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Thread: Ancient genomes of Srubnaya, Cimmerians, Scythians and Sarmatians(Science, 2018)

  1. #11
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    Quote Originally Posted by rozenfeld View Post
    Well, these "Cimmerians" do have autosomal East Asian signal:

    Is it my impression or most of the Scythian samples have barely any East Eurasian admixture?

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  3. #12
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    mtDNA haplogroup J1c5 shows up once more on the BA steppe (mur004 is J1c5e), it was also found in Sintashta and CW before that. I had predicted this some time ago, by comparing the uniparental lineages in CW and Sintashta and looking at J1c5's distribution in Central Asia, Siberia and the Indian subcontinent. This is a clear EF signature in late PIE populations, strongly suggestive of a western origin around the forest steppe in a set of CW-afiliated cultures for the earliest Indo-Iranian-speaking groups.
    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

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  5. #13
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    “There is so much genetic variation among the Scythians, it seems that you didn’t have to be born a Scyth to be a part of their community”, says Anders Götherström, Professor at the Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University.

    This is likely the strategy needed for the group to have been able to grow as fast, expand as vast and to remain established for as long as they did. The findings emphasize the importance of assimilation to maintain Scythian dominance around the Black Sea region.

    “It also sheds light on their attitude towards conquered people. Scythians are often thought of as an extremely aggressive group, but their gradual genetic expansion show us that they were also a group prepared to interact with and take in new people. For example, in one burial ground we found individuals of different genetic background buried according to Scythian tradition. This tells us that Scythians seem to have incorporated people from other groups into their families and their community”, says Maja Krzewińska researcher at the Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University.

    The vast area of the Pontic-Caspian Steppe region has worked as a motor for demographic events throughout Eurasia, especially in the western part of the meta-continent. Crucial events in European history and prehistory can be traced back to people of the Steppe. Including the invention of horseback riding, chariots, a new type of warfare and the spread of Indo-European languages.

    “The Central Eurasian Steppe seems to have been a very dynamic place. An important geographical region which acted both as a melting-pot and a nursery of people, as well as communicative and technological innovations. This is where people met, shared ideas and genes. From this ‘pit-stop’ genes and ideas were spread from the East to the West”, says Gülşah Merve Kılınç researcher at the Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University.

    An international research team, led from Stockholm University, have investigated genomic data from 35 individuals, spanning 2 200 years. The material mainly consists of human remains from the southern Urals and central Eurasian Steppe. The researchers have analyzed DNA from four different nomadic groups; Cimmerians, Scythians, Sarmatians and Bronze Age Srubanya individuals.

    Even though a couple of the groups had an early history somewhere else all the groups share genetic background and follow each other chronologically. The Cimmerians were displaced by the Scythians and those in return were followed by the Sarmatians.

    “It’s not one group completely displacing another. The expansion process seems to have been more gradual. First from Altai to southern Urals, and thereafter further west. It suggests that the Pontic-Caspian Steppe served as a natural transition point and the source of western nomads, despite their cultural roots stretching further east”, says Maja Krzewińska researcher at the Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University.
    https://www.alphagalileo.org/en-gb/P...tureCode/en-GB

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  7. #14
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    Quote Originally Posted by rozenfeld View Post
    http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/4/10/eaat4457

    Ancient genomes suggest the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe as the source of western Iron Age nomads

    Maja Krzewińska1,*,†, Gülşah Merve Kılınç1,*,†, Anna Juras2, Dilek Koptekin3, Maciej Chyleński4, Alexey G. Nikitin5, Nikolai Shcherbakov6, Iia Shuteleva6,7, Tatiana Leonova6, Liudmila Kraeva8, Flarit A. Sungatov9, Alfija N. Sultanova9, Inna Potekhina10, Sylwia Łukasik2, Marta Krenz-Niedbała2, Love Dalén11, Vitaly Sinika12,13, Mattias Jakobsson14,15,16, Jan Storå17 and Anders Götherström1,†

    Science Advances 03 Oct 2018:
    Vol. 4, no. 10, eaat4457
    DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat4457

