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Thread: New paper on ancient Italy with samples from North to South discussion!

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    New paper on ancient Italy with samples from North to South discussion!

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/bior...94898.full.pdf

    I do not have time to go through the entire thing right now but this should be a separate thread.

    But the evidence to me suggests Mycenaean or Minoan-like ancient Sicilians. And compared to BOTH Bell Beaker Sicily and Mycenaeans, modern South Italians shift toward the Middle East. So much for "Neolithic" input making this so!

    Italian clusters separated into three main groups: Sardinia, Northern (North/Central-North Italy) and Southern Italy (South/Central-South Italy and Sicily); the former two were close to populations originally from Western Europe, while the latter was in proximity of Middle East groups (Fig. 1A, fig. S2, data file S2).
    The paper does say CHG was in South Italy/Sicily early on and persists today:
    We therefore speculate that our approach might in general underestimate the presence of CHG across the continent; however, we note that even considering this scenario, the excess of Caucasus related ancestry detected in the South of the European continent, and in Southern Italy in particular, is striking and unexplained by currently proposed models for the peopling of the continent.
    Anatolian Bronze Age input is higher in South Italy than elsewhere:
    The closer affinity of the Southern Italian clusters to ABA was also highlighted by the PCA and ADMIXTURE analysis on ancient and modern samples (Fig. 2I, fig. S12, fig. S13, fig. S14) and significantly higher ABA ancestry in Southern than Northern Italy, as estimated by NNLS analysis (Fig. 2D, Student's t-Test p-value < 0.05, Supplementary materials). We also noted that in the Balkan peninsula signatures related to ABA were present but less evident than in Southern Italy across modern-day populations, possibly masked by historical contributions from Central Europe (20, 21)
    Ancient Sicily DID NOT plot like North Italy:
    The Bell Beaker samples of Northern Italy (2,200-1,930 BCE) were modelled as ABA and AN + SBA and WHG, although ABA was characterised by large standard errors but the detection of Steppe ancestry, at 14%, was more robust. On the other hand Bell Beaker samples from Sicily (2,500-1,900 BCE) were modelled almost exclusively as ABA, with less than 5% SBA.
    This is where it plots:
    The other two Bronze Age North Italian samples clustered with modern North Italians, while the Bell Beaker sample from Sicily was projected in between European Early Neolithic, Bronze Age Southern European and modern-day Italian samples.
    Last edited by Sikeliot; 12-14-2018 at 12:48 PM.

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    Beaker Sicily plots between ONE of the North Italy Beaker samples and Mycenaeans, but much further from the other 2 Beaker North Italy samples. Looks closer to Mycenaeans overall.

    Some of the Anatolia Bronze Age samples plot actually *in* modern South Italy. South Italians today are closer to some West Asians than to some North Italians as you see on the PCA.

    This clearly indicates Sicily was never like modern North Italy either, and that any North Italian/Iberian-like mixture in Sicily is due to Norman-mediated North Italian settlers.

    Last edited by Sikeliot; 12-14-2018 at 01:04 PM.

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    Anatolian BA contribution is significant and surprising, indeed, it's unexplained how this ancestry came to the Italian peninsula.

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    The title is a bit misleading, there is no new ancient samples analyzed in this paper, and this topic shouldn't be in aDNA section.

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    Quote Originally Posted by IronHorse View Post
    Anatolian BA contribution is significant and surprising, indeed, it's unexplained how this ancestry came to the Italian peninsula.
    Is this linked to CHG and West Asia?

    What's key to me is Mycenaeans and Sicilian Bell Beakers are insufficient to explain the Levant affinity which is obviously recent and not Neolithic.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Sikeliot View Post
    Is this linked to CHG and West Asia?
    Yep, if you run a few models with populations like Armenia_EBA on Italians they always score some of it, naturally a lot more in the south than in the north, and more in the north than in the west Mediterranean

    PS: We naturally also have some of it, more in the south and west than in the north and east
    Last edited by Ruderico; 12-14-2018 at 02:22 PM.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Sikeliot View Post
    And compared to BOTH Bell Beaker Sicily and Mycenaeans, modern South Italians shift toward the Middle East.
    When you compare them to Mycenaeans the shift is not only Middle Eastern but also European. As for the Sicilian Beakers, we know that they are rather low coverage.

    Model Sample Details Fit Map Anatolia BA Beaker Central Europe Levant BA North Mycenaean
    1 Anatolia_BA +Beaker_Central_Europe +Levant_BA_North +Mycenaean Sicilian_East:Average 0.4983 Open Map 15.83 36.67 27.5 20

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    Quote Originally Posted by Sikeliot View Post
    Is this linked to CHG and West Asia?

    What's key to me is Mycenaeans and Sicilian Bell Beakers are insufficient to explain the Levant affinity which is obviously recent and not Neolithic.
    I wouldn't call the Iron Age recent, but yes, it's obviously post-Neolithic at this point.
    Ελευθερία ή θάνατος.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ajeje Brazorf View Post
    When you compare them to Mycenaeans the shift is not only Middle Eastern but also European. As for the Sicilian Beakers, we know that they are rather low coverage.

    Model Sample Details Fit Map Anatolia BA Beaker Central Europe Levant BA North Mycenaean
    1 Anatolia_BA +Beaker_Central_Europe +Levant_BA_North +Mycenaean Sicilian_East:Average 0.4983 Open Map 15.83 36.67 27.5 20
    You were right that Bell Beaker sample is closer overall to Mycenaeans, and much further from North Italy except that one sample.

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