? and by whom?

    when did this core population form? where was this Villabruna like population hiding? it has to be around the black see.

    a migration from the Siberian UP groups to both the Steppe and Zagross/Caucasus seem to have happened at the same time, this ancestry appears as the usual second component in West Eurasian PCA.

    what is the identity of these "basal" or "deep" ancestries? is the additional deep ancestry in modern and ancient Near Easterners/North Africans one population? or a mixture of three "Ancient North African", "Basal Eurasian" and "SSA"?

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  9. #25
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    Quote Originally Posted by Kristiina View Post
    MtDNA is there but not in any detail:
    "Both individuals had mitochondrial DNA sequences (U6 and N) that are consistent with deriving from lineages that are rare in the Caucasus or Europe today".

    U6 is of particular interest!
    Basal U6* has been found in pre-Gravettian Europe.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/srep25501

    The mitogenome (33-fold coverage) of the Peştera Muierii 1 individual (PM1) from Romania (35 ky cal BP) we present in this article corresponds fully to Homo sapiens, whilst exhibiting a mosaic of morphological features related to both modern humans and Neandertals. We have identified the PM1 mitogenome as a basal haplogroup U6*, not previously found in any ancient or present-day humans. The derived U6 haplotypes are predominantly found in present-day North-Western African populations. Concomitantly, those found in Europe have been attributed to recent gene-flow from North Africa. The presence of the basal haplogroup U6* in South East Europe (Romania) at 35 ky BP confirms a Eurasian origin of the U6 mitochondrial lineage.
    Last edited by epoch; 09-21-2018 at 04:38 PM. Reason: contain myself!

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  11. #26
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    Quote Originally Posted by Psynome View Post
    Check out the admixture graph. They have a 13% contribution into Yoruba from a Taforalt related population with the same proportions of Eurasian and North African admixture as Taforalt: 55% Eurasian and 45% North African. This would make Yoruba about 7% Eurasian.

    Screenshot_20180921-114721.png
    Traces of Neanderthal alleles have been reported in West Africa, but not enough to account for a ~5% contribution from Western Eurasia (xBasal Eurasians) via Taforalt. The migration edge is from just above Taforalt, so IMHO the Taforalt-related ancestors of the Yoruba must have been more rich in Ancestral North African (ANA), although with some Western Eurasian to account for the Neanderthal alleles. This would make perfect sense; the Taforalt cave is in northern Morocco, so I wouldn’t be surprised if there weren’t any sister populations with more ANA deeper in the Sahara. The dstats simply don’t support gene-flow into West Africa from a population to similar to the Natufians. Either way, this could be cleared up with some aDNA from West Africa.
    Last edited by gihanga.rwanda; 09-21-2018 at 04:32 PM.

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  13. #27
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    Quote Originally Posted by gihanga.rwanda View Post
    Taforalt is molded at 45% “Ancient North African” in the main graph of the pre-print; the rest of their ancentry is a mix of general Western Eurasian and Basal Eurasian. This ANA population appears to branch off soon after Mota, which would make sense. The 13% migration arrow into the Yoruba is from an ancestor or sister group of Taforalt; based on other lines of evidence, this group would’ve been more rich in ANA than Taforalt.
    Mbuti-like ancestry in Yoruba (unmodeled but in the trees one of the most deviating stats is apparently Mbuti Vestonice16 South_Africa_HG Yoruba, significantly negative) would also dampen Eurasian affinity and might bring the West-East Eurasian differences below threshold of significance in D-stats.

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  15. #28
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    Quote Originally Posted by Shaikorth View Post
    Mbuti-like ancestry in Yoruba (unmodeled but in the trees one of the most deviating stats is apparently Mbuti Vestonice16 South_Africa_HG Yoruba, significantly negative) would also dampen Eurasian affinity and might bring the West-East Eurasian differences below threshold of significance in D-stats.
    That’s a good point. A couple of recent studies have presented evidence that West Africans derive the majority of their ancestry from populations similar to Mota and something deeper than even Mbuti. But shouldn’t the West Eurasian contribution correlate with the observed Neanderthal alleles?
    Last edited by gihanga.rwanda; 09-21-2018 at 04:46 PM.

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  17. #29
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    Great paper. They have simultaneously produced results clearly supporting the antiquity of proper Basal Eurasian in the Middle East, North African ancestry in Natufians, and Upper Paleolithic North African (which is 55% Eurasian, 45% Ancestral North African in their admixture graph model) in West Africa. All of these findings were expected, but are more well-supported now.

    And we are adding even more complexity to the basal "para-OOA" branches, with their model of Ancestral North African diverging before Basal Eurasian and after Mota, but closer in time to the latter. They estimate that Basal Eurasians share ~2/3 of the drift since the split from East Africans (Mota) with non-Basal Eurasian non-Africans, and use this to support that Basal Eurasians, unlike Ancestral North Africans, went through most of the bottleneck shared by Eurasian populations.

    Every time we add ancient DNA samples, it just makes the wait for more that much more difficult, so I'm looking forward to even more ancient DNA!

    Quote Originally Posted by gihanga.rwanda View Post
    That’s a good point. A couple of recent studies have presented evidence that West Africans derive the majority of their ancestry from populations similar to Mota and something deeper than even Mbuti. But shouldn’t the West Eurasian contribution correlate with the observed Neanderthal alleles?
    They did somewhat try to address this in the supplement (page 45):

    The admixture graph model predicts that 13% of the ancestry of Yoruba came from Taforalt, which in turn was 55% descended from Dzudzuana and which in turn was 72% descended from Villabruna, for a total of 0.13*0.55*0.72≈5% Villabruna-related ancestry that would have carried Neanderthal DNA. This is consistent with the >2.7±0.9% estimate of ref. 23
    This estimate would suggest they don't expect the Ancestral North African or Basal Eurasian populations to have carried any Neanderthal ancestry. They do seem to argue against the presence of Neanderthal in Basal Eurasians in the last section of the supplement.
    Last edited by Lank; 09-21-2018 at 05:20 PM.

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  19. #30
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    Also, if Basal Eurasian is defined as branching off the core Eurasian population prior to that 'core Eurasian' diversifying, that would infer there are 2 distinct 'Basal' groups here. One that is CF>C, and the other DE> E. The latter contributed significantly to middle eastern populations but was absent in Villabruna, therefore the other Basal group must be represented by C and must have contributed some ancestry to all west Eurasian populations (at least the western ones) who descend from YDNA F. That's how I'm reading this prehistory, but could be completely off in my conclusion.
    YDNA: R1b-Z220 (A7066+) (1800's Stepney, London(Bethnal Green), UK George Wood b. 1782
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    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-L48. Gould, John Somerset England 1800s.
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-L48. Scott, William Hamilton mdka Ireland(?) < 1800s

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