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Thread: Genetic Landscape of the West Eurasian Steppe before and after the Scythian Dominance

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    Genetic Landscape of the West Eurasian Steppe before and after the Scythian Dominance

    https://www.cell.com/current-biology...822(19)30712-2

    Mari Järve 28, Lehti Saag, Christiana Lyn Scheib, Ajai K. Pathak, Francesco Montinaro, Luca Pagani, Rodrigo Flores, Meriam Guellil, Lauri Saag, Kristiina Tambets, Alena Kushniarevich, Anu Solnik, Liivi Varul, Stanislav Zadnikov, Oleg Petrauskas, Maryana Avramenko, Boris Magomedov, Serghii Didenko, Gennadi Toshev, Igor Bruyako, Denys Grechko, Vitalii Okatenko, Kyrylo Gorbenko, Oleksandr Smyrnov, Anatolii Heiko, Roman Reida, Serheii Sapiehin, Sergey Sirotin, Aleksandr Tairov, Arman Beisenov, Maksim Starodubtsev, Vitali Vasilev, Alexei Nechvaloda, Biyaslan Atabiev, Sergey Litvinov, Natalia Ekomasova, Murat Dzhaubermezov, Sergey Voroniatov, Olga Utevska, Irina Shramko, Elza Khusnutdinova, Mait Metspalu, Nikita Savelev 27, Aivar Kriiska 27, Toomas Kivisild 27, Richard Villems 27

    Published:July 11, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.06.019

    Highlights
    • 31 new ancient genomes help compare the Scythians to pre- and postdating cultures
    • Scythian dominance brought along an increase of eastern ancestry across the steppe
    • Results imply some demic diffusion in the spread of the Scythian culture
    • Genetic makeup agrees with the Gothic source of post-Scythian Chernyakhiv culture

    Summary

    The Early Iron Age nomadic Scythians have been described as a confederation of tribes of different origins, based on ancient DNA evidence [1, 2, 3]. It is still unclear how much of the Scythian dominance in the Eurasian Steppe was due to movements of people and how much reflected cultural diffusion and elite dominance. We present new whole-genome sequences of 31 ancient Western and Eastern Steppe individuals, including Scythians as well as samples pre- and postdating them, allowing us to set the Scythians in a temporal context (in the Western, i.e., Ponto-Caspian Steppe). We detect an increase of eastern (Altaian) affinity along with a decrease in eastern hunter-gatherer (EHG) ancestry in the Early Iron Age Ponto-Caspian gene pool at the start of the Scythian dominance. On the other hand, samples of the Chernyakhiv culture postdating the Scythians in Ukraine have a significantly higher proportion of Near Eastern ancestry than other samples of this study. Our results agree with the Gothic source of the Chernyakhiv culture and support the hypothesis that the Scythian dominance did involve a demic component.

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    Quote Originally Posted by rozenfeld View Post
    https://www.cell.com/current-biology...822(19)30712-2

    Mari Järve 28, Lehti Saag, Christiana Lyn Scheib, Ajai K. Pathak, Francesco Montinaro, Luca Pagani, Rodrigo Flores, Meriam Guellil, Lauri Saag, Kristiina Tambets, Alena Kushniarevich, Anu Solnik, Liivi Varul, Stanislav Zadnikov, Oleg Petrauskas, Maryana Avramenko, Boris Magomedov, Serghii Didenko, Gennadi Toshev, Igor Bruyako, Denys Grechko, Vitalii Okatenko, Kyrylo Gorbenko, Oleksandr Smyrnov, Anatolii Heiko, Roman Reida, Serheii Sapiehin, Sergey Sirotin, Aleksandr Tairov, Arman Beisenov, Maksim Starodubtsev, Vitali Vasilev, Alexei Nechvaloda, Biyaslan Atabiev, Sergey Litvinov, Natalia Ekomasova, Murat Dzhaubermezov, Sergey Voroniatov, Olga Utevska, Irina Shramko, Elza Khusnutdinova, Mait Metspalu, Nikita Savelev 27, Aivar Kriiska 27, Toomas Kivisild 27, Richard Villems 27

    Published:July 11, 2019DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.06.019

