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Thread: RHAS's J2 news

  1. #1
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    Exclamation RHAS's J2 news

    "In human genetics, Haplogroup IJ is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup IJ is a descendant branch of Haplogroup F-L15 which in turn derives from the greater Haplogroup F. Descendants are Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J."
    Haplogroup IJ.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_IJ

    "Various episodes of population movement have affected southeast Europe, and the role of the Balkans as a longstanding gateway to Europe from the Near East is illustrated by the phylogenetic unification of Hgs I and J by the basal M429 mutation. This evidence of common ancestry suggests that ancestral IJ-M429* Y chromosomes probably entered Europe through the Balkan route sometime before the Last Glacial Maximum."
    Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
    http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/Are...mento2986.html

    "J-M172 can be classified as Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and/or Caucasian and is linked to the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia. It was carried by Bronze Age immigrants to Europe, and ultimately descends from the Cro-Magnon population (IJ-M429 Y-DNA) that emerged in Southwest Asia around 35,000 years ago."
    Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

    "A 2004 study by Semino et al. contradicted this study, and showed that Italians in North-central regions (like Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna) had a higher concentration of J2 than their Southern counterparts. North-central had 26.9% J2, whereas Calabria (a far Southern region) had 20.0%, Sardinia had 9.7% and Sicily had 16.7%. This could be because of the ancient Etruscans, who some think originated in the Near East."
    Wikipedia.org - Genetic History of Italy.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_Italy

    "From these comparisons, we found that haplogroup J2, in general, and six Y-STR haplotypes, in particular, exhibited a Phoenician signature that contributed > 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined."
    Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean.
    http://www.cell.com/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00547-8

    "The Neolithic control section shows nonsignificant results across all haplogroups, except for a significant J2 result in one test. The Phoenician-colony test results highlight only one haplogroup, J2, which consistently scores significantly in all three tests across the range of colonization sites. However, this haplogroup also scores significantly in Greek tests (as do some additional haplogroups), suggesting that the same haplogroup could have been spread by several expansions, which is unsurprising considering its frequency in the Eastern Mediterranean but implies that higher phylogenetic resolution is required for identification of Phoenician-specific signals."
    Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean.
    http://www.cell.com/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00547-8

    "The majority of the Balkan Hg J Y chromosomes belong to the J-M172 sub-Hg and range from 2% to 20%. Both its main branches, J-M410 and J-M12/M102*, were observed; although the first is scattered in different sub-clades (J-M67, J-M92 and J-DYS445-6) with distinct local patterns, the second is most represented by J-M241."
    Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
    http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/Are...mento2986.html

    "Occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region."
    Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info:...l.pone.0050794

    "There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship. The oldest evidence of a cult of the bull can be traced back to Neolithic central Anatolia, notably at the sites of Çatalhöyük and Alaca Höyük. Bull depictions are omnipresent in Minoan frescos and ceramics in Crete. Bull-masked terracotta figurines and bull-horned stone altars have been found in Cyprus (dating back as far as the Neolithic, the first presumed expansion of J2 from West Asia)."
    The Sacred Bull.
    http://aratta.wordpress.com/2012/12/02/the-sacred-bull/

    "The most frequent haplogroups among the current population on Crete were: R1b3-M269 (17%), G2-P15 (11%), J2a1-DYS413 (9.0%), and J2a1h-M319 (9.0%). They identified J2a parent haplogroup J2a-M410 (Crete: 25.9%) with the first ancient residents of Crete during the Neolithic (8500 BCE – 4300 BCE) suggesting Crete was founded by a Neolithic population expansion from ancient Turkey/Anatolia."
    The Minoans, DNA and all.
    http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wor...s-dna-and-all/

    "We reconstructed the genetic structure of the Levantines and found that a pre-Islamic expansion Levant was more genetically similar to Europeans than to Middle Easterners."
    Genome-Wide Diversity in the Levant Reveals Recent Structuring by Culture.
    http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/...l.pgen.1003316

    "23andMe has a Y chromosome marker on its custom chip, rs34126399, which captures the spread of agriculture from the Near East to Europe. The G state at rs34126399 is found in most individuals carrying paternal haplogroup J2a, whose origin can ultimately be traced to Turkey 15,000 to 20,000 years ago."
    The Origin of Farming in Europe: A View from the Y Chromosome.
    http://blog.23andme.com/23andme-and-...-y-chromosome/

    "The authors found a weak – but significant – genetic signature among their samples that could not be explained by chance. Many of the samples belonged to a very specific branch of haplogroup J2, which the authors believe points back to distinct migrations by Phoenician traders from the Middle East into Europe and North Africa more than 3,000 years ago."
    Ripples in the Mediterranean: Tracing the Genetic Origins of the Phoenicians.
    http://blog.23andme.com/ancestry/rip...e-phoenicians/

    "R1b3 frequency was found to be higher in the northern part of the country, while the Y-chromosome haplogroups G and E3b1, J2 and I(xI1b2) frequencies were higher in the south and in the central part of the country, respectively."
    Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info:...l.pone.0050794

    "Bulgarian DNA profile is congruent with those described for most European populations. Almost the entire Bulgarian mtDNA pool is made up of West Eurasian lineages, with just 0.9% of Eastern Asian lineages. It is a similar picture from Y-chromosome haplogroups. About 80% of the total genetic variation in Bulgarians falls within haplogroups E-M35, I-M170, J-M172, R-M17 and R-M269, all found elsewhere in Europe."
    Bulgarians.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarians

    "Haplogroup J2 is most common in Southern Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus, were it may have originated 18.000 years ago. It appears to have spread into Europe in a number of waves over the course of millennia."
    23andme.com, 2013.
    https://www.23andme.com/

    "It has been plausibly suggested that M172 may be associated with the arrival of neolithic farmers from the Fertile Crescent who were the probable predecessors of the Indo-European society which later emerged in western Asia, a "hypothetical" society whose culture and language greatly influenced prehistoric peoples from India to Ireland."

    Genetics & Anthropology in Sicily.
    http://www.bestofsicily.com/genetics.htm

  2. #2
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    "Haplogroups E1b1b and J in Europe are regarded as markers of movements from southeastern Europe to northwestern and therefore as a potential markers of introduced technology such as farming."
    Genetic history of the British Isles.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic..._British_Isles

    "A new genetic marker, M172, began to appear in southeastern Europe about 10,000 years ago and is found heavily in Greece and the Balkans region."
    Exploring the Origins of Mankind through the Evidence of DNA.
    http://www.fwquestclub.com/welcome_files/papers/dna.pdf

    "J-M172, which occurs as frequently as J-M267 in some Middle Eastern populations, is the more prevalent in Europe."
    Origin Diffusion and Differentation Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181965/

    "The J-M67*, JM92, and J-M102 representatives reflect more distinctive origins and dispersal patterns. Whereas J-M67* and J-M92 show higher frequencies and variances in Europe (0.40 and 0.32, respectively) and in Turkey (0.32 and 0.30, respectively [Cinniog˘ lu et al. 2004]) than in the Middle East (0.17 and 0.09, respectively), J-M12(M102) shows its maximum frequency in the Balkans."
    Origin Diffusion and Differentation Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181965/

    "The diversity within J2 is lower in the Middle East (0.43 ±0.11) compared with both Turkey (0.60±0.07) and the European locations (0.67±0.02)."
    Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf

    "The UEP diversity within J2 is lower in the Middle East compared to both Turkey and the European locations. In conclusion, the UEP diversity of J in Turkey and southern Europe does not seem to be a simple subset of that present in the area where this hapologroup first originated. This finding, also confirmed in the data by Semino et al. (2004), points to Turkey and the Aegean as a relevant source for the J diversity observed throughout Europe."
    Phylogeography of Y Chromosomal haplogroups as reporters of Neolithic and post-Neolithic population processes in the Mediterranean area.
    http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/docu...velletto35.pdf

    "Thus the most likely explanation is the emergence of J2f1 in the Aegean area, possibly during the population expansion phase also detected by Malaspina et al. (2001), and coincident with the expansion of the Greek world up to the European coast of the Black sea."
    Phylogeography of Y Chromosomal haplogroups as reporters of Neolithic and post-Neolithic population processes in the Mediterranean area.
    http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/docu...velletto35.pdf

