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Thread: Ancient DNA sheds light on the genetic origins of early Iron Age Philistines

  1. #1
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    Ancient DNA sheds light on the genetic origins of early Iron Age Philistines





    The ancient Mediterranean port city of Ashkelon, identified as “Philistine” during the Iron Age, underwent a marked
    cultural change between the Late Bronze and the early Iron Age. It has been long debated whether this change
    was driven by a substantial movement of people, possibly linked to a larger migration of the so-called “Sea Peoples.”
    Here, we report genome-wide data of 10 Bronze and Iron Age individuals from Ashkelon. We find that the early
    Iron Age population was genetically distinct due to a European-related admixture. This genetic signal is no longer
    detectible in the later Iron Age population. Our results support that a migration event occurred during the Bronze
    to Iron Age transition in Ashkelon but did not leave a long-lasting genetic signature.

    [...]

    "Genetic discontinuity between the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age people of Ashkelon In comparison to ASH_LBA, the four ASH_IA1 individuals from the following Iron Age I period are, on average, shifted along PC1 toward the European cline and are more spread out along PC1, overlapping with ASH_LBA on one extreme and with the Greek Late Bronze Age “S_Greece_LBA” (25) on the other (Fig. 2A). Similarly, genetic clustering assigns ASH_IA1 with an average of 14% contribution from a cluster maximized in the Mesolithic European hunter-gatherers labeled “WHG” (shown in blue in Fig. 2B ) (15, 22, 26). This component is inferred only in small proportions in earlier Bronze Age Levantine populations (2 to 9%). In light of these observations, we formally tested the variation within each of the three Ashkelon populations by computing the variance of the square rooted statistic f4 (Ashkelon individual 1, Ashkelon individual 2; test, Mbuti) (fig. S8). Consistent with the wide spread of ASH_IA1 in the west Eurasian PCA, the variance is significantly higher in ASH_IA1 than in either ASH_LBA or ASH_IA2 (P < 2.2 × 10−16 for both by a Fligner-Killeen test) (table S4 and fig. S8), suggesting that the ASH_IA1 individuals were more heterogeneous in their genetic affinities to global populations inrespect to both ASH_LBA and ASH_IA2."

    [...]

    The transient impact of the “European-related” gene flow on the Ashkelon gene pool
    "The ASH_IA2 individuals are intermediate along PC1 between the ASH_LBA ones and the earlier Bronze Age Levantines (Jordan_EBA/Lebanon_MBA) in the west Eurasian PCA (Fig. 2A). Notably, despite being chronologically closer to ASH_IA1, the ASH_IA2 individuals position closer, on average, to the earlier Bronze Age individuals. Such a reduced affinity to the European populations is also apparent in the genetic clustering results, showing that the European hunter-gatherer–related ancestry contributes considerably less to ASH_IA2 than to ASH_IA1 (8 and 14%, respectively; Fig. 2B ). To test for differences in affinities between ASH_IA2 and ASH_IA1, we measured the f4-statistic of the form f4 (ASH_IA2, ASH_IA1; test, Mbuti). This statistic produced no significantly positive results, and all significantly negative statistics (Z ≤ −3) are with test populations from either Europe or Anatolia (fig. S10). This, again, highlights the increased European-related affinity of ASH_IA1.

    The transient excess of European-related genetic affinity in ASH_IA1 can be explained by two scenarios. The early Iron Age European related genetic component could have been diluted by either the local Ashkelon population to the undetectable level at the time of the later Iron Age individuals or by a gene flow from a population outside of Ashkelon introduced during the final stages of the early Iron Age or the beginning of the later Iron Age. Considering the symmetry measured between ASH_IA2 and ASH_LBA in the f4-statistic of the form f4 (ASH_IA2, ASH_LBA; test, Mbuti) (|Z| < 2.8; fig. S11), the replacing population is likely to have stemmed from the Late Bronze Age Levantine gene pool, whether or not from Ashkelon. By modeling ASH_IA2 as a mixture of ASH_IA1 and earlier Bronze Age Levantines/Late Period Egyptian, we infer a range of 7 to 38% of contribution from ASH_IA1, although no contribution cannot be rejected because of the limited resolution to differentiate between Bronze Age and early Iron Age ancestries in this model (table S8)."


     




    "By investigating genome-wide data from Ashkelon, we address longpending historical questions regarding the demographic developments underlying the Late Bronze Age to Iron Age cultural transformation. On a larger regional scale, these data begin to fill a temporal gap in the genetic map of the southern Levant, revealing persistence of the local Levantine gene pool throughout the Bronze Age for over a millennium. At the same time, by the “zoomed-in” comparative analysis of the Ashkelon genetic time transect, we find that the unique cultural features in the early Iron Age are mirrored by the distinct genetic composition we detect in ASH_IA1. Our analysis suggests that this genetic distinction is due to a European-related gene flow introduced in Ashkelon during either the end of the Bronze Age or the beginning of the Iron Age. This timing is in accord with estimates of the Philistines arrival to the coast of the Levant, based on archeological and textual records (2–4). We find that, within no more than two centuries, this genetic footprint introduced during the early Iron Age is no longer detectable and seems to be diluted by a local Levantine-related gene pool."

