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Thread: Warrior Genes

  1. #21
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    (irrelevant)
    Last edited by thejkhan; 01-10-2019 at 09:39 AM.

  2. #22
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    Quote Originally Posted by thejkhan View Post
    I am G/G at rs4680. Weird, I wouldn't even hurt a fly.

    23andme v5 does not test the other one.
    rs4680 is about the cool under stress.

    rs909525 is more about aggressiveness.

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  4. #23
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    Tracking its evolutionary history (it seems - according to researchers - it originated 25 million years ago among Old World monkeys), speaking of rs909525/MAOA 3 repeats.

    For males, a bit of aggression and risk-taking can earn rewards—just ask real-estate magnate Donald Trump. But inappropriate aggression can lead to violence, addiction, early death, and, the worst fate of all in evolutionary terms, no offspring. Now, researchers have found signs of this balancing act in the genes of our primate cousins. At the meeting, a team of geneticists traced one genetic variant, an allele that predisposes men to aggressive, impulsive, and even violent behavior, to chimpanzees, gorillas, and other primates. They conclude that this and similar variants arose at least 25 million years ago in a monkey ancestor.

    In order to be retained for so long, these variants must have conferred some selective advantage on the monkeys—and humans— who carried them, says author Tim Newman, a biological anthropologist at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) in Rockville, Maryland. What we see today as dangerously inappropriate behavior could be “simply out of context,” says Newman. “Bold, aggressive males might have been quicker to catch prey or detect threats.” Others agree: “If this [allele] has been around that long, then it must be maintained by balancing selection,” says biological anthropologist Henry Harpending of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City.

    The gene, found on the X chromosome, codes for an enzyme called monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), which breaks down several neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and serotonin, thus preventing excess neurotransmitters from interfering with communication among neurons. But the gene is polymorphic: A repeat sequence of 30 base pairs has been inserted from three to five times into the promoter region. Fewer repeats mean that less MAOA enzyme is produced and fewer neurotransmitters are removed.

    The MAOA gene’s effects have been linked to aggression. Lab mice that lack the enzyme are more aggressive, and one human family whose members do not produce the enzyme at all has been linked with violent behavior (Science, 18 June 1993, p. 1722). Men who carry the short allele, and so presumably produce a limited amount of enzyme, have been shown to be more likely to be aggressive, impulsive, and even violent if they were abused as children or drink alcohol.

    Men who had the short variant and were mistreated as boys were four times more likely than other men to have committed violent crimes such as rape, robbery, and assault, according to one study that tracked boys from birth in New Zealand (Science, 2 August 2002, p. 851). (Women also inherit the allele, but the effects are easier to study in men, who have only one X chromosome.) These findings intrigued psychiatrist Klaus-Peter Lesch of the University of Würzburg in Germany, who works with the NIAAA group. His team first found, in macaques, a similar 18-base-pair repeat that also modulates MAOA enzyme activity. And macaques with less enzyme were more aggressive than other macaques when competing for food, says Lesch.

    Newman then sampled all apes and many monkeys—almost 600 primates in all—and found the same 30-base-pair repeat seen in humans or the shorter 18-base-pair repeat, among other forms. He noted that apes and Old World (Asian and African) monkeys carried these alleles, whereas New World (South American) monkeys did not. That suggests that the allele arose after New World and Old World monkeys split, but before apes and Old World monkeys diverged about 25 million years ago.

    During those 25 million years, aggressive and risk-taking behavior must have had reproductive payoffs for some males, says Newman. But the gene didn’t sweep through populations, because if a male was too violent, he probably died before reproducing. Newman suggests that the MAOA gene may offer a rare example of so-called balancing selection, in which selection favors two or more forms of a gene and maintains all the forms in a population. “The human social environment required the development of all kinds of emotional and cognitive capabilities, and [it] demanded variation in impulsivity in humans,” agrees David Goldman, a member of the NIAAA team. “It’s what I call the warrior vs. the worrier.” In other words, primate politics has long favored more than one route to success.

    Chimpanzee gang warfare

    Primatologists have long known that chimpanzees can be demonic: Bands of males routinely head to the borders of their territory to seek, and sometimes destroy, foreign chimpanzees. But what triggers these patrols, and why do males of the troop— who compete fiercely with one another most of the time—seem to cooperate while on patrol? The answer, it seems, may be a mob mentality. In a study of a group of 150 chimpanzees at Ngogo in the Kibale National Park in Uganda, researchers found that chimpanzees went on patrol only after they had assembled enough members to have overwhelming force. Patrols require “safety in numbers” because attacking a foreign chimpanzee is dangerous, explains primatologist John Mitani of the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, co-author of the study with primatologist David Watts of Yale University. Once a patrol formed, its members exhibited frequent displays of male bonding. “Cooperation among males is rare among animals,” says Watts. “It is conspicuous that closely related chimpanzees and humans deindividualize to engage in this coalitional aggression against outsiders.”
    http://www.unil.ch/files/live/sites/..._gene_2004.pdf

    According to a study, people with the warrior gene would be better at risky decisions:

    People with 'warrior gene' better at risky decisions

    It's been called the "warrior gene" – a mutation that seems to make people more aggressive. Now researchers report that people with this gene may not be aggressive, just better at spotting their own interests.

    Previous research has found that people with MAOA-L, a gene that controls signalling chemicals in the brain, can be more aggressive. But there is enormous controversy about this, as the gene's effects seem to vary with people's backgrounds.