    "Based on previously published data (Scozzari et al. 2001; Di Giacomo et al. 2004; Semino et al. 2004; Marjanovic et al. 2005), we observed that another haplogroup, J-M12, shows a frequency distribution within Europe similar to that observed for E-V13."
    Tracing past human male movements in northern/eastern Africa and western Eurasia.
    http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/conten....full.pdf+html

    "In addition to Hg J-M410, Hg G-P15 chromosomes, which are also common in Anatolia, have been implicated in the colonization and subsequent expansion of early farmers in Crete, the Aegean and Italy. Earlier studies have concluded that the J-M410 sub-clades, J-DYS445-6 and J-M67, are linked to the spread of farming in the Mediterranean Basin, with a likely origin in Anatolia. Interestingly, J-DYS445-6 and J-M92 (a sub-lineage of M67), both have expansion times between 7000 and 8000 years ago, consistent with the dating of the arrival of the first farmers to the Balkans."
    Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
    http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/Are...mento2986.html

    "Regarding Hg J-M12/M102, which is discernable from India to Europe, the M12/M102* chromosomes display a very high YSTR diversity, whereas on the other hand, the J-M241 sub-lineage has low diversity in the Balkans, indicating different demographic histories. Although Hg J-M241 shows high variance in India, its place of origin is still uncertain. As J-M241 has older expansion times in Sicily, Apulia and Turkey, it may have arrived in the Balkans from elsewhere."
    Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
    http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/Are...mento2986.html

    "The PC analysis, from the perspective of population Hg frequencies, reveals a tight cluster of populations not comprising southern Balkan and Caucasian groups. Common to this cluster are lower frequencies of Hgs, G-M201 and J-M410, and higher frequencies of Hgs, I-M423, E-V13 and J-M241. Whereas the first two are primarily Middle Eastern Hgs and have been shown to be associated with the early Neolithic colonization of Crete, Italy and southern Caucasus, I-M423, E-V13 and J-M241, in spite of parallel Balkan patterns of distribution, have clearly different origins."
    Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
    http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/Are...mento2986.html

    "The M172 marker defines a major subset of M304, which arose from the M89 lineage. It is found today in North Africa, the Middle East, and southern Europe. In southern Italy it occurs at frequencies of 20 percent, and in southern Spain, 10 percent of the population carries this marker. Both M304 and its subgroup M172 are found at a combined frequency of around 30 percent amongst Jewish individuals. The early farming successes of these lineages spawned population booms and encouraged migration throughout much of the Mediterranean world."
    National Geographic - Genographic Project, 2011.
    https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/

    "We favor the emergence of J2f1 in the Aegean area, possibly during the population expansion phase also
    detected by Malaspina et al. (2001) and coincident with the expansion of the Greek world to the European coast of the Black sea."

    Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe.
    http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf

  3. #3
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    "J2-M172 is more prevalent in Europe where at least five different lineages can be traced—J2e*-M102, J2e1-M241, J2*-M172, J2f*-M67, and J2f1-M92 (fig. 2, Semino et al. 2004)."
    High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations.
    http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/10/1964.full

    "The finding that five major haplogroups (E3b1, I1–P37 (xM26), J2, R1a, and R1b) comprise more than 70% of SEE total genetic variation is consistent with the typical European Y chromosome gene pool."
    Implications of the role of Southeastern Europe in the origins and diffusion of major Eurasian paternal lineages.
    http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/docu...pdf36/36_6.pdf

    "According to Wiik, almost all European men belong to 11 Y-haplogroups (in alphabetical order: E3b, G, I1a, I1b1-P37, I1b2-M223, J2, N3, R1a, R1b, E3a, N2)."
    Croatian genetic heritage: Y-chromosome story.
    http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Croa.../21674820.html

    "Y chromosome J2a lineages show an origin in the Levant and/or Central/Mediterranean Anatolia. These lineages may track the spread of the Neolithic to the Aegean and Central Mediterranean."
    From Generation to Generation: The Genetics of Jewish Populations.
    http://www.stanford.edu/dept/jewishs...KingSlides.pdf

    "Anthropologist Carleton S. Coon is quoted as saying The Iraqi population is without doubt much the same today as it was in Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian times. The Iraqi people are a Caucasian people. It has been found that Y-DNA Haplogroup J2 originated in northern Iraq (Ancient Assyria)."
    Wikipedia.com - Archeogenetics of the Near East.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeo..._the_Near_East

    "Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) wich bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
    Eupedia.com , 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "Several authors have proposed that the Indo-European language presently spoken by Armenians arose during the Bronze Age, when Indo-European speaking tribes from the Balkans and Greece invaded Anatolia and Transcaucasia, leading to the subsequent spread of their culture and language. In this study, we have detected a number of lineages that are prominent in the Balkans (I2*, I2b*, J2b1 and J2b2) at low levels throughout Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van, the latter of which also contains haplogroups commonly associated with Bronze Age Greece (ie, J2a8-M319 (4.9%), and E1b1b1-M78 and its sublineages (3.9%)). While this may suggest genetic input from early Greek or Phrygian tribes, it is also possible that these low levels of Balkan lineages arrived in Armenia at a later time, such as during one of the many incursions into the area during the reign of the Macedonian, Roman and Byzantine empires."

    Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v...g2011192a.html

    "It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites in Crete."

    Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

    "The world`s maximum concentrations of J2a is in Crete (32% of the population). The subclade J2a4d (M319) appears to be native to Crete."
    Eupedia.com 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "The J2 lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. As with other populations with Mediterranean ancestry this lineage is found within Jewish populations. Research note: Many people new to Genetic Genealogy think the J2 haplogroup is synonymous with having male Jewish ancestry. One should note that having a J2 haplogroup assignment does not necessarily indicate Jewish ancestry. The J2 haplogroup is far more ancient than the Jewish religion and is found in many lines with Mediterranean region ancient ancestry. Another relatively more recent mode for J2's entry into some parts of Europe from the Mediterranean areas could have been the Roman Legions and Roman settlements."

    Kerchner.com - YDNA Haplogroup Descriptions & Information Links.
    http://www.kerchner.com/haplogroups-ydna.htm

    "In Southern Europe the haplogroup J2, as defined by the M172 marker, can reach frequencies up to 35%, making the dissection of such lineage critical for population studies."
    Y chromosome J2 subtyping in an Italian sample: Population and forensic implications.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...7517680800200X

    "Haplogroup J-M12 was associated with Neolithic Greece (ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly 8.8%, Argolis 1.8%) (King 2008)."
    Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

    "When looking at the diffusion of Haplogroup J2a, M410, westward into Europe, one aspect of this westward spread becomes quite clear. M410+ ancestors used a maritime and coastal route to move west."
    M172 Blog - Pronounced Westward Maritime Diffusion of J2a (M410), 2008.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/pron...diffusion.html

    "Dr. King also notes an interesting correlation with a subclade of Haplogroup J2, M67, and place names in the Aegean, Balkans and Italy while citing a deeper origin for subclade M67 in Northern Syria or southern Anatolia. The age and spread of M67 seems associated with proto-greek substratum in the Aegean."
    M172 Blog - Neolithic Migrations in the Near East and Aegean, 2009.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/07/neol...-east-and.html

    "Quite a few ancient Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilisations flourished in territories where J2 lineages were preponderant. This is the case of the Hattians, the Hurrians, the Etruscans, the Minoans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians (and their Carthagian offshoot), the Israelites, and to a lower extend extent also the Romans, the Assyrians and the Persians. All great seafaring civilisations from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age were dominated by J2 men."

    Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "HGs R1*xR1a1 and E3b, together with hg J2, were the three most common type along the peninsula (38%, 16% and 21%, respectively). Differently from the former two, J2 did not clearly show any pattern of differential distribution, with a range of frequency between 13% and 25%. In the PC plot, the northern samples (A and did tend to cluster with French and Basques, along axis 1, while C, D and E instead were together with other Mediterranean populations (Greeks and Calabrians)."
    Y chromosome genetic structure in the Italian peninsula.
    http://www.isfg.org/files/d11ee269e2...b73b.03017898_ 231992470811.pdf

    "While noting that multiple haplogroups are likely involved in the spread of languages through the middle east, Dr. King noted a correlation between very old Middle Eastern languages of uncertain origin and Haplogroup J2 while at the same time theorizing that Haplogroup J1 may have been involved in spreading Semitic languages through the region. These old languages possibly linked to J2 are known to have existed in Mesopotamia and the Northern Levant and this substratum is sometimes referred to as "Banana" languages due to their syllabic duplication."
    M172 Blog - Neolithic Migrations in the Near East and Aegean, 2009.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/07/neol...-east-and.html

    "The Saluja’s have been a dynamic and mobile group of business people and professionals from North India. They hail from the region north of the river Jhelum, that divides the Jhelum & Gujrat districts, an area along the Salt mines (now in Pakistan). Historical records indicate that Alexander the Great of Macedonia came to India (326 B.C) crossing the Khyber Pass to Taxila near Rawalpindi. Alexander advanced to the northwest bank of the river Jhelum to the village of Haranpur, where allegedly the Macedonians set up their base camp prior to the battle with King Porus. It is quite conceivable that people from that area of North India particularly Haranpur, Jalalpur & surroundings to have Genes of people from Greece. In fact, DNA Analysis suggests that Saluja’s belong to the DNA Haplogroup J2b, which has its origin in Greece. J2b (M12, M314, M221, M102), and is mainly found in the Balkans, Greece, Italy, and India (possibly from Neolithic Greeks)*****J2b1 (M205) - formerly J2b1b. The Saluja family history can be traced directly to this historical melting pot."
    Migration of Indians Across Continents spanning generations: A Case History of the Saluja Family.
    http://www.amazon.com/Migration-Indi.../dp/0615469035

    "Both E-V13 and J-M12 have also been used in studies seeking to find evidence of a remaining Greek presence in Afghanistan and Pakistan, going back to the time of Alexander the Great."
    Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup E V-68.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E-V68_(Y-DNA)
    Last edited by RHAS; 11-20-2013 at 04:08 AM.

  4. #4
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    "Compared with western Asian populations, Indians show lower STR diversities at the haplogroup J background (Quintana-Murci et al. 2001; Nebel et al. 2002) and virtually lack J*, which seems to have higher frequencies in the Middle East and East Africa (Eu10 [Nebel et al. 2001]; Ht25 [Semino et al. 2002]) and is common also in Europe (Underhill et al. 2001b). Therefore, J2 could have been introduced to northwestern India from a western Asian source relatively recently and, subsequently, after comingling in Punjab with R1a, spread to other parts of India, perhaps associated with the spread of the Neolithic and the development of the Indus Valley civilization."
    The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...02929707605412

    "Although, on a general scale, we can argue for largely the same prehistoric genetic inheritance in Indian tribal and caste populations, this does not refute the existence of genetic footprints laid down by known historical events. This would include invasions by the Huns, Greeks, Kushans, Moghuls, Muslims, English, and others. The political influence of Seleucid and Bactrian dynastic Greeks over northwest India, for example, persisted for several centuries after the invasion of the army of Alexander the Great."
    The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...02929707605412

    "A genetic study published led by Firasat (2007) on Kalash individuals found high and diverse frequencies of :Haplogroup L3a (22.7%), H1* (20.5%), R1a (18.2%), G (18.2%), J2 (9.1%), R* (6.8%), R1* (2.3%), and L* (2.3%). Haplogroup L, Haplogroup H, and Haplogroup R1a are thought to have originated from prehistoric South Asia."
    Wikipedia.org - Kalash People.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalash_people

    "The sister clade to J2a-M410 is J2b-M12. In India and Pakistan, all J2b members comprise the J2b2-M241 derivative HG."
    Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/

    "Lastly, HG J2b2-M241–related microsatellite variance is higher in Uttar Pradesh near the border of Nepal. It should be noted that numerous Mesolithic sites have been observed in this region (Kennedy 2000)."
    Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/

    "Although the overall age of J2a Y-microsatellite variation exceeds the appearance of agriculture in the Indus Valley (~6 KYA), the current lack of informative subdivision within HG J2a in southwestern Asia prevents analysis of such potential layers, which are currently more evident in Anatolia, southeastern Europe, and the Mediterranean. In these regions, HGs J2a1b-M67(xM92) and J2a1b1-M92 have spatial and temporal characteristics consistent with the spread of early farmers and Bronze Age cultures (Di Giacomo et al. 2004)."
    Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
    http://repository.ias.ac.in/21283/1/308.pdf

    "J2b has a quite different distribution from J2a. J2b seems to have a stronger association with the Chalcolithic cultures of Southeast Europe, and is particulary common in the Balkans, Central Europe and Italy, which is roughly the extent of the European Copper Age culture."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "J2a is also present in Egypt which was conquered by Macedonian Greeks, as well as Iran, but drops to a small frequency in India, and is there limited to the upper castes. This may reflect its presence in the ancient Indo-Aryans and its survival in the Brahmin caste, or alternatively may be the result of intermarriage between the Bactrian Greek aristocracy and high-class Hindus."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/12/...ginate-in.html

    "Haplogroup J2a-M410 is confined to upper caste Dravidian and Indo-European speakers, with little occurrence in the middle and lower castes."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/11/...hromosome.html

    "The J2 clade is nearly absent among Indian tribals, except among Austro-Asiatic speaking tribals (11%). Among the Austro-Asiatic tribals, the predominant J2b2 hg occurs only in the Lodha."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/11/...hromosome.html

    "One fourth of the Vlach people (isolated communities of Romance language speaking peoples in the Balkans) belong to J2, which, combined to the fact that they speak a language descended from latin, suggests that they could have had a greater part of Roman (italian) ancestry than other ethnic groups in the Balkans."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "Two clusters could be distinguished in the J2-M172 network, probably reflecting the STR differentiation between any of its subclades and/or its unresolved paragroup J2-M172. While the non-Aromun populations did not appear to display differences in distribution among these two clusters, the Y STR differentiation of J2-M172 chromosomes between Albanian Aromuns and the Aromun population from the Stip region in Macedonia was significant."
    Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...05.00251.x/pdf

    "Men in Spain relate to the three dominant haplogroups E1b1b1-M35, J2-M172, R1b1c-M269 as 83% in general."
    Review of the article: Turuspekov Y., Sabitov Zh., Daulet B., Sadykov M., Khalidullin O. «The Kazakhstan DNA project hits first hundred Y-profiles for ethnic Kazakhs».
    http://rjgg.molgen.org/index.php/RJG...iewArticle/116

    "The remaining two haplogroups, J2 and E3b, exhibit spotty frequencies in Russians, expected for low-frequency haplogroups. The haplogroups might have arrived to Russia alongside I1b from the Balkans, in which the two are frequent."
    Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...02929707000250

    "The 1228 Russian Y chromosomes analyzed, all except 20 (1.6%) fall into seven major haplogroups (E, G, I, J, K2, N, and R1) characteristic to West Eurasian populations. Eleven samples could be classified up to the root level of haplogroups F and K, and nine samples (0.7%) fell into haplogroups C, Q, and R2 that are specific to East and South Asian populations. At a higher level of molecular resolution, only eight subclades of these major West Eurasian Y chromosome haplogroups are presented with their average frequency greater than 1%, including R1a, N3, I1b, R1b, I1a, J2, N2, and E3b. Taken together, they account for 95% of the total Russian Y chromosomal pool."
    Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...02929707000250

    "The first broad studies of the variation of the patrilineal genetic system in Europe immediately revealed its marked phylogeographic differentiation. These two pioneering papers and subsequent studies have shown that western Europeans carry predominantly haplogroup R1b, whereas eastern Europeans have high frequency of R1a lineages, that southern Slavs are characterized by high frequency of I1b, whereas Scandinavia is enriched with I1a, and that haplogroups J2 and E3b are confined mainly to southern Europe."
    Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...02929707000250

    "The J2 branch is now split into two subclades. J2a, defined by J-M410, contains 17 haplogroups, while J2b, defined by M12, M102, M221, and M314, contains seven haplogroups."
    New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2336805/
    Last edited by RHAS; 11-20-2013 at 11:53 PM.

