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Thread: Tribal organization pashtuns

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    Tribal organization pashtuns

    Maybe some pashtun members can clarify the origin of the word khel used for subtribes or villages. I noticed the word has the same meaning as "gil" used in anatolian Turkish, which is used in the same manner.
    Of all the countries, this is possibly the most beautiful. All that is beautiful and can be rarely seen in
    other countries can be seen everywhere here... Here live the people who wear the cleanest clothes and prepare the
    most flavorful dishes... Of all of God’s servants, the local people are the most compassionate and merciful...

    Ibn Battuta about Asia Minor 1333CE

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    Not sure if its related to the Turkish word gil, but it might be. I couldn't find any info on the Turkish word gil so if you find any info regarding the etymology of the Turkish word, then please share it. Below is the info I found regarding the Iranic xēl where I decided to bold the relevant portions:

    The reciprocal relation between toponyms and tribal names is known from long ago; sometimes toponyms become tribal names, but more often tribal names form toponyms.

    In connection with this the morpheme xēl (xayl) is showing an interesting and multilateral picture in the iranophone areas, appearing either in toponyms or tribal names. In fact, xēl can serve as an exemplary sample of toponym-tribal name syncretism.

    In the south-Caspian territories of Iran, especially in the provinces of Gilan and Mazandaran, and more to the west, in Kermanshah, and rarely in the province of Khuzestan, we meet toponymes formed with –xēl/-xeyl (خیل). By the way, the morpheme has anyway the significance of “locality, village”. We can find its specific use more to the north, on the territories populated with Talishes of the Republic of Azerbaijan, for instance in the regions of Masali, in the form of Xēl (or more probably Xəl). By the way, it is also possible that the locality of Xayl in the surroundings of Ghazvin, mentioned in the work Muʻaǰam ul-buldān (see Dehxodā, s. v.), may be related with the word unit under discussion.

    Now, may this so-called near-Caspian xēl/xayl morpheme creating toponyms be in relation with the Afghan xēl which is used in this language as nominated by the tribe and in words composed with the name of the tribe chief: Ismāʻīl-xēl, ʻAlī-xēl, Mūsā-xēl, Ahmad-xēl, etc.?

    In fact, the Afghan xēl is the synonym of the Persian form xvēš(ān) which means “members of the family, parents”, and this is seen the best in the Afghan expression qawm ū xēl which is the true mirror reflection of the Persian qaum ū xvēš. Compare also Afghan padarxēl “the wife’s father family”, xēlxāna “family, clan”, xēl o xatek “tribe”.

    The word xēl is a stabile social term in Pashto and has a pan-Afghani use in the meaning of “tribe, clan”. Usually, each xēl “tribe” lives in one village (while it is not excluded that it may occupy a larger territory) and the village is called after it, thus xēl becoming a toponym creating morpheme with the meaning “place, locality”.

    It is quite sure that xēl, with its principal meaning of “tribe”in the social sense) and the toponym creating function, derived from it, is related with Kurdish and Pashto, in which it also became a unit expressing “tribal territory”. In Persian xeyl means “group, army, and detachment”, cf. xeyl-xeyl “group by group”, xeylbāš “commander of cavalry”, etc. However, in Arabic, from which the Persian word is considered to be borrowed, it has only the meaning of “horse” (plural xuyūl, axyāl “horses”) and has no social meaning.

    Such semantic developments of this Arabic word in the Iranian languages provide also Iranian etymology, especially given by F. Andreas, which is noted in the Etymological Vocabulary of Pashto by Morgenstierne (1927:96). This paper, taking into account the version of the Iranian origin, shows that the unit xēl is considered to be one of the Arabic loanwords via Turkish of the Iranian lexicon. Thus, it has already entered the Persian from Turkish with the meanings “comrade-in-arms, messenger, army”.

    On the frame of this article we discussed a wide range of Iranian and Armenian toponyms, composed by xēl. By the way, the transition of this unit to the Armenian toponyms via Kurdish is also analyzed in the scope of our paper.
    Source

    Apparently the term is ultimately of Arabic origin and entered Iranic languages via Turkish.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Mingle View Post
    Not sure if its related to the Turkish word gil, but it might be. I couldn't find any info on the Turkish word gil so if you find any info regarding the etymology of the Turkish word, then please share it. Below is the info I found regarding the Iranic xēl where I decided to bold the relevant portions:



    Source

    Apparently the term is ultimately of Arabic origin and entered Iranic languages via Turkish.
    There is this document http://www.tdk.gov.tr/images/20140119.pdf in TURKISH from the Turkish Language Institution which proposes a kind of Caucasian origin, but is more about usage than the origin of the word.
    Of all the countries, this is possibly the most beautiful. All that is beautiful and can be rarely seen in
    other countries can be seen everywhere here... Here live the people who wear the cleanest clothes and prepare the
    most flavorful dishes... Of all of God’s servants, the local people are the most compassionate and merciful...

    Ibn Battuta about Asia Minor 1333CE

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     Jatt1 (11-22-2018)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Afshar View Post
    Maybe some pashtun members can clarify the origin of the word khel used for subtribes or villages. I noticed the word has the same meaning as "gil" used in anatolian Turkish, which is used in the same manner.
    Most likely roots on the word Khalq/khalek/... also sometimes called khal/khel as in place of 'origin' family... meaning own people/family, in the past a village with a certain lastname (tribename) only inhabited descendants of that one lineage.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Mingle View Post
    Not sure if its related to the Turkish word gil, but it might be. I couldn't find any info on the Turkish word gil so if you find any info regarding the etymology of the Turkish word, then please share it. Below is the info I found regarding the Iranic xēl where I decided to bold the relevant portions:



    Source

    Apparently the term is ultimately of Arabic origin and entered Iranic languages via Turkish.
    -gil is an suffix in Turkish, not a word nor a term. so impossible to be related or same origin.

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