    [...]

    "We do not rule out that some gene flow occurred during the Bronze Age as low significance of the f4-statistics might be due to the limited statistical power of our data stemming from either insufficient coverage or a lack of appropriate contemporaneous proxy populations. Thus, additional sampling is needed to further investigate the question of the genetic diversity within the Levantine Bronze Age populations and to characterize the spatiotemporal extent of potential incoming gene flows. Similarly, a larger sample size might help to accurately infer the extent and magnitude of the early Iron Age gene flows and to identify more precisely the populations introducing the European-related component to Ashkelon. While our modeling suggests a southern European gene pool as a plausible source, future sampling in regions such as Cyprus, Sardinia, and the Aegean, as well as in the southern Levant, could better resolve this question."
    Last edited by Agamemnon; 07-03-2019 at 08:10 PM.
    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

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  3. #2
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    Preliminary assessment: One of the IA1 Philistines plots with the Mycenaeans, as expected. I'm willing to bet that the two other IA1 Philistines who cluster with the Bronze Age Anatolians derive most of their ancestry either from the coast of Anatolia or (more plausibly IMO) from Cyprus, and that therefore they are not the result of a straightforward mixture between the originally Mycenaean-like Philistines and the local Canaanites.

    The excess of Iran_ChL-type ancestry in ASH_LBA could easily be due to the Mitanni/Hurrians.
    Last edited by Agamemnon; 07-03-2019 at 07:14 PM.
    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

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    Last edited by Erikl86; 07-04-2019 at 06:48 AM.
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    My dad's mtDNA: K2a2a;

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    Table 1 An overview of the Ashkelon genomes reported in this study.
    111.png
    Last edited by ruslan; 07-03-2019 at 07:21 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by ruslan View Post
    That bottom one only goes to JT for mtDNA? Is that terminal or just a non-ideal sample (it was the only one from a molar)?
    R1b>M269>L23>L51>L11>P312>DF19>DF88>FGC11833 >S4281>S4268>Z17112 (S17075-)

    Y-cousin: 6DRIF-23 (DF19>>Z17112+, S17075+)

    Ancestors: Francis Cooke (M223/I2a2a) b1583; Hester Mahieu (Cooke) (J1c2 mtDNA) b.1584; Richard Warren (E-M35) b1578; Elizabeth Walker (Warren) (H1j mtDNA) b1583;
    John Mead (I2a1/P37.2) b1634; Rev. Joseph Hull (I1, L1301+ L1302-) b1595; Benjamin Harrington (M223/I2a2a-Y5729) b1618; Joshua Griffith (L21>DF13) b1593;
    John Wing (U106) b1584; Hermann Wilhelm (DF19) b1635

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    Wow now we finally have the population which caused THE Bronze Age collapse and reaped havoc in the Near East.I have not looked at Aga's first post in detail but my hunch is it has to be Mycenaeans as contenders for this group.

    *edit* I see one R1a, so it's definitely Mycenean related.
    Last edited by pegasus; 07-03-2019 at 07:24 PM.

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    When I get home from work I am checking that J sample!! Great that it came out, so it looks like the Sea Peoples were indeed Aegean and Anatolian in origin!
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    Quote Originally Posted by pegasus View Post
    Wow now we finally have the population which caused THE Bronze Age collapse and reaped havoc in the Near East.I have not looked at Aga's first post in detail but my hunch is it has to be Mycenaeans as contenders for this group.

    *edit* I see one R1a, so it's definitely Mycenean related.
    Where do you see R1a? I see ASH067, an infant recovered from under the floor of a house in Ashkelon, is R1. Does it say somewhere else in the paper that he is R1a?

    Or is there another one I missed? I only took a quick look.
     


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  17. #9
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    Finally ! My first genetics-related wish for this year comes true

    My initial intakes:

    As expected, Philistines were Mycenaean/Anatolian like population. These results directly support the historic narrative and archaeological evidence, showing Philistine assimilation into the local Levantine population. We do need to remember that it's just from one site - Ashkelon, and only 10 out 150 recovered remains.

    Also, and this crucial, the best model indicated 43% Aegean-like admixture among Philistines from Iron Age I:

    Subsequently, we modeled ASH_IA1 as two-way and three-way mixtures of ASH_LBA and combinations of the candidate populations (table S7). Of the 51 tested models, we find four plausible ones (χ2P > 0.05), all are two-way mixtures. The best supported one (χ2P = 0.675) infers that ASH_IA1 derives around 43% of ancestry from the Greek Bronze Age “Crete_Odigitria_BA” (43.1 ± 19.2%) and the rest from the ASH_LBA population. ASH_IA1 could also be modeled with either the modern “Sardinian” (35.2 ± 17.4%; χ2P = 0.070), the Bronze Age “Iberia_BA” (21.8 ± 21.1%; χ2P = 0.205), or the Bronze Age “Steppe_MLBA” (15.7 ± 9.1%; χ2P = 0.050) as the second source population to ASH_LBA. To check whether these results are due to the low coverage of ASH_LBA, we repeated this analysis, but this time, we modeled ASH_IA1 as a three-way mixture of each of the candidate populations, Levant_ChL and Iran_ChL. The two latter populations have higher genome coverage and can model ASH_LBA well in combination (table S3). In this analysis, only the models including “Sardinian,” “Crete_Odigitria_BA,” or “Iberia_BA” as the candidate population provided a good fit (χ2P = 0.715, 49.3 ± 8.5%; χ2P = 0.972, 38.0 ± 22.0%; and χ2P = 0.964, 25.8 ± 9.3%, respectively). We note that, because of geographical and temporal sampling gaps, populations that potentially contributed the “European-related” admixture in ASH_IA1 could be missing from the dataset. Therefore, better proxies might be found in the future when more data is available. Nonetheless, the tested candidate populations from Anatolia, Egypt, and the Levant that did not produce well-fitting models can be excluded as potential sources of the admixture observed in ASH_IA1.
    Also, judging by their location on the PCA, Philistines from IA1 plot between contemporary Cypriots and contemporary Western Jews, showing both their extensive LBA Levantine admixture from local population AND their Aegean origin, putting them well within the East Mediterranean Continuum:



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    Wow that's amazing !!

    K36


    RG2018470 - ASH029 (LBA)

     

    Population
    Amerindian -
    Arabian 18.54 Pct
    Armenian 4.73 Pct
    Basque 2.53 Pct
    Central_African -
    Central_Euro -
    East_African -
    East_Asian -
    East_Balkan -
    East_Central_Asian -
    East_Central_Euro -
    East_Med 24.22 Pct
    Eastern_Euro -
    Fennoscandian -
    French -
    Iberian -
    Indo-Chinese -
    Italian 11.98 Pct
    Malayan -
    Near_Eastern 29.13 Pct
    North_African -
    North_Atlantic 2.24 Pct
    North_Caucasian 2.25 Pct
    North_Sea -
    Northeast_African -
    Oceanian -
    Omotic -
    Pygmy -
    Siberian -
    South_Asian -
    South_Central_Asian -
    South_Chinese -
    Volga-Ural -
    West_African -
    West_Caucasian 1.27 Pct
    West_Med 3.10 Pct


    XA4380944- ASH066 (IA1)


     
    Population
    Amerindian -
    Arabian 22.31 Pct
    Armenian 6.07 Pct
    Basque 1.69 Pct
    Central_African -
    Central_Euro -
    East_African -
    East_Asian -
    East_Balkan -
    East_Central_Asian -
    East_Central_Euro -
    East_Med 24.60 Pct
    Eastern_Euro -
    Fennoscandian -
    French -
    Iberian 3.63 Pct
    Indo-Chinese -
    Italian 5.73 Pct
    Malayan -
    Near_Eastern 18.99 Pct
    North_African 0.92 Pct
    North_Atlantic -
    North_Caucasian -
    North_Sea -
    Northeast_African 3.19 Pct
    Oceanian 0.89 Pct
    Omotic -
    Pygmy -
    Siberian -
    South_Asian 0.42 Pct
    South_Central_Asian 2.07 Pct
    South_Chinese -
    Volga-Ural -
    West_African -
    West_Caucasian 5.59 Pct
    West_Med 3.89 Pct



    QG8173878 - ASH008 (IA2)


     

    Population
    Amerindian -
    Arabian 20.49 Pct
    Armenian 12.17 Pct
    Basque 0.44 Pct
    Central_African -
    Central_Euro -
    East_African -
    East_Asian -
    East_Balkan -
    East_Central_Asian -
    East_Central_Euro -
    East_Med 36.82 Pct
    Eastern_Euro -
    Fennoscandian -
    French -
    Iberian -
    Indo-Chinese -
    Italian -
    Malayan -
    Near_Eastern 22.80 Pct
    North_African 1.17 Pct
    North_Atlantic -
    North_Caucasian -
    North_Sea -
    Northeast_African -
    Oceanian -
    Omotic -
    Pygmy -
    Siberian -
    South_Asian -
    South_Central_Asian -
    South_Chinese -
    Volga-Ural -
    West_African -
    West_Caucasian 2.90 Pct
    West_Med 3.20 Pct


    They all score higher Arabian than modern day Palestinian Christians, Samaritans and even Bronze Age Lebanon.
    I also noticed some of them score higher SSA than modern Levantines. Possibly small Egyptian input ?

    Many of these mtDNA groups are found among Palestinians Christians.

    This is exciting. I hope G25 coordinates will be available soon. I want to use them to model Palestinian Christians.

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     Agamemnon (07-03-2019),  coffeeprince (07-04-2019),  Dewsloth (07-03-2019),  Erikl86 (07-03-2019),  Hando (07-05-2019),  hartaisarlag (07-03-2019),  JMcB (07-03-2019),  jonahst (07-03-2019),  KingofPhoenicia001 (07-13-2019),  palamede (07-03-2019),  Power77 (07-14-2019),  Principe (07-03-2019),  Seabass (07-04-2019),  Targum (07-03-2019)

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