  5. #5
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    "A total of 81 samples from unrelated males of the Brazilian population of São Paulo State (Ribeirão Preto) have been analyzed for 14 Y-SNPs (SRY1532, M213, M9, M70, M22, TAT, 92R7, M173, P25—multiplex 1; M170, M62, M172, M26 and M201—multiplex 2) using the SNaPshot™ methodology, and haplogroups frequencies were determined. European influence (mainly due to the male Portuguese settlers, but also the later arrival of Spanish and Italian) is therefore confirmed, given the fact that the most predominant European haplogroup R1b1 is also the most representative haplogroup (53.09%), followed by haplogroup J2 (with not more than 12.35%). The remaining haplogroups have made a minor contribution, between 9.88% and 1.23%, yet very significant."
    Y-chromosome SNP analysis in the Brazilian population of São Paulo state (Ribeirão Preto).
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...75176809001309

    "These similarities suggest that South India may have been one of the contributors to the proto-Romanis. European genetic signatures (i.e., haplogroups E1b1b1a1b-V13, G2a-P15, I-M258, J2-M172 and R1-M173), on the other hand, were also detected in both groups, but at varying frequencies. The divergent European genetic signals in each collection are likely the result of differential gene flow and/or admixture with the European host populations but may also be attributed to dissimilar endogamous practices following the initial founder effect. Our data also support the notion that a number of haplogroups including G2a-P15, J2a3b-M67(xM92), I-M258 and E1b1b1-M35 were incorporated into the proto-Romani paternal lineages as migrants moved from northern India through Southwestern Asia, the Middle East and/or Anatolia into the Balkans."
    Ancestral modal Y-STR haplotype shared among Romani and South Indian populations.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...7811191200563X

    "Sicily has one of the highest frequencies of Haplogroup J2 (M172) in the mediterranean. J2-M172 made up 33% of the Y chromosome signatures on the island and was non-randomly distributed occurring at higher frequencies in the eastern areas of the island. This distinction was evident in the subclades, M67 and M92, which have previously been linked to Greek and proto-greek colonization. Both M67 and M92 were twice as frequent on the eastern portion of Sicily which displays more archaelogical traces from the Greek classic era. Even the paragroup of undistinguished J2 haplotypes (M172) was more than twice as frequent in Eastern Sicily."
    M172 Blog - Y Chromosomes of Sicily, 2008.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/11/y-ch...of-sicily.html

    "Using these analyses, supporters of the demic diffusion model have proposed that families of lineages defined by certain combinations of SNPs, also known as haplogroups (namely E-M35, J-M172, F-M89 and G-M201 for the NRY and J, and T for mtDNA), represent tracers of the diffusion of farmers from the Middle East during the Neolithic. However, most of the subsequent analyses of the NRY highlighted a much more complex scenario than that originally envisaged by the same authors, who then restricted the set of putative tracers of the demic diffusion from the Middle East during the Neolithic period to only specific subclades (E-78; E-M123; J-M172 and its branches defined by the M67 and M102 mutations)."
    A Comparison of Y-Chromosome Variation in Sardinia and Anatolia Is More Consistent with Cultural Rather than Demic Diffusion of Agriculture.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0010419

    "In turn, two distinct haplogroups, J2a1h–M319 and J2a1b1–M92, had demographic properties consistent with Bronze Age expansions to Crete, arguably from NW/W Anatolia and Syro-Palestine, while a later mainland (Mycenaean) contribution to Crete was indicated by the presence of of V13."
    Implications of the role of Southeastern Europe in the origins and diffusion of major Eurasian paternal lineages.
    http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/docu...pdf36/36_6.pdf

    "Within India, J2a is more common among the upper castes and decreases in frequency with the cast level."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

    "Haplogroups R-M17, J-M172, R-M124, and L-M20 are among the most frequent Y lineages in caste groups. They are all significantly more frequent in caste than in tribal groups."
    Independent Origins of Indian Caste and Tribal Paternal Lineages.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...60982204000405
    Last edited by RHAS; 11-20-2013 at 03:10 AM.

  6. #6
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    "The Neolithic component in the SEE paternal gene pool is most clearly marked by the presence of the J–M241 (more frequent in the Southern Balkans) lineage, and its expansion signals associated with Balkan microsatellite variation correlate with the Neolithic period."
    Implications of the role of Southeastern Europe in the origins and diffusion of major Eurasian paternal lineages.
    http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/docu...pdf36/36_6.pdf

    "Rare names are strikingly more likely to share haplogroups than are common names. In the highest-frequency decile, only 7/15 surname pairs share a haplogroup, as opposed to 14/15 for the lowest-frequency decile (p = 0.001). In the high-frequency half of all surname pairs, 47% share a haplogroup, while in the low-frequency half the figure is 69% (p < 0.01). Furthermore, a greater proportion of the sharing observed within the high-frequency half probably occurs by chance, since it is overwhelmingly (91%) in hg R1b, the most prevalent haplogroup in the population. By contrast, in the low-frequency half, only 65% of sharing is within hg R1b, and there are examples of sharing within the rare haplogroups (R1a, G, DE, J2, and K*), which strongly suggests that the sharing is due to common ancestry."
    Genetic Signatures of Coancestry within Surnames.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...60982206000650

    "Some haplogroups that are rare (,10%) or absent in the controls exist at high frequencies within particular surnames: Examples are hgA1a in R, E1a in Bray, G in ‘‘Wadsworth,’’ J2 in Ketley, T in ‘‘Feakes,’’ Q* in ‘‘Mallinson,’’ R1* in ‘‘Northam,’’ and R1a in ‘‘Swindlehurst’’ (fig. 2a)."
    Founders, Drift, and Infidelity: The Relationship between Y Chromosome Diversity and Patrilineal Surnames.
    http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/conten.../1093.full.pdf

    "The first axis accounted for 43.71% of the haplogroup frequency variation and clearly separated east European populations from north Mediterranean groups. The second PC encompassed 34.60% of the observed variance and separated most of the north Balkan samples from the rest of European samples. Vector analysis demonstrates that the north Mediterranean cluster is most associated with haplogroups J-M172, E-v13 and R-M269. The east/central European cluster was most influenced by R-M17 while the north Balkan cluster associated mostly with I-P37."
    Paleo-Balkan and Slavic Contributions to the Genetic Pool of Moldavians: Insights from the Y Chromosome.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0053731

    "In all likelihood, J2a1 originated before the ethnogenesis of the Greeks, and may be associated with multiple population movements from the Greek-Balkan region. However, I believe that it makes better sense to view it as a Balkan-Greek clade than a West-Asian one."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/12/...ginate-in.html

    "The higher frequency of J2 in southern Italy and Sicily compared to northern Italy, is also explained by this theory, as these regions were colonized by Greeks, whereas northern Italy was not."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/12/...ginate-in.html

    "The propagation of J2b and E V-13 correspond roughly to the ancient Greek and Roman spheres of influence."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origin...s_europe.shtml

    "Wine making spread to Crete during the Minoan period and then later to Italy with the Etruscans and to Iberia with the Phoenicians. It was an integral component of the economy and social culture of the proto-greek civilizations and the phoenicians who both went on to settle other mediterranean coastal regions. And tracing the spread of Viticulture from its origins to its spread before the Roman period, we can see te highest levels of Haplogroup J2 today correlate with the geographical centres of all these civilizations. While viticulture may not represent the first wave of M172 migrants to Europe, M172 certainly played a strong role in bringing Viticulture to Europe with such civilizations as the Minoans, Greeks and Phoenicians."
    M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/corr...ticulture.html

    "The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread of J2 around the western and southern Mediterranian."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origin...s_europe.shtml

    "Die Forscher bewegten sich auf ihrer Suche nach Genmaterial von der libanesischen bis zur spanischen Küste und vom Küstengebiet Tunesiens bis zu dem von Italien. Ihre computergestützte Genanalyse ergab, dass viele Männer, die heute in Gebieten leben, wo sich einst Phönizier niedergelassen hatten, die typischen Gensignaturvarianten der Haplogruppe J2 besitzen. Anhand der männlichen DNA-Strukturen wiesen sie nach, dass sich weit verstreute Bevölkerungsschichten rund um das Mittelmeer die Gensignatur der Phönizier teilen."
    Focus.de - Die Gene der Phönizier. (German)
    http://www.focus.de/wissen/mensch/vo...id_344997.html

    "Haplogroups common both to the European and Eurasian populations are present in Sicily. The most represented are R1b1c-M269 (24.58%), J2-M172 (15.25%) and E3b1a-M78 (11.44%). The co-occurrence of the Berber E3b1b-M81 (2.12%) and of the Mid-Eastern J1-M267 (3.81%) Hgs together with the presence of E3b1a1-V12, E3b1a3-V22, E3b1a4-V65 (5.5%) support the hypothesis of intrusion of North African genes."
    Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2985948/

    "The northern Y chromosomes on the Comoros, E-V22, E-M123, F*(xF2, GHIJK), G2a, I, J1, J2, L1, Q1a3, R1*, R1a*, R1a1 and R2 (29.7%), make up a diverse group. G2a, J1 and J2 (16.5%) are thought to have originated in the Middle East. J1-M267 has mainly spread south and west into the Arabic Peninsula, and into North and Northeast Africa, whereas J2-M172 lineages have expanded north into Europe and east into Asia."
    Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039498/