    Abstract

    For millennia, the Pontic-Caspian steppe was a connector between the Eurasian steppe and Europe. In this scene, multidirectional and sequential movements of different populations may have occurred, including those of the Eurasian steppe nomads. We sequenced 35 genomes (low to medium coverage) of Bronze Age individuals (Srubnaya-Alakulskaya) and Iron Age nomads (Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians) that represent four distinct cultural entities corresponding to the chronological sequence of cultural complexes in the region. Our results suggest that, despite genetic links among these peoples, no group can be considered a direct ancestor of the subsequent group. The nomadic populations were heterogeneous and carried genetic affinities with populations from several other regions including the Far East and the southern Urals. We found evidence of a stable shared genetic signature, making the eastern Pontic-Caspian steppe a likely source of western nomadic groups.

    Code:
    Table S3. Summary sequencing statistics for mitochondrial variants for individuals sequenced in this study. 						
    						
    Individual	Site	Culture	Age (cal BC) 95%	Biological Sex	MtDNA Haplogroup	Y Haplogroup
    chy001	Cherniy Yar	Late Sarmatian	55 - 140 CE	XX	H2a1	-
    chy002	Cherniy Yar	Late Sarmatian	65 - 220 CE	XY	T1a1	R1a1a
    tem001	Temyaysovo	Late Sarmatian	135 - 320 CE	XX	U5b2b	-
    tem002	Temyaysovo	Late Sarmatian	125 - 240 CE	XY	D4q	R1b1a1a2
    tem003	Temyaysovo	Late Sarmatian	130-320 CE	XY	U5b2b	R1b1a1a2?
    scy006*	Starosillya	Scythian	ND	XX	D4j2	-
    scy009*	Starosillya	Scythian	770 - 415 BCE	XY	J2b1a6	R1b1a1a2
    scy010*	Starosillya	Scythian	790 - 540 BCE	XX	N1b1a	-
    scy011*	Nesterivka	Scythian	355 - 115 BCE	XX	A	-
    scy192*	Glinoe	Scythian	2863 - 2503 BCE	XX	H8c	-
    scy193*	Glinoe	Scythian	ND	XY	U5a2a1	R1b1a1a2?
    scy197*	Glinoe	Scythian	2885 - 2632 BCE	XY	U5a1a1	R1b1a1a2
    scy300*	Glinoe	Scythian	397 - 209 BCE	XX	H5b	-
    scy301	Glinoe	Scythian	392 - 204 BCE	XY	U5b2a3	R1b1a1a2
    scy303*	Glinoe	Scythian	380 - 203 BCE	XX	U5a1a2b	-
    scy304	Glinoe	Scythian	361 - 172 BCE	XY	U4*	R1b1a1a2
    scy305*	Glinoe	Scythian	399 - 209 BCE	XY	U5a2b	R1b1a1a2
    scy311*	Glinoe	Scythian	389 - 204 BCE	XX	T2b	-
    scy332*	Glinoe	Scythian	248 - 391 CE	XX	M10a1a1a	-
    cim357	Glinoe Sad	Cimmerian	914 - 805 BCE	XY	H9a	R1b1a
    cim358	Glinoe Sad	Cimmerian	936 -809 BCE	XY	C5c (50%)	Q1a1
    cim359	Mokra	Cimmerian	1008 - 838 BCE	XX	R	-
    kzb001	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1735 - 1565 BCE	XX	U4b1a1a1	-
    kzb002	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1875 - 1665 BCE	XY	J1c3a	R1a1a1
    kzb003	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1765 - 1630 BCE	XY	H	R1a1a1
    kzb004	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1750 - 1620 BCE	XX	U5b2a2	-
    kzb005	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1880 - 1690 BCE	XY	HV0a	R1a1a1
    kzb006	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1745 - 1620 BCE	XX	U2e2a1a2	-
    kzb007	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1755 - 1630 BCE	XY	U5a1	R1a1a1
    kzb008	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1880 -1690 BCE	XY	HV0a	R1a1a1
    kzb009	Kazburun 1	Srubno-alakulskaya	1745 - 1620 BCE	XX	U4b1a1a1	-
    mur001	Muradym 8	Srubno-alakulskaya	ND	XX	H2a1	-
    mur002	Muradym 8	Srubno-alakulskaya	ND	XY	K1a4b	?
    mur003	Muradym 8	Srubno-alakulskaya	1880 - 1685 BCE	XY	T2a1	R1a1a1?
    mur004	Muradym 8	Srubno-alakulskaya	1885 - 1695 BCE	XX	J1c5e	-
    (*) Individuals previously used in a study focusing on mitochondrial genomes (Juras et al.2017) and are thus reported elsewhere.
    Just a quick question. I don't seem able to identify the exact locations of the Scythian burials (map resolution problem!). How many of them are from the area of Herodotus' "classical Scythia" (between Danube and Don)?

