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  1. #1
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    The Italian Peninsula through Ancient DNA

    This topic is all over the place, so I thought I would collect the relevant abstracts of papers to-be published here:

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    Steppe and Iranian ancestry among Bronze Age Central and Western Mediterranean populations - Ron Pinhasi, Daniel Fernandes, David Reich

    ABSTRACT: Steppe-related ancestry is known to have reached central Europe ca. 3000 BCE, while Iran-related ancestry reached Greece by 1500 BCE. However, the time course and extent of their spread into the central/western Mediterranean remains a mystery. We analysed 48 Neolithic and Bronze Age individuals from Sicily, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands aiming to investigate when and how continental European and Aegean influences affected these insular populations. Results show that the first Balearic settlers had substantial Steppe-related ancestry which was subsequently diluted by increasing proportions of farmer-related ancestry. In Sardinia, we identified the appearance of Iran-related ancestry from the Aegean as early as the Middle Bronze Age, with no genetic influences seen from populations carrying Steppe-related ancestry despite cultural or commercial exchanges with Bell Beaker populations. In Sicily, during the Bronze Age and possibly earlier, we found evidence for admixture with groups carrying both these ancestries. These results suggest that Steppe-related migrants had a crucial role in the settlement of the Balearic Islands and their ancestry reached as far south as Sicily, and that the population movements that brought Iran-related ancestry to the Aegean also impacted the Western Mediterranean around the same time the first civilizations started to develop.

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    A 12,000-year Genetic History of Rome and the Italian Peninsula - Hannah Moots

    Ancient DNA has become a powerful tool for studying the human past. This talk highlights our team’s multidisciplinary approach to analyzing new genomic evidence from Rome and the Italian Peninsula in the context of the extensive archaeological and historical record of the region. We have built a time series of 134 ancient genomes that spans the last 12,000 years, from the Upper Paleolithic to the present, allowing us to present a contextually-situated discussion of genomic changes through time. This approach allows us to study changes ranging from individual traits of interest, such as lactase persistence, to broad population-level shifts. We see evidence that as Rome grew from a small city to an empire encompassing the entirety of the Mediterranean - or Mare Nostrum, ‘our sea’, as the Romans called it - and beyond, the city of Rome became a mosaic of inhabitants from across the empire and remained so even after the fragmentation of the Western Roman Empire. I will illustrate these general trends with case studies, such as paleogenomic data from Isola Sacra, the necropolis for the port towns of Ostia and Portus, in which contextualizing archaeological and textual evidence have been instrumental in understanding the genetic structure of the Roman population in our study.

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    Investigating Sardinian population history with ancient DNA - J.H. Marcus

    The sequencing of ancient DNA (aDNA) has provided new understanding into human movement and demography for many regions around the globe. For mainland Europe, ancient DNA studies have revealed a dynamic history, with major inferred population influxes due to Neolithic and Bronze Age expansions. The population of the Mediterranean island of Sardinia has been notable in these studies–typically aDNA samples of the early Neolithic on mainland Europe cluster with modern Sardinian samples. The standing model is that Sardinia had a high influx of Neolithic ancestry followed by relative isolation from the mainland and subsequent Bronze Age expansions. To gain further insight, we analyze genome-wide capture data (~1.2 millions SNPs) of 26 ancient Sardinians spanning the Neolithic, Copper Age, and Bronze Age, including individuals from Sardinia's Nuragic culture. Merging this novel data with 998 previously studied aDNA samples from across Europe and throughout the last ten millennia, we are able to place the ancient Sardinian samples into the broader context of the peopling of Europe. We confirm that ancient Sardinian samples show a strong affinity to early Neolithic samples and a near complete absence of the “Steppe” ancestry associated with Bronze Age expansions on the mainland. Interestingly, we also detect elevated affinities with pre-Neolithic peoples of Europe. Moreover, we studied genetic change through time within Sardinia. To this end, we analyzed whole-genome sequence data from approximately 1,500 modern Sardinian individuals, densely sampled across much of the island. Using our ancient samples enables us to detect significant signs of recent admixture, in particular with a strong influence from the Mediterranean region. We also find that populations from the more isolated mountainous provinces of Sardinia are less admixed and have experienced high levels of genetic drift. Overall, our analysis allows us to shed new light on the intriguing history of the peopling of Sardinia.
    Last edited by R.Rocca; 02-09-2019 at 03:06 PM.
    Paternal: R1b-U152 >> L2 >> FGC10543, Pietro della Rocca, b. 1559, Agira, Sicily, Italy
    Maternal: H4a1-T152C!, Maria Coto, b. ~1864, Galicia, Spain
    Mother's Paternal: J1+ FGC4745/FGC4766+ PF5019+, Gerardo Caprio, b. 1879, Caposele, Avellino, Campania, Italy
    Father's Maternal: T2b-C150T, Francisca Santa Cruz, b.1916, Garganchon, Burgos, Spain
    Paternal Great (x3) Grandfather: R1b-U106 >> L48 >> CTS2509, Filippo Ensabella, b.~1836, Agira, Sicily, Italy