    "In addition to the paragroup (J*), there are two major subclades (J1 and J2), which are defined by mutations M267 and M172, respectively. Haplogroup J lineages are found at high frequencies in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan, and India (Hammer et al. 2000, 2001; Underhill et al. 2001; Semino et al. 2002; Behar et al. 2004; Cinnioglu et al. 2004; Sengupta et al. 2006), with haplogroup J-M172 being the most common J haplogroup in Europe, while haplogroup J-M267 predominates in the Middle East, North Africa, and Ethiopia (Semino et al. 2004)."
    New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2336805/

    "The strong western (-0.82) but weak southern (-0.37) orientation of J2 is unexpected if J2 came to Germany from the Balkans, but is consistent with a maritime mode of propagation of this haplogroup. Interestingly, the J2 frequencies in French (5-17.3%), Dutch (6.2%) and Belgian (5.0%) samples all exceed the German average (4.0%), so they are probably consistent with this interpretation. We really need to differentiate between J2a and J2b clades in this area, since J2a may hold the promise of reflecting maritime colonization (as its high frequency in coastal and island southern Europe suggests) or Roman descendants, while J2b may hold the signal of an expansion out of the Balkan area."
    Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2008.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/04/...n-germans.html
    Last edited by RHAS; 11-20-2013 at 04:13 AM.

  7. #7
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    "The majority of the Balkan Hg J Y chromosomes belong to the J-M172 sub-Hg and range from 2% to 20%. Both its main branches, J-M410 and J-M12/M102*, were observed; although the first is scattered in different sub-clades (J-M67, J-M92 and J-DYS445-6) with distinct local patterns, the second is most represented by J-M241."
    Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2947100/

    "The phylogeography of the Y-haplogroups found in northeast Indian tribal groups suggests that haplogroups D-M174 and O-M175 and its derivatives are of East/Southeast Asian origin (Underhill et al. 2001), haplogroups H-M52 and F-M89 are of indigenous Indian origin (Cordaux et al. 2004), and haplogroups J-M172, L-M20, R-M17, and R-M124 are associated with Indo-European speakers (Cordaux et al. 2004)."
    The Northeast Indian Passageway: A Barrier or Corridor for Human Migrations?
    http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/8/1525.full

    "Haplogroups G, E and J have been associated with the contribution of Neolithic farmers to the European gene pool."
    Y chromosomal heritage of Croatian population and its island isolates.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v.../5200992a.html

    "Haplogroups that likely originate in Eastern and Southern European populations are also present in our U.S. database, including RM17 (3.4%), E-M78 (2.4%), G-P15 (2.4%), and J-M172 (1.5%)."
    Population structure of Y chromosome SNP haplogroups in the United States and forensic implications for constructing Y chromosome STR databases.
    http://hammerlab.biosci.arizona.edu/...ammer_2005.pdf

    "In terms of haplogroup frequencies, the most striking differences among the three populations studied are observed in the J2 and R1 haplogroups. Although 46.2 and 47.8% of the individuals in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, respectively, are derived at M172, a frequency of only 9.8% is found in the Lasithi Plateau group. Furthermore, not only does the highland plain record a much lower percentage of J2 individuals, but it is also characterized by a lower level of diversity. While a total of seven and five J2 haplogroup types are detected in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, respectively, only two are observed in the Lasithi Plateau group. In the case of the R1 haplogroup, while frequencies of 19.2% and 21.7% are found in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, respectively, more than half (56.1%) of the Lasithi Plateau individuals are R1-M306-derived."
    Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v.../5201769a.html

    "In contrast with the results of the above comparisons, both the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations present J2 and R1 frequencies comparable with those previously observed in northeastern Mediterranean locations and even in Libya. Nevertheless, the frequency of J2 in these two Cretan groups is much higher than in mainland Greece, Macedonia and Albania."
    Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v.../5201769a.html

    "Out of the total number of J2 chromosomes in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, 92 and 82% of the samples, respectively, are derived at J2-DYS413. As the CA illustrates, these proportions suggest genetic affinity with groups from the Turkish-Greek area, where this marker is believed to have originated."
    Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v.../5201769a.html

    "The relative expansion times for haplogroup J2-M172 generally correspond with those yielded for R1b-M343, with the exception of Greece and Crete, which, unlike haplogroup R1b-M343, are slightly older than the dates yielded for several of the Near Eastern groups as well as the four Armenian populations."
    Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v...g2011192a.html

    "The results of this study suggest that the majority of Armenian Y-chromosomes belong to lineages believed to have originated and expanded during or following the Neolithic, including E1b1b1c-M123, G-M201, J1-M267, J2-M172 and R1b1b1-L23."
    Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v...g2011192a.html

    "The clade J2, defined by M172, has it higher frequencies in Anatolia and Mesopotamia, and decreases westwards (Semino et al., 2004). This haplogroup, particularly with its subclade J2a1b1-M92, presents a similar pattern of diffusion of E31b1a-M78 and it is apparently correlated to the Neolithic demic expansion. Some downstream branches, such as J2b-M12 and J2a1b-M67, relatively frequent in Greece, southern Italy and western Turkey are compatible with the influence of the Greek colonization (Di Giacomo et al., 2004)."
    Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
    http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Franc...08_History.pdf

    "The presence of J2 haplotypes in central Italy may be related to the debated hypothesis of an Anatolian origin of the Etruscan people, as suggested by mtDNA analysis on modern and ancient samples (Francalacci et al., 1996; Vernesi et al., 2004; Achilli et al., 2007), although it could be arrived in the region much earlier following the Neolithic expansion."
    Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
    http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Franc...08_History.pdf

    "Northern Italy shows similar frequencies with those of Central Europe, but with the prevalence of the western R1-M173 haplogroup in respect to the eastern I-M170, while E3b1-M35 and J2-M172, have a reduced weight. On the contrary, these two haplogroups are quite common in southern Italy, whereas J2-M172 reaches its higher occurrence in Europe, indicating a significant impact of the gene flow carried out by the Neolithic farmers."
    Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
    http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Franc...08_History.pdf

    "A certain occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region (Achilli et al., 2007)."
    Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
    http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Franc...08_History.pdf

    "A single clade within E-M78 (E-V13) highlights a range expansion in the Bronze Age of southeastern Europe, which is also detected by haplogroup J-M12."
    Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12.
    http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/6/1300

    "Clade J accounts for 13% of Indian Y chromosomes, almost exclusively because of its subcluster J2, defined by M172. Further, one quarter of the J2 chromosomes share an M12 mutation that shows relatively low background STR diversity over all of India. Interestingly, this marker has a wide geographic distribution and has also been found in polymorphic frequencies in Europe, even as far north as Kola-Saamis (Underhill et al. 1997, 2000; Raitio et al. 2001; Scozzari et al. 2001). Only two samples from Gujarat harbored the M67 mutation that is a relatively common marker at the M172 background, from the Middle East through Pakistan (Underhill et al. 2000)."
    The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations.
    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...02929707605412

    "Indeed, the age estimates of J*(xJ1d,2)-12f2, G*-M201 and E3b1c*-M123 (Table 5) are consistent with an introduction to Portugal no earlier than the Neolithic. J2*-M172 presents higher age estimates (Table 5) but, judging from its wide variance, this must be a consequence of the coexistence of more than one subclade within this haplogroup (mainly J2-M172 and J2f*-M67, both of Neolithic origin according to Semino et al. 2004) that was not discriminated with the set of Y-SNP markers typed. This set of post-Paleolithic Y chromosomes comprises 17% of the male Portuguese background, a frequency that is smaller than that observed in Italy or Greece for the same component (Semino et al. 2000; Di Giacomo et al. 2003) but higher than in northeastern Europe (Semino et al. 2000; Wells et al. 2001). Within the Portuguese territory, this component is present at 17.5% in the north, 15% in the centre and 20.4% in the south."
    Micro-Phylogeographic and Demographic History of Portuguese Male Lineages.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...05.00221.x/pdf

    "Nearly all European men can be classified into one of the nine most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroups or clans. Haplogroups are defined by mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The nine most common haplogroups, in alphabetical order, are E3b, G, I1a, I1b1-P37, I1b2-M223, J2, N3, R1a, and R1b."
    Where Did European Men Come From?
    http://www.jogg.info/41/Wiik1.pdf

