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Thread: Ancient DNA reveals two paternal lineages C2a1a1b1a/F3830 and C2b1b/F845 in past noma

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    Ancient DNA reveals two paternal lineages C2a1a1b1a/F3830 and C2b1b/F845 in past noma

    Objectives
    Since the third century CE, a series of nomadic tribes have been active on the eastern part of the Mongolian Plateau. Characterizing the genetic compositions of past nomadic people is significant for research on the nomadic cultures of the Eurasian Steppe region. Ancient DNA analysis facilitates a deeper understanding of the relationship between historical and modern nomadic populations.
    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/...002/ajpa.24076
    Materials and methods
    Whole‐genome shotgun sequencing and capture sequencing of the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome were performed for six ancient Hg C2/M217 individuals. The individuals were interred at six separate sites on the Mongolian Plateau and represent dates spanning the late Neolithic to Yuan Dynasty (~3,500–700 BP).

    Results
    After NRY capture sequencing, three of the six ancient samples were attributed to C2b1b/F845 and the other three ancient samples belonged to C2a1a1b1a/F3830. Analysis of whole‐genome shotgun sequencing data shows that the ancient C2b1b/F845 individuals are closely related to She, Han and other East Asian populations, while the ancient C2a1a1b1a/F3830 individuals are more similar to modern Northeast Asian peoples, such as the Ulchi and Yakut.

    Discussion
    Hg C2/M217, widely distributed in the eastern part of the Eurasian continent, was discovered in the ancient Central Steppe and Baikal region. This study shows that there were two important subclades of Hg C2/M217 among the ancient nomadic peoples: C2a1a1b1a/F3830, which has made important genetic contributions to modern Mongolic‐ and Manchu‐speaking populations, and C2b1b/F845, which probably originated in the farming populations of southern East Asia and made certain genetic contributions to past nomadic peoples on the Mongolian Plateau.

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    Specimen TL1, attributed to the Rouran of ~1,400 ybp, obtained from the Khermen Tal site in Ogiinuur (i.e. Ögii Lake) Sum, Arkhangai Province, Mongolia: Y-DNA belongs to C-F3830 (closely related to the Y-DNA of a pair of present-day Buryat and a Yugur). MtDNA belongs to D4b1a2a. Autosomal profile is similar to that of present-day Yakut (and, presumably, present-day Mongols in the area where the specimen has been discovered) -- mainly "North Asian/Siberian" (maximized in Koryak, Itelmen, and Nganasan) with a significant contribution from a "Southern East Asian" component (maximized in Dai) and 10% to 20% Western Eurasian admixture.

    Specimen ZHS5, attributed to the Xianbei of ~1,400 ybp, obtained from the Zaan Khoshuu site in Dashinchilen Sum, Bulgan Province, Mongolia: Y-DNA belongs to C-F3830 (possibly very slightly basal to a clade subsuming the Y-DNA of the aforementioned Specimen TL1, Buryats, and Yugur). MtDNA belongs to C4a2a1. Autosomal profile is similar to that of Specimen TL1 and present-day Yakut, though with possibly slightly less and somewhat different sources of Western Eurasian admixture.

    Specimen GG3, attributed to the Shiwei of ~1,200 ybp, obtained from the Gangga site near the Hailar River in Old Barag Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia: Y-DNA belongs to C-F3830 (slightly basal to a clade subsuming the Y-DNA of all aforementioned members of C-F3830 plus a Mongol and a Kazakh; a different branch of C-F3830 is represented by the Y-DNA of an Altaian and a pair of Hui). MtDNA belongs to F1b. Autosomal profile is similar to those of Specimen TL1, Specimen ZHS5, and present-day Yakut, but with probably only about 10% Western Eurasian admixture (even less than ZHS5, though maybe with a more typical source or sources of admixture) and a slightly greater proportion of the "Southern East Asian" (Dai-like) component.

    Specimen QL11, attributed to the Tuoba Xianbei of the fourth–fifth century CE, obtained from the Qilangshan site located in Chahar Right Middle Banner, Ulanchab City, Inner Mongolia. Y-DNA belongs to C-F845 (slightly basal to a clade subsuming the Y-DNA of NA19079 from Tokyo, Specimen YK15, HG02141 from Ho Chi Minh City, a Buryat, and Han22171 from Anhui). MtDNA belongs to G1a1. Autosomal profile is similar to present-day Miao, She, and certain Han individuals, being analyzed as consisting mainly of a "Southern East Asian" (Dai-like) component, with a small (<10%) contribution from a "North Asian/Siberian" (Chukotko-Kamchatkan/Nganasan-like) component.

    Specimen YK15, attributed to Mongols of the Yuan Dynasty of ~700 ybp, obtained from the Yikeshu site located northwest of ancient Shangdu (Xanadu) City in Zhenglan Banner, Xilingol League, Inner Mongolia. Y-DNA belongs to C-F845. MtDNA belongs to G1a1. Autosomal profile is similar to that of Specimen QL11, but with the addition of a small (<10%) Western Eurasian component.

    Specimen ZK3022, a specimen obtained from the Neolithic site of Zhukaigou (approximately 4,200–3,500 ybp), located on the eastern part of the Ordos Plateau in what is now Ejin Horo Banner, Ordos City, Inner Mongolia. Y-DNA has been positioned as the most basal member of C-F845 analyzed in this study. MtDNA belongs to R. Results of autosomal analysis not provided.

    Dating and ethnic attribution of the specimens is as provided by the authors of the present study.

    The results for Specimen QL11 and Specimen YK15 are really quite curious. These are individuals whose burials have been associated with the historical Mongols proper (YK15) or with a population that is often considered to be a branch of proto-Mongols who invaded (and founded a kingdom that eventually unified) northern China during the era of the Sixteen Kingdoms of the Five Barbarians (QL11). Like the Y-DNA of a majority of present-day Mongols in Outer Mongolia, their Y-DNA belongs to haplogroup C-M217. However, these historical Inner Mongolians and the majority of present-day Outer Mongolians belong to different primary subclades of C-M217, subclades whose TMRCA is estimated by YFull to be 34,000 [95% CI 31,200 <-> 36,900] ybp. The tested historical Outer Mongolians (Specimen TL1 and Specimen ZHS5) as well as the single tested historical proto-Mongol (Shiwei) from the Hulunbuir region (Specimen GG3) belong to the same primary subclade of C-M217 as the majority of present-day Outer Mongolians, and they all exhibit a similar, Siberian-like autosomal profile. However, the historical Inner Mongolian specimens exhibit a Southern Chinese- or Hmong-Mien-like autosomal profile, even more "southern" (Dai-like) than the average of present-day Han Chinese, despite being associated with Mongol or proto-Mongol cultures and belonging to Y-DNA haplogroup C-M217 like most present-day Mongols.

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