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  3. #2
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    And Ryukendo first hand summary of the Moots presentation:

    Presentation by Hannah Moots. No pictures, not allowed. Paper coming out in a couple of months, done with Pinhasi and Pritchard.
    134 genomes, spanning 12000s BP to Renaissance and enlightenment. 0.5-3.5X coverage. Vast majority of sampling sites concentrated in Rome and surrounds, lowlands of Latium around the Tiber River, up to Ostia, almost all restricted to Lazio. Some extend to Abruzzo, South Le Marche, none, or maybe one, in Tuscany, and on the South of Tuscany if that. Couple of samples from Sardinia. I'll give a PCA position and a ADMIXTURE description for each time period. Note that the ADMIXTURE only had Iranian, EEF, WHG, EHG and Levant_N, no CHG. Where Iran N appears, it may be a stand-in for CHG. There is something quite puzzling in the list below, mislabeling in the slides? But that doesn't explain it either.

    UPPER PALEOLITHIC
    All WHG

    NEOLITHIC
    Mostly EEF, some WHG. Some Iran_N, quite a significant quantity, as much as WHG. PCA position Between Sardinia and Maltese, east of Sardinia, closer to Sardinia than to Maltese. Very homogeneous.

    BRONZE AGE (EARLY)
    Overlaps modern-day Sardinia, Iran_N percentage declines, WHG and EEF increases
    (Note that this represents a Europeanisation of the gene pool!) Very homogeneous.

    IRON AGE TO REPUBLICAN PERIOD (700-20BC)
    Note: Separated from previous period by 1000 year gap.
    Fewer samples, of those that exist 60% overlap with North Italy, 40% overlap with South Italy and Sicily, centroid of overall cluster in central Italy but no samples occur there, very wide spread.
    EHG appears, Levant N Appears for the first time, sporadic and inhomogeneous distribution, Iran_N increases further.

    IMPERIAL PERIOD
    Dense cluster centroid between Greeks, Cypriots, South Italians/Sicilians, and Syrians, closest to Sicilians. Long tail stretching from central cluster to Syrians and Iraqi Jews. Couple of Northern-shifted samples overlapping N Italy, France, Spain.
    Iran_N increases further, Levant N again sporadic and inhomogeneous.

    LATE ANTIQUITY
    Tight cluster centroid in S Italy, in the same place as in the previous period. Southern tail to Middle East disappears. N Italian, Northern European and NW European outliers exist.

    AFTER
    Resemble modern central Italians.

    Lactase persistence alleles appear abruptly after 0 AD.

    Heterozygosity reaches modern level after Iron Age.

    No information given on uniparentals.
    Isotope information not available yet, no way apart from archaeological context to tell between migrants and locals.

    Represents a preliminary effort, more work coming later.
    Last edited by R.Rocca; 02-10-2019 at 01:53 PM.
    Paternal: R1b-U152 >> L2 >> FGC10543, Pietro della Rocca, b. 1559, Agira, Sicily, Italy
    Maternal: H4a1-T152C!, Maria Coto, b. ~1864, Galicia, Spain
    Mother's Paternal: J1+ FGC4745/FGC4766+ PF5019+, Gerardo Caprio, b. 1879, Caposele, Avellino, Campania, Italy
    Father's Maternal: T2b-C150T, Francisca Santa Cruz, b.1916, Garganchon, Burgos, Spain
    Paternal Great (x3) Grandfather: R1b-U106 >> L48 >> CTS2509, Filippo Ensabella, b.~1836, Agira, Sicily, Italy

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  5. #3
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    Quote Originally Posted by R.Rocca View Post
    And Ryukendo first hand summary of the Moots presentation:
    IRON AGE TO REPUBLICAN PERIOD (700-20BC)
    Note: Separated from previous period by 1000 year gap.
    Fewer samples, of those that exist 60% overlap with North Italy, 40% overlap with South Italy and Sicily, centroid of overall cluster in central Italy but no samples occur there, very wide spread.
    EHG appears, Levant N Appears for the first time, sporadic and inhomogeneous distribution, Iran_N increases further.
    So are we going to see any R1b-M269 or R1a-M417 in Rome in this period? Early? Late?
    Or will it be Y-J as in the Mycenaeans?

