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Thread: Late Pleistocene DNA suggests a local origin for the first farmers of centr. Anatolia

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    Late Pleistocene DNA suggests a local origin for the first farmers of centr. Anatolia

    https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_relea...-faf031419.php

    First Anatolian farmers were local hunter-gatherers that adopted agriculture

    The first farmers from Anatolia, who brought farming to Europe and represent the single largest ancestral component in modern-day Europeans, are directly descended from local hunter-gatherers who adopted a farming way of life

    Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History


    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09209-7

    Article | Open | Published: 19 March 2019

    Late Pleistocene human genome suggests a local origin for the first farmers of central Anatolia

    Michal Feldman, Eva Fernández-Domínguez, Luke Reynolds, Douglas Baird, Jessica Pearson, Israel Hershkovitz, Hila May, Nigel Goring-Morris, Marion Benz, Julia Gresky, Raffaela A. Bianco, Andrew Fairbairn, Gökhan Mustafaoğlu, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Cosimo Posth, Wolfgang Haak, Choongwon Jeong & Johannes Krause

    Nature Communicationsvolume 10, Article number: 1218 (2019)

    Abstract

    Anatolia was home to some of the earliest farming communities. It has been long debated whether a migration of farming groups introduced agriculture to central Anatolia. Here, we report the first genome-wide data from a 15,000-year-old Anatolian hunter-gatherer and from seven Anatolian and Levantine early farmers. We find high genetic continuity (~80–90%) between the hunter-gatherers and early farmers of Anatolia and detect two distinct incoming ancestries: an early Iranian/Caucasus related one and a later one linked to the ancient Levant. Finally, we observe a genetic link between southern Europe and the Near East predating 15,000 years ago. Our results suggest a limited role of human migration in the emergence of agriculture in central Anatolia.

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    Among the Later European HG, recently reported Mesolithic hunter-gatherers from the Balkan peninsula, which geographically connects Anatolia and central Europe (“Iron Gates HG”), show the highest genetic affinity to AHG and the second highest one to Natufians, as shown in the positive statistic D(Iron_Gates_HG, European hunter-gatherers; AHG/Natufian, Mbuti). This affinity is surprising considering that Iron Gates HG have been previously modeled as a mixture of WHG (~85%) and eastern European hunter gatherers (EHG; ~15%)18, the latter of which shares a much lower affinity with ancient Near Easterners in respect to other European HG (Fig. 3a). Since the previously reported WHG and EHG model did not fit well (χ2p = 0.0003) and since Iron Gates HG harbored Near-Eastern-like mitochondrial groups, an affinity with Anatolians beyond the WHG + EHG model has been hypothesized. Accordingly, we find that Iron Gates HG can be modeled as a three-way mixture of Near-Eastern hunter-gatherers (25.8 ± 5.0 % AHG or 11.1 ± 2.2 % Natufian), WHG (62.9 ± 7.4% or 78.0 ± 4.6%, respectively) and EHG (11.3 ± 3.3% or 10.9 ± 3%, respectively)
    However:

    In turn, the Iron Gates HG could be modeled without any Basal Eurasian ancestry or with a non-significant proportion of 1.6 ± 2.8% when forced to have it as a third source (Fig. 3b and Supplementary Table 10). In contrast to the above direct estimate, the three-way admixture model of WHG + EHG + AHG predicts α = 6.4 ± 1.9% for Iron Gates, calculated as (% AHG in Iron Gates HG) × (α in AHG), suggesting that unidirectional gene flow from the Near East to Europe alone may not be sufficient to explain the excess affinity between the Iron Gates HG and the Near-Eastern hunter-gatherers. Thus, it is plausible to assume that prior to 15,000 years ago there was either a bidirectional gene flow between populations ancestral to Southeastern Europeans of the early Holocene and those ancestral to Anatolians of the Late Glacial or a genetic influx from the populations ancestral to Southeastern Europeans into the Near East.
    Epigravettian expansion into MENA? I just speculated here and here about how IMO this is much more likely than geneflow in the opposite direction. Could the onset of LGM ~26kya have driven Epigravettians to more temperate hunting grounds?

    To those versed in the archaeology... are there any links between Epigravettian and Kebaran? The lack of Euro HG y-dna in Natufians could be explained by a reflux of Basal Eurasian-related people from North Africa back into the Levant (as reported in the Taforalt paper) between Kebaran and Natufian...

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    We find an adequate two-way admixture model (χ2p = 0.158), in which AHG derives around half of his ancestry from a Neolithic Levantine-related gene pool (48.0 ± 4.5%; estimate ± 1 SE) and the rest from the WHG-related one (Supplementary Tables 4, 5). While these results do not suggest that the AHG gene pool originated as a mixture of Levant_N and WHG, both of which lived millennia later than AHG, it still robustly supports that AHG is genetically intermediate between WHG and Levant_N. This cannot be explained without gene flow between the ancestral gene pools of those three groups. This supports a late Pleistocene presence of both Near-Eastern and European hunter-gatherer-related ancestries in central Anatolia. Notably, this genetic link with the Levant pre-dates the advent of farming in this region by at least five millennia.
    Pretty much what i claimed on the CHL Levant paper. The Levant was dominated by an Anatolian-like (AHG without WHG) people before the arrival of the Mushabians. Levant_CHL were a remnant from this people rather than a later migration from Anatolia.

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    Who would have guessed?

    The first farmers from Anatolia, who brought farming to Europe and represent the single largest ancestral component in modern-day Europeans, are directly descended from local hunter-gatherers who adopted a farming way of life
    https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_relea...-faf031419.php
    Last edited by Piquerobi; 03-19-2019 at 07:11 PM.

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    The results reinforce the assumption that the Anatolian Farmers were chiefly a mixture between a Dzudzuana-like and an Iron Gates HG-like source. Unsurprisingly, the Anatolian HG seems to be somewhat closer to Boncuklu than to Barcin.
    Last edited by Agamemnon; 03-19-2019 at 08:31 PM.
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    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


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    No mtDNA H haplotypes. Anatolia and Levant have not yielded as much mtDNA H as was previously foreseen.

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    I'm not surprised.

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    ''Accordingly, we find that Iron Gates HG can be modeled as a three-way mixture of Near-Eastern hunter-gatherers (25.8 ± 5.0 % AHG or 11.1 ± 2.2 % Natufian), WHG (62.9 ± 7.4% or 78.0 ± 4.6%, respectively) and EHG (11.3 ± 3.3% or 10.9 ± 3%''

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    Z-scores aren't significant for Onge, New Guinea, Bantu or Wambo.
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    Last edited by IronHorse; 03-19-2019 at 10:31 PM.
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    The press release on the Max Planck Institute website:
    First Anatolian farmers were local hunter-gatherers that adopted agriculture
    The first farmers from Anatolia, who brought farming to Europe and represent the single largest ancestral component in modern-day Europeans, are directly descended from local hunter-gatherers who adopted a farming way of life.
    YFull: YF14620 (Dante Labs 2018)

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