Poll: What is your Blood Group?

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Thread: What is your Blood Group?

  1. #71
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  2. #72
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    Quote Originally Posted by Dibran View Post
    Where does this blood type originate? I know it’s pretty rare. As a baby I had some rare blood condition and my mom was also AB- so they asked if she could give blood. I guess it was in short supply.
    A couple of things happen together to produce a blood type of AB-.

    First, you inherit an A allele from one parent and a B allele from the other. An "A" allele is defined as any ABO allele that causes H antigen to be converted to A antigen; and a "B" allele is any allele that causes H antigen to be converted to B antigen. (An antigen is basically any substance that can lead to an immune system response.) An "O" allele is a "null" allele -- essentially, it doesn't do anything: H antigen remains unchanged.

    Second, you inherit an RhD allele from each parent that does not result in the production of the RhD antigen. This is another "null" allele, but for the "Rh factor". It doesn't do anything, where an "Rh+" allele would result in production of Rh antigent "D".*

    So it isn't just one thing that happens, but all of these things happening together. It can result anywhere that both A and B alleles can be found, as long as the Rh negative allele is also present. The you just have to have the "right" set of parents. They don't have to be Rh- themselves, but just have at least one Rh- allele (each). Obviously, if both are RH- themselves, all of their children will be.

    Then at least one of them has to have an A allele and one of them has to have a B allele. Possibilities include:

    (1) Both parents have the AB blood type, in which case a child of theirs could have the genotypes AA, BB, or AB
    (2) One parent has AB and the other has either A or B. If the second parent has A, that parent's genotype can be either AA or AO. If AA, the possible genotypes for a child would be AA or AB. If AO, the genotypes could be AA, AB, AO, or BO.
    (3) One parent has A and the other has B. The parent with type A can have either the genotype AA or the genotype AO; the parent with type B can have either the genotype BB or the genotype BO. If the parental combination is AA and BB, any child can only have the AB blood type. If one parent is AA and the other is BO, then the possibilities are AB or AO. If one parent has AO and the other BB, then the possibilities are AB and BO. In the last scenario, where one parent is AO and the other is BO, the possible genotypes are AB, AO, BO, or OO. This means that the offspring can actually have any of the four ABO blood types -- AB, A, B, or O.
    (4) If one of the parents has type O blood -- meaning that both of their ABO alleles are "O" alleles, it is not normally possible for any of their children to have type AB blood. But ... we should (almost) never say never. There is a very rare group of "AB" alleles that cause the AB blood type all by themselves, without having to have a second, opposite allele. But again, these alleles are very rare. (And these "cis AB" blood types are generally weaker than the normal "trans AB" blood types.)

    https://www.redcrossblood.org/donate...ood-types.html
    https://genetics.thetech.org/ask-a-geneticist/cis-ab

    *There are more antigens in the Rh blood group system that just "D", but this is the main one that's meant when blood is identified as "Rh negative" or "Rh positive".
    Last edited by geebee; 05-17-2019 at 11:17 AM.
    Besides British-German-Catalan, ancestry includes smaller amounts of French, Irish, Swiss, Choctaw & possibly Catawba. Avatar picture is: my father, his father, & his father's father; baby is my eldest brother.

    GB

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  4. #73
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    Quote Originally Posted by geebee View Post
    A couple of things happen together to produce a blood type of AB-.

    First, you inherit an A allele from one parent and a B allele from the other. An "A" allele is defined as any ABO allele that causes H antigen to be converted to A antigen; and a "B" allele is any allele that causes H antigen to be converted to B antigen. (An antigen is basically any substance that can lead to an immune system response.) An "O" allele is a "null" allele -- essentially, it doesn't do anything: H antigen remains unchanged.

    Second, you inherit an RhD allele from each parent that does not result in the production of the RhD antigen. This is another "null" allele, but for the "Rh factor". It doesn't do anything, where an "Rh+" allele would result in production of Rh antigent "D".*

    So it isn't just one thing that happens, but all of these things happening together. It can result anywhere that both A and B alleles can be found, as long as the Rh negative allele is also present. The you just have to have the "right" set of parents. They don't have to be Rh- themselves, but just have at least one Rh- allele (each). Obviously, if both are RH- themselves, all of their children will be.

    Then at least one of them has to have an A allele and one of them has to have a B allele. Possibilities include:

    (1) Both parents have the AB blood type, in which case a child of theirs could have the genotypes AA, BB, or AB
    (2) One parent has AB and the other has either A or B. If the second parent has A, that parent's genotype can be either AA or AO. If AA, the possible genotypes for a child would be AA or AB. If AO, the genotypes could be AA, AB, AO, or BO.
    (3) One parent has A and the other has B. The parent with type A can have either the genotype AA or the genotype AO; the parent with type B can have either the genotype BB or the genotype BO. If the parental combination is AA and BB, any child can only have the AB blood type. If one parent is AA and the other is BO, then the possibilities are AB or AO. If one parent has AO and the other BB, then the possibilities are AB and BO. In the last scenario, where one parent is AO and the other is BO, the possible genotypes are AB, AO, BO, or OO. This means that the offspring can actually have any of the four ABO blood types -- AB, A, B, or O.
    (4) If one of the parents has type O blood -- meaning that both of their ABO alleles are "O" alleles, it is not normally possible for any of their children to have type AB blood. But ... we should (almost) never say never. There is a very rare group of "AB" alleles that cause the AB blood type all by themselves, without having to have a second, opposite allele. But again, these alleles are very rare. (And these "cis AB" blood types are generally weaker than the normal "trans AB" blood types.)

    https://www.redcrossblood.org/donate...ood-types.html
    https://genetics.thetech.org/ask-a-geneticist/cis-ab

