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Thread: Genetic history of South-East Asia / Sundaland

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    Genetic history of South-East Asia / Sundaland

    How South-East Asians emerged from a mixture of five or six prehistoric groups:

    Group 1. Hunter-gatherers of Hoà Bình culture from Laos (sample La368, ca. 6000 BC) and Malaysia (Ma911, ca. 4500 BC) were related to modern Negritos such as Onge and Semang, as well as to tribes from South Asia such as Pahari and Spiti, and also to Papuans and Aborigines. However - unlike Papuans and Aborigines - the rest of mentioned populations (including prehistoric samples La368 and Ma911) - did not have any significant amounts of Denisovan admixture, which indicates that ancestors of Papuans and Aborigines mixed with Denisovans only AFTER they split from ancestors of Negritos. One exception are Filipinos of Mamanwa ethnic group, who do have Denisovan admixture and they can be modeled as a mixture of Austronesians with a population similar to Papuans.

    Hunter-gatherer from Laos had Y-DNA haplogroup C and mtDNA M5.
    Hunter-gatherer from Malaysia had Y-DNA hg D and mtDNA M21b1a.

    Group 2. Around 2000 BC in ancient DNA from South-East Asia we observe a massive immigration of Neolithic Farmers, related most closely to modern Mlabri and Htin ethnic groups from the highlands of Thailand. This confirms early arrival of Austroasiatic-speakers to this area. These prehistoric farmers are also related to modern inhabitants of Java and Bali, and to Temuan people from the Malay Peninsula, which supports the hypothesis about the western expansion route of Austroasiatic-speakers from the Malay Peninsula to the Insular part of Malaysia, during times before the arrival of Austronesians.

    This confirms previous theories by linguists and archaeologists.

    These farmers belonged to Y-DNA haplogroups O1b and O2a.

    Samples from Group 2. have admixture from earlier hunter-gatherers (Group 1.), which indicates assimilation of hunter-gatherers by farmers.

    Samples from later times - late BC / early AD - indicate also the presence of additional East Asian admixture, which was not found in samples of earliest farmers from ca. 2000 BC. Among samples from the early Common Era, we can distinguish two groups - first (Group 3.) is related to modern Hmong and Dai ethnic groups of China, to Thais from Thiland and to Kinh from Vietnam. The second (Group 4.) is related to Austroasiatic Thais and to Chinese. Ancient DNA also shows that Austronesian-speakers arrived to Indonesia before year 100 BC (Group 5.) and to the Philippines before year 200 AD (Group 6. or 5b.).

    Group 3. are samples from Dong Son culture, considered Proto-Vietnamese.

    Semang (Jehai) Negritos can be modeled as a mixture of a population resembling modern Onge (Andamanese Negritos) and ancient hunter-gatherers from Laos (sample La368) with Neolithic farmers resembling Group 2. (sample Ma912). Ancient samples from Insular Indonesia (Group 5. - including sample In662) and Borneo (Group 6. - including Ma554) also have admixture from Group 2., as well as hunter-gatherer admixtures, but the latter are more similar to Papuans than to Onge - unlike in case of Mainland and Peninsular populations, where hunter-gatherer admixture is from Onge-like ancients and there is no Denisovan admixture. Original hunter-gatherers of Indo-China (Laos) and Malaysia, were genetically similar to AASI (Ancestral Ancient South Indians) and to modern Onge.

    Source, "Ancient Genomics Reveals Four Prehistoric Migration Waves into Southeast Asia":

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/278374v1

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    Quote Originally Posted by Tomenable View Post
    -snip-

    Samples from later times - late BC / early AD - indicate also the presence of additional East Asian admixture, which was not found in samples of earliest farmers from ca. 2000 BC. Among samples from the early Common Era, we can distinguish two groups - first (Group 3.) is related to modern Hmong and Dai ethnic groups of China, to Thais from Thiland and to Kinh from Vietnam. The second (Group 4.) is related to Austroasiatic Thais and to Chinese. Ancient DNA also shows that Austronesian-speakers arrived to Indonesia before year 100 BC (Group 5.) and to the Philippines before year 200 AD (Group 6. or 5b.).

    Source, "Ancient Genomics Reveals Four Prehistoric Migration Waves into Southeast Asia":

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/278374v1

    Not exactly. Group 4 actually clusters more with non-Sinitic Tibeto-Burman peoples like the Jinuo and Karen, as well as the Austroasiatic Mon of Thailand.

    Source: HUGO Pan-Asia SNP Consortium


    The Chinese samples form a line between Japanese + Korean on the right, and Zhuang + Hmong on the left.

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