    "Central Europe has two separate centres for the Early Farmers’ Haplogroups E+J+G (more precisely those of E3b, J2, and G2): The Hungarian centre with frequencies of about 20% is a reflection of the E+J+G centre in Greece where early farming first arrived from Anatolia and the Middle East. The Hungarian centre and its neighbouring areas in Slovakia and the Czech Republic represent the farmers of the Körös (6000-5500 BCE) and Linearbandkeramik (LBK) (4500-3900 BCE) cultures. The other Central European centre is in Holland. This area represents the other main branch of Early Farmers who expanded from Greece along the Mediterranean coast to the west and came to Central Europe along the Atlantic coast through France."
    Where Did European Men Come From?
    http://www.jogg.info/41/Wiik1.pdf

  8. #8
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    "The Haplogroups E3b, J2 and G of the Early Farmers, occur in Scandinavia, while among the Finns, Karelians, and Saami, these haplogroups are practically non-existent. The sum total of the frequencies of these Haplogroups (E3b+J2+G) is highest (4.3+3.2+0.2 = 7.7%) among the Danes and lower among the Norwegians (2.2+1.3+0= 3.5%) and Swedes (1.6+1.4+0.4 = 3.4%)."
    Where Did European Men Come From?
    http://www.jogg.info/41/Wiik2.pdf

    "Agriculture started to arrive in Europe about 10 kya. It arrived there in two possible ways, either as demic diffusion or as cultural diffusion or both. If agriculture was brought to Europe by Clans E3b, J2, and G, the men of these clans lived still outside Europe during the Ice Age; they did not live in any of the European refuges, but in the Near East or its vicinity. According to the other possibility, the representatives of these clans lived in the Balkan and/or Ukrainian refuge as early as the Ice Age, and represent the first Europeans to learn how to cultivate soil and raise cattle."
    Where Did European Men Come From?
    http://www.jogg.info/41/Wiik3.pdf

    "Mertens et al. (2010) found unusually high frequencies of E1b1b (but also J2 and G) in specific areas of the Netherlands: the Noord-Holland province, the Utrecht province and the Groningen province. E1b1b haplogroup accounted for 23.5% (J2 and G both 11.8%) of the population of Noord-Holland, 20% of the population of Utrecht province (J2 too 20%, G absent) and 14.3% of the population of Groningen province (J2 and G both absent), while in other provinces these haplogroups were not found or were found at much lower frequencies."
    Anthropology Blog - The Frisii of Roman times: remnants of a pre-IE population?
    http://tsanthropologyblog.blogspot.n...mnants-of.html

    "The haplogroups E3b1, G, J1, J2, I1b, R1a1, and R1b3, most common in the Dniester-Carpathian region, are also common in European and Near Eastern populations."
    Population History of the Dniester-Carpathians: Evidence from Alu Insertion and Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms.
    http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5868/..._Alexander.pdf

    "Haplogroup J2-M172 was proved the most common variant both in the European populations and in the majority of the Dniester-Carpathian samples (Di Giacomo et al. 2004; Semino et al. 2004), with the majority of lineages belonging to J2*-M172."
    Population History of the Dniester-Carpathians: Evidence from Alu Insertion and Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms.
    http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5868/..._Alexander.pdf

    "Among these J2-M172 subclades, J2e1-M102 is more frequent in Szeklers (7.2%) than in Hungarians (4.0%), while the undifferentiated J2-M172* Y chromosomes are slightly more common in Hungarian population (8% vs. 3.1%). The overall frequency of J2-M172 in the two populations (Hungarian: 13%; Szekler: 11.3%) is in the same order of magnitude as reported for Czechs and Slovaks (Semino et al., 2000), Romanians, Bulgarians (Di Giacomo et al. 2004) and Ukrainians (Semino et al. 2004)."
    Y-Chromosome Analysis of Ancient Hungarian and Two Modern Hungarian-Speaking Populations from the Carpathian Basin.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...8.00440.x/full

    "Haplogroup J2-M172 is more prevalent in Europe than the J1 clade. Among its subclades J2e-M12 and J2f-M67 and their derivatives are found in Europe and in Asia (Semino et al., 2004). J2e-M12 is almost totally represented by its sublineage, J2e1-M102, which shows its maximum frequency in the southern Balkans and north-central Italy; it may have diffused from the former (Semino et al., 2004). J2f*-M67 is also a widespread clade which is most frequent in the Caucasus, whereas its derivative J2f1-M92 indicates affinity between Anatolia and southern Italy and is predominantly found in the northern Mediterranean from Turkey westward (Di Giacomo et al., 2004; Semino et al., 2004)."
    Y-Chromosome Analysis of Ancient Hungarian and Two Modern Hungarian-Speaking Populations from the Carpathian Basin.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...8.00440.x/full

    "There are several frequency variations across Eurasia. The first is that of the M89 lineages (including M89, M170, and M172), which distinguishes between the western and eastern extremes of the continent. It is noteworthy that M172 is a major subset of the 12f2 8kb allele, which has been attributed to the spread of farming from the Near East."
    The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC56946/

    "The geographical origins of many of these HGs are still debated. However, the associated high frequencies and haplotype variances of HGs H-M69, F*-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124 and C5-M356 within India, have been interpreted as evidence of an autochthonous origins of these lineages during late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), while the lower frequency within the subcontinent of J2-M172, E-M96, G-M201 and L3-M357 are viewed as reflecting probable gene flow introduced from West Eurasian Holocene migrations in the last 10 Kya."
    Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System.
    http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0050269

    "Haplogroup J2b-M12 was frequent in Thessaly and Greek Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410 and a low frequency of J2b-M12."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic, 2008.
    http://www.atlascom.gr/HELLENIC_DNA_PAPER.PDF

    "An analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups determined that the samples from the Greek Neolithic sites showed strong affinity to Balkan data, while Crete shows affinity with central/Mediterranean Anatolia. Haplogroup J2b-M12 was frequent in Thessaly and Greek Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410 and a low frequency of J2b-M12."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...7.00414.x/full

    "In turn, two distinctive haplogroups, J2a1h-M319 and J2a1b1-M92, have demographic properties consistent with Bronze Age expansions in Crete, arguably from NW/W Anatolia and Syro-Palestine, while a later mainland (Mycenaean) contribution to Crete is indicated by relative frequencies of V13."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...7.00414.x/full

    "Inspection of Figure 2 results shows that Crete has a high frequency of haplogroup J2a-M410 (25.9%) with Lerna/Franchthi Cave (14.1%) and Sesklo/Dimini (8.8%) having intermediate frequencies of J2a."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...7.00414.x/full

    "Haplogroup J2b-M12, the offsetting companion clade of J2a-M410, shows a trend of decreasing frequency from north to south, from 7% and 8.8% at Nea Nikomedeia and Sesklo, respectively, to 1.8% at Lerna/Franchthi Cave and 3.1% in Crete."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...7.00414.x/full

    "Vector analysis (not shown) demonstrates that the Balkan cluster is most associated with haplogroups J2b-M12, E3b1a-M78, I-M170 and R1a1-M17."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...7.00414.x/full

    "On the other hand, in Greece, the most frequent J2 haplogroup is J2b-M12 that is however rare (1.7%) in Anatolia (Cinnioğlu et al., 2004)."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...7.00414.x/full

    "The Thessalian and Greek Macedonian samples exhibit a high frequency (7–9%) of J2b-M12 with an approximate expansion time dating to the Neolithic era of c. 5000BC (Table 2). Previous work on the Balkans (Peričić et al., 2005; Marjanovic et al., 2005) regarding the frequency of J2b-M12 is consistent with our observations in Greece."
    Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...7.00414.x/full

    "Di Giacomo stressed the role of post-Neolithic migratory phenomenon, specifically that of the Ancient Greeks, as also being important in the dispersal of haplogroup J-M172."
    Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

    "According to Di Giacomo’s (2004) study, the high diversity of haplogroup J2 in Turkish and southern European populations suggests that this branch of haplogroup J originated around the Aegean, not the Middle East. Additionally, it appears that much of J2 was confined to the coastal Mediterranean areas, indicating that maritime trade, rather than earlier Neolithic agricultural expansions, may have helped spread J2 throughout the Mediterranean world."
    A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
    http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

    "Overall, the most frequent haplogroups in the Caucasus were G2a3b1-P303 (12%), G2a1a-P18 (8%), J1*-M267(xP58) (34%), and J2a4b*-M67(xM92) (21%), which together encompassed 73% of the Y chromosomes, while the other 24 haplogroups identified in our study comprise the remaining 27%."
    Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3355373/
    Last edited by RHAS; 11-20-2013 at 12:01 PM.