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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    So are we going to see any R1b-M269 or R1a-M417 in Rome in this period? Early? Late?
    Or will it be Y-J as in the Mycenaeans?
    Hopefully they got some samples from the early Latins that founded Rome. They likely did from the sounds of it. I will venture a guess that the early Latins and Romans were a mix of mainly J2, R1b, I2a, G2a and E1b1b. We shall see though.
    Last edited by J Man; 02-11-2019 at 05:28 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    So are we going to see any R1b-M269 or R1a-M417 in Rome in this period? Early? Late?
    Or will it be Y-J as in the Mycenaeans?
    I expect that those 60% N.Italian like Iron Age/Republican samples will be heavily R-M269>>R-U152. I don't think there will be much R1a even in the Imperial period outside of some outliers. During the Republic period I expect to see a lot of haplogroup J.
    Paternal: R1b-U152 >> L2 >> FGC10543, Pietro della Rocca, b. 1559, Agira, Sicily, Italy
    Maternal: H4a1-T152C!, Maria Coto, b. ~1864, Galicia, Spain
    Mother's Paternal: J1+ FGC4745/FGC4766+ PF5019+, Gerardo Caprio, b. 1879, Caposele, Avellino, Campania, Italy
    Father's Maternal: T2b-C150T, Francisca Santa Cruz, b.1916, Garganchon, Burgos, Spain
    Paternal Great (x3) Grandfather: R1b-U106 >> L48 >> CTS2509, Filippo Ensabella, b.~1836, Agira, Sicily, Italy

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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    So are we going to see any R1b-M269 or R1a-M417 in Rome in this period? Early? Late?
    Or will it be Y-J as in the Mycenaeans?
    Wasn't there already R-P312 and E-V13 plotting in Magna Graecia from the Lombard paper awhile back? Although I guess this is post-Imperial, their genetics are certainly not north European per-se. Also, there was a R1b-M269+(L23*) who plotted with Anatolians in the same paper I believe.
    YDNA: R1b-Z220 (A7066+) (1800's Stepney, London(Bethnal Green), UK George Wood b. 1782
    maternal-grandfather YDNA: prob. I1 Gurr, George 1843, Feversham, Kent, England.
    maternal-grandmother YDNA: R1b-P311+ Beech, John Richard b. 1780, Lewes, England
    maternal-ggrandfather YDNA R1b-U106 Thomas, Edward b 1854, Sittingbourne, Kent
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-L48. Gould, John Somerset England 1800s.
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-L48. Scott, William Hamilton mdka Ireland(?) < 1800s

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    Quote Originally Posted by ADW_1981 View Post
    Wasn't there already R-P312 and E-V13 plotting in Magna Graecia from the Lombard paper awhile back? Although I guess this is post-Imperial, their genetics are certainly not north European per-se. Also, there was a R1b-M269+(L23*) who plotted with Anatolians in the same paper I believe.
    The autosomal variability was already all over the place in Bell Beaker samples from the Italian peninsula and Sicily. Fast forward to the Lombard period roughly 2500 years later and individual samples will plot even more erratically.
    Paternal: R1b-U152 >> L2 >> FGC10543, Pietro della Rocca, b. 1559, Agira, Sicily, Italy
    Maternal: H4a1-T152C!, Maria Coto, b. ~1864, Galicia, Spain
    Mother's Paternal: J1+ FGC4745/FGC4766+ PF5019+, Gerardo Caprio, b. 1879, Caposele, Avellino, Campania, Italy
    Father's Maternal: T2b-C150T, Francisca Santa Cruz, b.1916, Garganchon, Burgos, Spain
    Paternal Great (x3) Grandfather: R1b-U106 >> L48 >> CTS2509, Filippo Ensabella, b.~1836, Agira, Sicily, Italy

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    Quote Originally Posted by R.Rocca View Post
    The autosomal variability was already all over the place in Bell Beaker samples from the Italian peninsula and Sicily. Fast forward to the Lombard period roughly 2500 years later and individual samples will plot even more erratically.
    This was posted yesterday by Fabrizio Castellani on the G-L497 activity feed at FTDNA:

    Extraordinary discovery at Nogarole Rocca (VERONA)
    Found the largest necropolis in Italy.
    The most important necropolis in northern Italy, probably used without interruption between the Campaniforme age, from 2500 to 2200 BC, and the Bronze Age, from 2200 to 1600 BC, was discovered at Nogarole Rocca. For almost a thousand years the deceased of the community that lived in this territory, rich in waterways and resources, were buried in the remnant of the countryside now bounded between the motorway tollgate and the vast area under construction.
    The necropolis proved to be one of the richest ever discovered in northern Italy between the 3rd and 2nd millennium BC, starting from the Campaniforme age, which takes its name from inverted bell-shaped ceramic cups and vases, typical artifacts of the epochs, widespread throughout Europe, from Italy to the Iberian peninsula, from Ireland to Great Britain, from Germany to Austria

    His source is in Italian, and comes with distracting advertisements. But it's a start, for those of you with fluency in that. I just picked up on "Rocca" and "Campaniforme," and thought Rich might want to play with it some before tossing it out to the Bell Beaker shark tank. Nothing yet about ancient DNA there.

    http://www.larena.it/territori/villa...alia-1.7120465

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    A short question. How big impact did the Germanic and Vandal invaders have in late antique? And early Medieval times?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Nino90 View Post
    A short question. How big impact did the Germanic and Vandal invaders have in late antique? And early Medieval times?
    We know that during Late Antiquity the Romans all densely clustered with South Italians. After this, they all appear to densely cluster with Central Italians. This would indicate that the northern invasions had quite a significant impact.

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