    Highlights
    • 31 new ancient genomes help compare the Scythians to pre- and postdating cultures
    • Scythian dominance brought along an increase of eastern ancestry across the steppe
    • Results imply some demic diffusion in the spread of the Scythian culture
    • Genetic makeup agrees with the Gothic source of post-Scythian Chernyakhiv culture

    Summary

    The Early Iron Age nomadic Scythians have been described as a confederation of tribes of different origins, based on ancient DNA evidence [1, 2, 3]. It is still unclear how much of the Scythian dominance in the Eurasian Steppe was due to movements of people and how much reflected cultural diffusion and elite dominance. We present new whole-genome sequences of 31 ancient Western and Eastern Steppe individuals, including Scythians as well as samples pre- and postdating them, allowing us to set the Scythians in a temporal context (in the Western, i.e., Ponto-Caspian Steppe). We detect an increase of eastern (Altaian) affinity along with a decrease in eastern hunter-gatherer (EHG) ancestry in the Early Iron Age Ponto-Caspian gene pool at the start of the Scythian dominance. On the other hand, samples of the Chernyakhiv culture postdating the Scythians in Ukraine have a significantly higher proportion of Near Eastern ancestry than other samples of this study. Our results agree with the Gothic source of the Chernyakhiv culture and support the hypothesis that the Scythian dominance did involve a demic component.
    I wonder why they call that component "near eastern". It is obviously the EEF genetic signal of course.

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    Quote Originally Posted by etrusco View Post
    I wonder why they call that component "near eastern". It is obviously the EEF genetic signal of course.
    should be central eastern

    why do we only use near -eastern or Far-East ?

    Father's Mtdna .........T2b17
    Grandfather's Mtdna .......T1a1e
    Sons Mtdna .......K1a4o
    Maternal Grandfather paternal......I1d1-P109
    Maternal side Grandfather .......R1b-S8172
    Wife's Ydna .....R1a-Z282

    My Path = ( K-M9+, TL-P326+, T-M184+, L490+, M70+, PF5664+, L131+, L446+, CTS933+, CTS3767+, CTS8862+, Z19945+, Y70078+ )

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    One of the samples has yDNA E2b1. Isn't that common in Subsaharan Africa today?
    YDNA - E-Y31991>PF4428>E-Y134097>E-Y168273 (probably Scythian-Sarmatian). Domingos Rodrigues, b. circa 1680 Hidden Content , Viana do Castelo, Portugal
    mtDNA - H20. Maria Josefa de Almeida, b. circa 1750 Hidden Content , Porto, Portugal

    Global25 PCA West Eurasia dataset Hidden Content
    Hidden Content


    [1] "distance%=1.7726"

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    Code:
    Sample	Group/label	Coverage	Genetic sex	mtDNA	Y-DNA
    MJ-06	Ukr_BA	0.184	XX	H2a1	
    MJ-09	Ukr_BA	0.228	XX	H13a2c	
    MJ-08	Late Srubnaya	0.138	XX	T2a1b1a	
    MJ-12	Cimmerians	0.299	XX	H35	
    MJ-31	Cimmerians	0.217	XY	U5a1b1	R1a-Z645
    MJ-32	Cimmerians	0.296	XY	U2e2	R1a2c-B111
    MJ-13	Scy_Ukr	0.265	XX	H11b1	
    MJ-14	Scy_Ukr	0.12	XY	H6a1b	R1a-Z645
    MJ-15	Scy_Ukr	0.166	XY	U2e2	R1a-M417
    MJ-16	Scy_Ukr	0.282	XY	T2b	J2a8-B437
    MJ-33	Scy_Ukr	0.078	XY	U5a2a2	R1a-M417
    MJ-34	Scy_Ukr	0.5	XY	W3a1	R1a2-Z93
    MJ-35	Scy_Ukr	0.149	XY	X4	Q1c-L332
    MJ-46	Scy_Ukr	0.173	XX	J1d6	
    MJ-47	Scy_Ukr	0.073	XX	T2	
    MJ-19	Chern	0.21	XX	H1n6	
    MJ-36	Chern	0.02	XX	H1c	
    MJ-37	Chern	0.14	XX	T2g1	
    MJ-38	Sar_Cau	0.092	XY	W	Q1c-L332
    LS-13	ScySar_SU	0.46	XY	W3a	R1a1e-CTS1123
    MJ-39	ScySar_SU	0.104	XY	T1a1	R1a-Z645
    MJ-40	ScySar_SU	0.036	XY	U5a2+16294	E2b1-PF6746
    MJ-41	ScySar_SU	0.529	XX	U5b2a1a2	
    MJ-42	ScySar_SU	0.525	XY	T1a1d	R1a-Z645
    MJ-43	ScySar_SU	0.456	XX	C1e	
    MJ-44	ScySar_SU	0.717	XX	U5b2a1a1	
    MJ-56	ScySar_SU	0.301	XX	U5b2c	
    MJ-51	Scy_Kaz	0.085	XY	U5a1f1	R1a-M198
    MJ-52	Scy_Kaz	0.092	XY	A23	J1b-P58(3/10)
    MJ-53	Scy_Kaz	0.022	XY?	U5b2b	R1-?
    MJ-54	Scy_Kaz	0.027	XX	F2