  9. #9
    Registered Users
    Posts
    201

    "The two haplogroups most strongly associated with Albanian people (E-V13 and J2b) are often considered to have arrived in Europe from the Near East with the Neolithic revolution or late Mesolithic, early in the Holocene epoch. From here in the Balkans, it is thought, they spread to the rest of Europe."
    Wikipedia.org - Origins of the Albanians.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_the_Albanians

    "Again, haplogroup J2a4b*-M67(xM92) comprised 51-79% of the Y chromosomes in the Ingush and three Chechen populations (North-East Caucasus, Nakh linguistic group), while, in the rest of the Caucasus, its frequency was not higher than 9% (average 3%)."
    Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3355373/

    "Y-Dna haplogroups are found at the following frequencies in Malta : R1 (35.55% including 32.2% R1b), J (28.90% including 21.10% J2), I (12.20%), E (11.10% including 8.9% E1b1b), F (6.70%), K (4.40%), P (1.10%). Haplogroup R1 , E1b1b, J2 and I are typical in European populations. J1, K, F haplogroups consist of lineages with differential distribution within Middle East, North Africa and Europe. The low percentages of J1 are similar to the Sicilian population, suggesting common ancestry with Sicilians and negligible genetic input from both North Africa and the Middle East."
    Wikipedia.org - Maltese People.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maltese_people

    "Timur Serdar and Demircin Sema authored a recent study on the Y chromosomes of Antalya, which is located on the southern coast of Anatolia. Haplogroup J2 was most frequent in this study of 75 unrelated males found at a frequency of 26.6%. The J2 data was consistent with an earlier study by Cinnioglu et al which found 24% J2 in southern Anatolia. Haplogroup T (K* in the study) was next most frequent at 13.3% and this data differed from Cinnioglu's data which found only 3.3% Haplogroup K in southern Anatolia. The first record of Antalya was as Attalia, a greek city founded approximately 150BC by Attalos II, King of Pergamon."
    M172 Blog - Haplogroup J2, M172 in Antalya, Turkish Republic, 2009.
    http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/06/hapl...a-turkish.html

    "The Y-chromosome haplogroups of Antalya population were defined by these 18 Y-SNP polymorphic loci and the frequencies and the distribution of haplogroups were determined. J2*(xJ2F2) (26.6%), K*(xN3,O,P) (13.3%), E3b (9.3%), F*(xH,I,J,K) (8%), R1a1*(xR1a1b) (8%), R1b*(xR1b1, R1b6, R1b8) (8%), P*(xQ3a,R1) (8%) haplogroups were identified as the most abundant in Antalya population. These haplogroups are reported as widespread also in European and neighboring Near Eastern populations."
    Y-SNP haplogroups in the Antalya population in Turkish Republic.
    http://www.rjlm.ro/doc/08-y-snphaplo...population.pdf

    "In 2004, two geneticists educated at Harvard University and leading scientists of the National Geographic Genographic Project, Dr. Pierre Zalloua and Dr. Spencer Wells, identified "the haplogroup of the Phoenicians" as haplogroup J2, with avenues open for future research."
    Familypedia.com - Phoenicia.
    http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/Phoenicia

    "As we know Phoenicia eventually became Lebanon, and it is interesting to note that recent genetic studies have verified a DNA link between those ancient Phoenicians and the modern day inhabitants of Lebanon. The geneticists tell us that the Y-Chromosome genetic marker passed down only from male progenitor. What is also known is that haplogroup J2 (M172) is point of reference for Phoenician ancestry."
    Kisses from a Distance: An Immigrant family experience.
    http://books.google.nl/books?id=XfvuZeRUEckC

    "The historical diffusion of Phoenicians, who were the dominant traders in the Mediterranean Sea in the first millennium BC, was studied by the same research group (Zalloua et al., 2008a). Comparing Y chromosomes from samples drawn in their Lebanese homeland and in former Phoenician colonies all over the Mediterranean, the authors identified hg J2, in general, and six Y STR haplotypes, in particular, that accounted for about 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined."
    The History and Geography of the Y Chromosome SNPs in Europe: an update.
    http://www.isita-org.com/jass/Conten...e/20834059.pdf

    "Di Giacomo’s (2004) study emphasized that J2 is "Mediterranean" or "Aegean" rather than "Semitic" in character. It is found predominately in northern Mediterranean and Turkish populations, differentiating the Aegean area from the Middle East in its haplogroup J results. Going further, the researchers maintained that certain sub-clades of J2 appear to have originated well after the beginning of the Neolithic revolution and around the Aegean, spreading out to the rest of Europe during the expansion of the Greek world. It is this final idea – that much of J2 is European in origin rather than Middle Eastern – that complicates the interpretation of Jewish J2 results. Sub-clade J-M102* originated in the southern part of the Balkans and is generally absent in Middle Eastern populations (Semino et al. 2004). Ashkenazim have a 1.2% frequency of J-M102 and Sephardim have 2.4%. These results argue in favor of European gene flow into the Jewish community."
    A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
    http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

    "EEJ are Europeans probably of Roman descent who converted to Judaism at times, when Judaism was the first monotheistic religion that spread in the ancient world. Any other theory about their origin is not supported by the genetic data. Future studies will have to address their genetic affinities to various Italian populations and examine the possibility of other components both European and Non-European in their gene pool."
    The origin of Eastern European Jews revealed by autosomal, sex chromosomal and mtDNA polymorphisms.
    http://www.biologydirect.com/content/5/1/57#B10

    "A recent analysis of nine Y-chromosome markers defining haplogroups A, DE, G2, I, J, P*, and R1a revealed a high degree of heterogeneity within the island of Crete. Their study uncovered that, although more than 96% of males in the Cretan prefectures of Chania, Rethymno and Heraklion can be assigned to the tested haplogroups, only 82% of the Y chromosomes in Lasithi were derived at those markers. An analysis of J2 chromosomes from Crete, similarly revealed additional examples of diversity within the island."
    Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.
    http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v.../5201769a.html

    "The contribution of the Central Asian genetics to the modern Turkish people has been debated and become the subject of several studies. As a result, several studies have concluded that the historical (pre-Islamic) and indigenous Anatolian groups are the primary source of the present-day Turkish population, in addition to neighboring peoples, such as Balkan peoples, and central Asian Turkic people."
    Genetic history of the Turkish people.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic...Turkish_people

    "Haplogroup J (J2-M172): The frequency peak is found in Dardanians (15.02%) and Taulanti (14.30%), decreasing in Liburni (10.90%), Veneti (9.60%) and Japodes (6.67%), reaching rather low values in Delmatae (2.09%) and Autariates (1.40%). It is absent in Noricum and the area of Histri."
    Language Bounderies and Microevolutionary processes in South-Eastern Europe.
    http://www.anthroinsula.org/resource...%20version.pdf

    "IE-speaking Iranians have largely the same haplogroups as Arabs, but a much higher representation of haplogroup J2 compared to J1. The converse is true for all Arabs except the Lebanese. But, we do know, that even in Lebanon itself, Muslims have a higher J1/J2 ratio than Christians, and Islam was the main vehicle of Arabization in the region. The Christians are descended from the pre-Arab Byzantine Greco-Aramaic populations."
    Coastal-inland differences in Y chromosomes of the Levant.
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2009/08/...nces-in-y.html

    "Haplogroup J is mostly found in South-East Europe, especially in central and southern Italy, Greece and Romania. It is also common in France, and in the Middle East. It is related to the Ancient Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians (J2), as well as the Arabs and Jews (J1). Subclades J2a and J2a1b1 are found mostly in Greece, Anatolia and southern Italy, and are associated with the Ancient Greeks."
    Citizendia.org - Haplogroup J.
    http://www.citizendia.org/Haplogroup_J_(Y-DNA)

    "Results derived from analysis of the non-recombining portion of the Y- chromosomes (NRY) produced, at least initially, similar gradients to the classic demic diffusion hypothesis. Two significant studies were Semino 2000 and Rosser 2000, which identified Haplogroup J2 and E1b1b (formerly E3b) as the putative genetic signatures of migrating Neolithic farmers from Anatolia, and therefore represent the Y-chromosomal components of a Neolithic demic diffusion. This association was strengthened when King and Underhill (2002) found that there was a significant correlation between the distribution of Hg J2 and Neolithic painted pottery in European and Mediterranean sites."
    Wikipedia.com - Neolithic Europe.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neolithic_Europe

    "The Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans all contributed to the presence of J2a in Iberia. The particulary strong frequency of J2a and other Near Eastern haplogroups (J1, E1b1b, T) in the south of the Iberian peninsula, suggest that the Phoenicians and the Carthagians played a more decisive role than other peoples."
    Eupedia.com, 2013.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml
    Last edited by RHAS; 11-20-2013 at 11:06 AM.