    Cary Frydman and colleagues at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena have now found that people with MAOA-L "just make better choices", says Frydman. "This isn't the same as aggression."

    Raising the stakes

    Variants of the gene MAOA produce less or more of an enzyme that degrades several signalling chemicals, known as neurotransmitters. People with MAOA-L, which results in less of the enzyme, sometimes show more aggression or impulsivity – but not always.

    To try to dissect these differences, Frydman gave 83 male volunteers 140 hypothetical choices. With 3 minutes for each choice, the men had to decide whether they preferred a sure thing, say being given $2, or a risky option, for example a 50:50 chance of gaining $10 or losing $5.

    Previous research has shown that these choices can be used to reveal each person's overall aversion to risk. The team found this did not differ in people with or without MAOA-L.

    But the calculation also allowed them to look at how often each person took the risky option that would also do them the most good. At every level of risk aversion among the participants, "the MAOA-L carriers were better at choosing what – for them – was the more beneficial option".

    The results are consistent with previous research, says Frydman, but his team could distinguish for the first time between the two components of each decision: deciding how much each option was worth , then comparing them. The MAOA-L carriers were better at the second part.

    Pay attention

    This edge may look like aggression or impulsivity in some situations, but may simply reflect more focused attention, thinks Frydman. "If two gamblers are counting cards, and one is making a lot of bets, it may look like he's more aggressive or impulsive. But you don't know what cards he's counting – he may just be responding to good opportunities."

    "Previous studies that have associated MAOA-L with aggression or impulsivity might have to be interpreted carefully," says Antonio Rangel, who heads the lab where Frydman works. "The key question is whether, in the context of the lives of the subjects, these decisions were optimal or not."

    In a study published last year Dominic Johnson of the University of Edinburgh, UK, found that MAOA-L carriers were more aggressive, but only after a large provocation and without apparent impulsiveness. "That could be explained by this new work," he says, because his subjects seemed to be acting in strategic self-interest, the very thing Frydman's MAOA-L carriers were good at. This also suggests how such behaviour – and the gene that shapes it – could be selected by evolution.

    The implications go beyond the so-called "warrior gene". As gene sequencing gets cheaper, says Frydman, there will be more efforts to link genes to behaviour. To do that accurately, researchers will need to define the components of behaviour as carefully as they do the DNA. Journal reference: Proceedings of the Royal Society B, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2010.2304
    http://www.newscientist.com/article/...l#.VWRVOs9Viko
    Last edited by Piquerobi; 01-10-2019 at 09:50 AM.

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  6. #24
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    For appointment to the post of Bodyguards of President of India , Indian govt. allows only Jaats , Jatt Sikhs & Rajput to apply for..Recently a Yadav guy took this matter in High court seeking to quash this rule & open the field for all who fulfill all other eligibities..

    May be he needs to be redirected at AG , collect samples & see whether the others are warrior or worrier ?

  7. #25
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    Quote Originally Posted by Agent_Vinod View Post
    For appointment to the post of Bodyguards of President of India , Indian govt. allows only Jaats , Jatt Sikhs & Rajput to apply for..Recently a Yadav guy took this matter in High court seeking to quash this rule & open the field for all who fulfill all other eligibities..

    May be he needs to be redirected at AG , collect samples & see whether the others are warrior or worrier ?
    Time for real life Gattaca.


  8. #26
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    Quote Originally Posted by Agent_Vinod View Post
    For appointment to the post of Bodyguards of President of India , Indian govt. allows only Jaats , Jatt Sikhs & Rajput to apply for..Recently a Yadav guy took this matter in High court seeking to quash this rule & open the field for all who fulfill all other eligibities..

    May be he needs to be redirected at AG , collect samples & see whether the others are warrior or worrier ?
    Lmao. That's the dumbest rule ever.

    How's that even legal? Can you imagine a similar policy in the US? "Only blacks and whites can enroll in the Secret Service". No wonder India is a shithole
    "He who fights with monsters should be careful lest he thereby become a monster. And if thou gaze long into an abyss, the abyss will also gaze into thee"

    - Nietzsche

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  10. #27
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    How do I find out if I have it?

    I'm pretty sure I'm a worrier though lol

  11. #28
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    Quote Originally Posted by bored View Post
    Lmao. That's the dumbest rule ever.

    How's that even legal? Can you imagine a similar policy in the US? "Only blacks and whites can enroll in the Secret Service". No wonder India is a shithole
    Running from colonial time..there are many rotten colonial laws still running..noone paid any heed to change that..
    First guy in photo from president guards is a Hindu Jat, second a Sikh Jatt..mIMG-20190110-WA0009.jpg

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  13. #29
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    Quote Originally Posted by Agent_Vinod View Post
    For appointment to the post of Bodyguards of President of India , Indian govt. allows only Jaats , Jatt Sikhs & Rajput to apply for..Recently a Yadav guy took this matter in High court seeking to quash this rule & open the field for all who fulfill all other eligibities..

    May be he needs to be redirected at AG , collect samples & see whether the others are warrior or worrier ?
    That's messed up

  14. #30
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    Quote Originally Posted by bored View Post
    Lmao. That's the dumbest rule ever.

    How's that even legal?
    This rule was imposed by British which , post-'47 , was preferred not to be tampered with by establishment..Contemporary , real security is provided by other agencies now ; these guards are just nominal..

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