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    'First from Altai to southern Urals, and thereafter further west. It suggests that the Pontic-Caspian Steppe served as a natural transition point and the source of western nomads, despite their cultural roots stretching further east”, says Maja Krzewińska researcher at the Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Stockholm University.'

    Does anyone else find it a bit strange the way they are using the word "source" here?

    How is the PC steppe the "source" of the western nomads, if their culture had "roots" further east and they give the sequence of movement Altai>Southern Urals>further west? If anything this suggests an eastern "source" of these Iron age nomads.

    Of course "source" is a fraught word in human pop. genomics since all groups are mixtures of older groups that lived in different places. But the way they are using that word here seems especially confusing to me. Any ideas?

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    Is there any way of getting a more detailed and refined version of the ADMIXTURE chart S.10 from the Supplementary files?

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    Quote Originally Posted by George View Post
    Just a quick question. I don't seem able to identify the exact locations of the Scythian burials (map resolution problem!). How many of them are from the area of Herodotus' "classical Scythia" (between Danube and Don)?
    Quick answer: all of them (since all the Scythian burials are from Moldova and Ukraine, i.e. between Danube and Don).

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    Difference between Scythians and Sarmatians is that Scythians have more ANF. I wonder if they picked up that extra ANF from their incursion into Anatolia or if it is due to European sourced neolithic ANF. Anyway the lack of ANF in Sarmatians is certainly due to their position east to the Scythians.

    The high amount of R1b in both should indicate a direct Yamnaya/Catacomb connection.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Pribislav View Post
    Quick answer: all of them (since all the Scythian burials are from Moldova and Ukraine, i.e. between Danube and Don).
    Thanks. This was evident (in my hopeless little map) for the Cimmerians. but I just couldn't see the Scythian icons... Prior to this aDNA all that seemed indubitable about the Scythians (re the Far East) was the origin of their animal art... So they came, stayed for a few centuries, and then (between 325->275 BCE) massively returned to Central Asia and perhaps even further. Pliny quotes an early 3rd c. BCE source which has the "Paralatae" (Herodotus' Royal Scythians) winning a monstrous battle somewhere north of today's Syr Daria, and localizes two units recorded by Herodotus in his "Scythia" (the Catiari and the Aukhata) as back north of the "Iaxartes" at that time. It appears that the last known classical Scythian burial in Ukraine (prior to the resurgence of Skilur's Kingdom ca. 150-110 BCE) is dated to ca. 275 BCE. But there was also a strong group left behind in the Dobrudja which dominated the Greek citiies there for some time (we have coins of their kings). And AFAIK there are no Sarmatian burials in classical Scythia before the mid-2nd c. BCE. Interesting implications for the development of Scythian history. It would seem that Diodorus Siculus' account of an early Sarmatian military invasion and takeover might actually refer to events immediately succeeding the defeat of Skilur's heirs by Mithradates of Pontus (Last decade of the 2nd c. BCE). The first Sarmatians in the area appear to have been Skilur's imported vassals. And then the vassals basically took over the defeated old Scythian state.
    Last edited by George; 10-04-2018 at 04:45 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Afshar View Post
    The Q seems to be far away from home, his clade is entirely east-asian (Q-M120)
    The Cimmerian has Q1a1-NWT01/F746, not necessarily Q1a1a-M120 (ISOGG 2017 terminology). Other modern branches are found in far northeast Russia and the North American Arctic. Well as the gull flies Greenland is about as close as East Asia, but I doubt he will be paternally Paleo-Eskimo. One of the Samara Eneolithic men had Q1a(xQ1a2), so could possibly be some now rare or extinct local lineage as well.

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