  10. #10
    Registered Users
    Posts
    201

    "This lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. As with other populations with Mediterranean ancestry this lineage is found within Jewish populations."
    FamilytreeDNA - SNP Certificate (Haplogroup J2).
    http://www.familytreedna.com/

    "Because of your J2a1b association, it’s possible your ancestors may have been members of populations which specifically expanded from Anatolia to the Greek island of Crete between 8500 and 4300 BC."
    Ancestry.com - Paternal Ancestry Certificate.
    http://www.ancestry.com/

    "The J2 haplogroup can be found in today’s populations with notable frequency in Italy, Iberia, Turkey, Albania, Greece and even India, and most likely interacted with numerous cultures, including the Greeks and Romans."
    Ancestry.com - Paternal Ancestry Certificate.
    http://www.ancestry.com/

    "Previously, the presence of Haplogroups J, E3b, and G among Jews was interpreted as additional evidence of Middle Eastern or Israelite ancestry in much the same fashion as the Cohanim Modal Haplotype. However, recent studies demonstrate that their origin is uncertain. Unfortunately, misinformation about these haplogroups continues to pervade the public and media. Haplogroup E3b is often incorrectly described as African, leaving a misimpression regarding the origin and complex history of this haplogroup. Haplogroup J2, as previously discussed, is often incorrectly equated with J1 and described as Jewish or Semitic, despite the fact that it is present in a variety of non-Jewish Mediterranean and Northern European populations."
    A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
    http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

    "J2 has a higher representation than its sister clade in Madeira, the Acores and South Portugal. Turkey and the Aegean areas are supposed to have acted as a secondary source for this originally Middle- Eastern haplogroup (DiGiacomo et al. 2004), from where it spread to Europe. An association with Greek and/or Phoenician eras should also be considered in Portugal."
    Y-chromosome Lineages from Portugal, Madeira and Acores Record Elements of Sephardim and Berber Ancestry.
    http://www3.uma.pt/abrehm/v1.1/docs/...mGenet2005.pdf

    "The unique colonization pattern of the Phoenicians and the isolation of some of their colonies (Ibiza, Sardinia, Malta) have made it easy to identify their genetic signature. The Phoenician population was already very mixed 3000 years ago : E-V22, J1, J2, J2a4b, J2a4b1, G2a, R1a and R1b1a. E-V22 and R1b1a are quite specific to Levantines (Syrians, Lebanese, Druzes, Jews, Palestinians)."
    Eupedia.com - Y-DNA haplogroups of ancient civilizations.
    http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads...-civilizations

    "I-P37 and J-M12 are dated to 1,100BC and 1,200BC, at around the time that e.g. the Phrygians from the Balkans are believed to have migrated to Asia Minor. I-P37 and J-M12 reach their maxima in areas north of Greece where the Phrygians are said to have originated."
    How Y-STR variance accumulates: a comment on Zhivotovsky, Underhill and Feldman (2006).
    http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/07/...s-comment.html

    "From about 700 BCE, the Etruscans settled around Tuscany and the Greeks in southern Italy. Etruscans probably came from Palestine and brought haplogroups J1, J2 and E with them. The Greeks in Italy were Doric and brought J2, E, G2a and probably more R1b (see above). The Romans progressively absorbed the Etruscans and Italian Greeks and mixed with them. By the time of Julius Caesar Roman citizens were probably composed of 45% of R1b, 20% of J, 15% of E, 15% of G2a and 5% of I2a."
    Eupedia.com - Y-DNA haplogroups of ancient civilizations.
    http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads...-civilizations

    "Haplogroups in Wallonia show the expected admixture of Gallo-Roman (R1b-S28, J2, G2a, E1b1b) and Germanic (R1b-S21,I1,I2b) haplogroups."
    Eupedia.com - Ancient Ancestry Project, Benelux & France.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/benelu..._project.shtml

    "Gascony, at the opposite end of France, has unsurprisingly the lowest percentage of haplogroups associated with Greco-Danubian Neolithic farmers. Only J2 is present in relatively high number there, and the near absence of E, G and T suggest an early colonization from southern Greece (Crete?), or possibly by Romans from Central Italy."
    Eupedia.com - Ancient Ancestry Project, Benelux & France.
    http://www.eupedia.com/europe/benelu..._project.shtml

    "Haplogroup J2 frequency has been correlated with aspects of the symbolic material culture of the Neolithic in Europe and the Near East (painted pottery and ceramic figurines) and sub-Haplogroups of J2 have also been associated with the Neolithic colonization of mainland Greece, Crete and southern Italy."
    The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean.
    http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/69

    "The analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups revealed a strong genetic affinity of Euboea with Anatolian and Middle-eastern populations, while the Korinthia District population shows a closer affinity with Balkan populations. The inferences of the time at which population expansion started suggests an earlier evidence of usage of agriculture in Euboea. Moreover, the haplogroup J2a-M410, supposed to be associated with the spread of the Neolithic lifestyle from the Middle-east, was observed at higher frequency and variance in Euboea showing, for both these parameters, a decreasing gradient moving from this area. The time since expansion estimates for J2a-M410 was found to be compatible with the Neolithic transition in Greece and slightly older in Euboea."
    The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
    http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/362...Paolo_tesi.pdf

    "The first studies performed for Y-chromosome (Rosser et al., 2000; Semino et al., 2004) produced, for certain haplogroups (J2-M172 and E1b-M78), gradients similar to the classical demic diffusion hypothesis, supporting the "Wave-of-advance" model. Subsequent studies have restricted the list of haplogroups that could be taken as markers of the Neolithic transition in Europe, pointing to the J2-M172 and G2a-P15 lineages (Cinnioglu et al., 2004). In the last few years several studies approached the issue of the Neolithic impact in Europe. Sengupta and colleagues in 2006 and subsequently, King et al. (2008) suggested the haplogroups J2a-M410 as the main haplogroup linked to the Neolithic spread from the Middle-east."
    The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
    http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/362...Paolo_tesi.pdf

    "Both the sub-branches of haplogroup J2-M172 (J2a-M410 and J2b-M102) are found in the two Greek regions. The main branch is J2a-M410, a higher frequency of this haplogroup is observed for Euboea (15.6%) rather than Korinthia (10.9%). The inner structure of J2a-M410 reveals that the main branch for Euboea is J2a-M67, which accounts for the 40% of the total J2a-M410 haplotypes while the majority of the Korinthia haplotypes (75%) falls within the J2a-M67 and J2a-DYS445≤7 branches. The sister clade of J2a-M410, J2b-M102 shows a higher frequency in Euboea (9.4%), with the majority of haplotypes belonging to the J2b-M241 sub-branch (77.8%). On the other hand Korinthia shows a frequency of haplogroup J2b-M241 of 5.5%, with all haplotypes belonging to the J2b-M241 lineage."
    The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
    http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/362...Paolo_tesi.pdf

    "The majority of the haplogroups (R1a-M17, G2a-P15, I2-M438, J1-M267 and J2b-M102) shows times since expansion which ranges from approximately 4,5Kya to 2,7Kya, compatible with Bronze Age and the development of the Helladic civilizations, more specifically with the spread of Mycenaean culture (Montjoy 1998)."
    The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
    http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/362...Paolo_tesi.pdf

    "Vector analysis (data not shown) demonstrates that the Greek/Balkan cluster is more associated with haplogroups I2-M438, J2b-M102 and R1a-M17; on the other hand, the Anatolia/Middle-east cluster is more associated with haplogroups J2a-M410, J1-M267, G-M201 and R1b-M269."
    The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
    http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/362...Paolo_tesi.pdf
    Last edited by RHAS; 11-20-2013 at 04:15 AM.

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