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Thread: Late Neolithic Mass Grave: Unravelling the genetics of a Massacre

  1. #21
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    Quote Originally Posted by artemv View Post
    By the way, I remember that they could understand that LBK victims got killed by the typical LBK stone tools, this time they do not provide detailed information about sort of weapon used to kill them. Was it typical to Yamnaya/CWC, or maybe to GAC or contemporary Baden culture?
    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...lysis/download

    The fractures were diversified in their forms, but the majority of the injuries appear to have been inflicted by a flint axe, which is frequently found in graves of the Globular Amphora Culture.
    (Quoted from abstract *before* I am going to read it ;)


    EDIT:

    The shape of the cross-section of the Globular Amphora Culture axe or chisel corresponds to the shape of rectangular openings found in the skulls of adolescents No. 4 and 9 (type I). (Fig. 9). Most likely, the close reproduction of the tool shape in these cases resulted from low hardness and possibly elasticity of the cranial bones
    Last edited by epoch; 05-08-2019 at 02:20 PM.

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  3. #22
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    The fractures were diversified in their forms, but the majority of the injuries appear to have been inflicted by a flint axe, which is frequently found in graves of the Globular Amphora Culture.
    Thank you for this qoute.
    It looks like this sort of intergroup violence was a "tradition" for a few millenia, since LBK times.
    And in a published aDNA article, after peer-review they still write about "it is possible that it was connected with the expansion of Corded Ware groups"!

    P.S. I wonder if it is possible to find out which one flint axe was used for murder.

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  5. #23
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    A bit more about this article:
    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...lysis/download

    Inside we can find information that is quite defferent from what we might think after reading only abstract.
    The most likely tool to be used by the peoples of the Globular Amphora Culture seems to be a flint axe.
    So, they only analyzed GAC tools, and did not compare if the skulls were damaged by GAC or CWC tools.
    It is not ruled out that they might be killed by CWC people.

    However, interesting information in this respect was provided by skull No. 14. Finding within the skull a single charred fragment side by side with others, showing no thermal changes, indicates that only this fragment was exposed to fire. This in turn suggests that in the period between inflicting the blows and burying the body, the fragment must have been completely detached from the remaining parts of the head and exposed to fire. Such a large fragment could not possibly have fallen out in consequence of a blow to the head.
    This implies that bone fragments were intentionally removed following the administration of a blow to the head and, most likely, the dissection of the epicranium. In such a situation, blows to the head from several directions might have aimed at “splitting” the skulls, possibly to gain access to their interior.
    Here are the conclusions about what has happened:
    The first possible scenario is that the individuals buried in grave No. 523 were killed by their kinsmen or by strangers, who thus fulfilled a ritual act that reflected the beliefs of their community. Alternatively, one might consider a possibility that the majority of the individuals buried in the grave were killed in a rite associated with the burial of a single person.
    The latter hypothesis assumes that delivering blows to the head, most likely associated with opening the skulls, occurred after death, which might have resulted from natural causes. Possibly, in this way, a specific burial-associated rite was performed.

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  7. #24
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    Thanks for the fascinating discussion. I wonder whether the type of weapon used would tell us anything that wasn't open to doubt. For a killer from a bronze-using society, a captured flint weapon might be grabbed in the moment as fit for purpose, and what could be more humiliating?
    Likewise, a bronze weapon could potentially be a bartered (or again captured) and prized status symbol in a flint society.
    (Edited for additional thought).
    Last edited by JonikW; 05-08-2019 at 09:42 PM.
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    It seems like the archeologists don't know what really happened, and interpret the forensic results based on the archeological fashion of the time.

    Anti-migration interpretation in the earlier paper > Pro-Migration in the current one.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Generalissimo View Post
    It seems like the archeologists don't know what really happened, and interpret the forensic results based on the archeological fashion of the time.

    Anti-migration interpretation in the earlier paper > Pro-Migration in the current one.
    But surely even dyed in the blood anti-migration archaeologists were aware corded ware folk were in the vicinity even if they would probably insisted on categorizing their culture as learnt rather than inherited ?

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  13. #27
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    Quote Originally Posted by jdean View Post
    But surely even dyed in the blood anti-migration archaeologists were aware corded ware folk were in the vicinity even if they would probably insisted on categorizing their culture as learnt rather than inherited ?
    I'm not sure if there's any evidence that Corded Ware folk were in the vicinity, or at least in the immediate vicinity. Actually, for me what is obviously missing in the new paper are Corded Ware samples from Koszyce or surrounds. They would've really strengthened the authors' narrative I think.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Generalissimo View Post
    I'm not sure if there's any evidence that Corded Ware folk were in the vicinity, or at least in the immediate vicinity. Actually, for me what is obviously missing in the new paper are Corded Ware samples from Koszyce or surrounds. They would've really strengthened the authors' narrative I think.
    So probably an example of neolithic Europe not exactly being all sweetness and light ?

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    Quote Originally Posted by jdean View Post
    So probably an example of neolithic Europe not exactly being all sweetness and light ?
    And it's not the first. The LBK death pits from Germany come to mind.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Generalissimo View Post
    I'm not sure if there's any evidence that Corded Ware folk were in the vicinity, or at least in the immediate vicinity. Actually, for me what is obviously missing in the new paper are Corded Ware samples from Koszyce or surrounds. They would've really strengthened the authors' narrative I think.
    they existed right there in vicinity


    2800-2400 _barrows and all the rest
    (incl battle axes/at least since 2600 slaza types and squat type H)
    Last edited by alexfritz; 05-09-2019 at 01:39 AM.
    Geno2.0NG 51%SEurope 19%WCEurope 13%Scandinavia 5%AsiaMinor 4%EEurope 4%GB&Ireland 3%Arabia myOrigins 52%WCEurope 40%SEEurope 5%BritishIsles 3%WMiddleEast DNA.Land 49%NWEuropean 27%SEuropean 13%MedIslander 11%Sardinian myHeritage 51.8%NWEuropean 33.2%Italian 7.9%Greek&SouthItalian 7.1%Balkan gencove 29%NItaly 19%EMed 15%NBritishIsles 12%SWEurope 10%NCEurope 9%Scandinavia 6%NEEurope GenePlazaK29 54.4%NWEurope 37.6%Greek/Albania 5.6%WAsian 2.4%SWAsia

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