    *There are more antigens in the Rh blood group system that just "D", but this is the main one that's meant when blood is identified as "Rh negative" or "Rh positive".
    Interesting. Thanks for the information. I also mean in geographic terms, what populations it is more prevalent in?
    Known Ancestry: Albanian
    23andme results: 94% Balkan, 0.9% Italian, 0.8% Middle Eastern, 2.2% broadly southern European, 0.3 British & Irish, 0.3% Japanese, 0.5% unassigned
    MyOrigins2.0: 100% Southeast European
    MyAncientOrigins: 62% Farmer, 24% Hunter Gatherer, 14% Metal Age Invader
    MyHeritage: 76% Greek, 16% Balkan, 8% Italian
    WeGene: 99.5% Balkan, 0.5% unassigned
    GenePlaza: 92.7% East Mediterranean, 5.2% Southwestern European, 1.5% Ambiguous
    DNA.LAND: 95% Balkan, 5% Sardinian

  5. #74
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    I'm B+, and so is my dad. Don't know my mom's or brother's. I have done research on this before and know that B+ is very prolific in Asia. It's interesting that a lot of the posters here that have said they are B+ so far seem to be South Asian - from India, etc. which goes in line with the Wikipedia Blood type distribution by country list. I wonder who else that has posted B+ is a non-Asian almost completely European background like myself (I say almost completely because I did get some North African & Arabian and some SSA on 23andMe - but I'm 99.3% European)? My dad is also B+.
    Last edited by aafusc2988; 05-17-2019 at 06:52 PM.

  6. #75
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    One map that I saw online shows a hot spot of B around the North Sea and another in India. Slightly less than these hotspots is Asia in general.

  7. #76
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    Quote Originally Posted by Dibran View Post
    Interesting. Thanks for the information. I also mean in geographic terms, what populations it is more prevalent in?
    Here's one of a number of charts on the topic:

    https://www2.palomar.edu/anthro/vary/vary_3.htm

    The issue is really even more complicated than this, however, because there isn't just one allele for each blood type. In the ABO blood group system, there are several dozen different alleles. In fact, according to Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ABO_blood_group_system) there are about 20 different subgroups for just the A alleles alone. The two most common are A1 and A2, and it's actually possible for there to be some compatibility issues between these two types, even though both are type A. And, of course, this means that someone who has type AB can actually have either A1B or A2B -- and even some rarer variations. (The "B" part is almost all from the same allele, but there are also some rare B alleles.)

    There are also a number of different O alleles. Most of them have a deletion at a specific SNP location. (The SNP is designated rs8176719 and is either G or -, or it's sometimes represented as D or I -- meaning "insertion" if the G is present, or "deletion" if it is not.)

    Additionally, there are some O alleles that are called "nondeletional" because they are O alleles in spite of having G at rs8176719. Instead, most of these nondeletional O alleles have a substitution of "T" in place of "C" at rs41302905. I have one "deletional" O allele, O112; and one "non-deletional" O allele, O303. So even though I have rs8176719 (G;-) or (D;I), I definitely do have type O blood. So does my youngest sister, who has the same two ABO alleles; and my daughter, who also has the same two ABO alleles. (She, of course, inherited her O112 allele from her mother, who has O101 and O112), and not from me.

    The point, though, is that instead of just asking about the origin of an A, B, or O allele, you really have to consider several variations of each allele type. There are many A alleles, many B alleles, and many O alleles, and they likely all originated at different times and places. Because the chromosome on which these alleles are found -- chromosome 9 -- is capable of recombining, the formation of new alleles doesn't just depend on mutations. Very rarely (given the size of the ABO gene), it's possible for a crossover to take place within the ABO gene. So instead of inheriting an existing ABO allele from one grandparent, a child can inherit a recombined allele that contains DNA from both grandparents. Again, this would not happen often since the odds would favor any crossover on chromosome 9 occurring either before or after the ABO gene, and not within the gene.
    Last edited by geebee; 05-18-2019 at 05:17 AM.
    Besides British-German-Catalan, ancestry includes smaller amounts of French, Irish, Swiss, Choctaw & possibly Catawba. Avatar picture is: my father, his father, & his father's father; baby is my eldest brother.

    GB

  8. #77
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    Quote Originally Posted by aafusc2988 View Post
    I'm B+, and so is my dad. Don't know my mom's or brother's. I have done research on this before and know that B+ is very prolific in Asia. It's interesting that a lot of the posters here that have said they are B+ so far seem to be South Asian - from India, etc. which goes in line with the Wikipedia Blood type distribution by country list. I wonder who else that has posted B+ is a non-Asian almost completely European background like myself (I say almost completely because I did get some North African & Arabian and some SSA on 23andMe - but I'm 99.3% European)? My dad is also B+.
    I'm B-, and my mom was B+ (dad is not B ). Mom's background is entirely European, mostly NW Europe -- England, Ulster, and Sweden, and also western Germany/Switzerland.

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  10. #78
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    Quote Originally Posted by aafusc2988 View Post
    I'm B+, and so is my dad. Don't know my mom's or brother's. I have done research on this before and know that B+ is very prolific in Asia. It's interesting that a lot of the posters here that have said they are B+ so far seem to be South Asian - from India, etc. which goes in line with the Wikipedia Blood type distribution by country list. I wonder who else that has posted B+ is a non-Asian almost completely European background like myself (I say almost completely because I did get some North African & Arabian and some SSA on 23andMe - but I'm 99.3% European)? My dad is also B+.
    I'm a Euromutt B+. My Filipino wife is also B+.
    The more I learn about this DNA stuff the less I know.

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