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ruderico View Post
    One of the samples has yDNA E2b1. Isn't that common in Subsaharan Africa today?
    Its E-M84 if you type into Yfull, I am checking the J2a sample right now as I type.

    I'll check the E and J1 sample right after.
    Last edited by Principe; 07-11-2019 at 09:05 PM.
    My Y Line: J2a-L210>Z489>Z482>Y15222

    My Maternal Y: R1b-U152>Z36>Y156527

    Other Y lines: 3x Great Grandfather on Maternal side: J2a-S25258>SK1336, 5x Great Grandfather on Maternal side: E-V13>A7135, 6x Great Grandfather on Maternal side: J1-Z2331>L829

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    Interesting, that if you read the archeological context paragraph from the article, you get a full idea that steppe population and forest-steppe population in East Europe in the Scythic times was of different origin. But still they did not compare by some reason steppe and forest-steppe populations. Could not even quickly find out if there are both steppe and forest-steppe samples.

    Quote Originally Posted by Ruderico View Post
    One of the samples has yDNA E2b1. Isn't that common in Subsaharan Africa today?
    I followed the PF6746 SNP and got to the branch.
    https://www.yfull.com/tree/E-M84/
    Not African. I do not know maybe definition of E2 has changed or there is some mistake or I did not remember it well and E2 has some European happlogroups.

    The Y-happlogroup definition is weird as usual.
    CTS1123 is a definitely Scandinavian happlogroup:
    https://www.yfull.com/tree/R-S5301/
    And it was found close to Ural river.

    Could not find out what is that R1a2c-B111.
    No B111 SNP both on ISOGG and yfull.
    Other Y-happlogroups are high level.
    Will recheck the MJ_32 individ (B111).

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    Quote Originally Posted by Principe View Post
    Its E-M84 if you type into Yfull, I am checking the J2a sample right now as I type.

    I'll check the E and J1 sample right after.
    Okay, E-M84 makes a lot more sense
    YDNA - E-Y31991>PF4428>E-Y134097>E-Y168273 (probably Scythian-Sarmatian). Domingos Rodrigues, b. circa 1680 Hidden Content , Viana do Castelo, Portugal
    mtDNA - H20. Maria Josefa de Almeida, b. circa 1750 Hidden Content , Porto, Portugal

    Global25 PCA West Eurasia dataset Hidden Content
    Hidden Content


    [1] "distance%=1.7726"

    Ruderico

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    Just a little update the E sample is confirmed E-M84

    The sample isn't the best quality so this might be the furthest it goes.
    Last edited by Principe; 07-11-2019 at 10:30 PM.
    My Y Line: J2a-L210>Z489>Z482>Y15222

    My Maternal Y: R1b-U152>Z36>Y156527

    Other Y lines: 3x Great Grandfather on Maternal side: J2a-S25258>SK1336, 5x Great Grandfather on Maternal side: E-V13>A7135, 6x Great Grandfather on Maternal side: J1-Z2331>L829

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    The J2a sample belongs to this branch, which is under Z7700 though not under Z7706 and further FGC9962 (which I thought).

    https://www.yfull.com/tree/J-Y15598/
    My Y Line: J2a-L210>Z489>Z482>Y15222

    My Maternal Y: R1b-U152>Z36>Y156527

    Other Y lines: 3x Great Grandfather on Maternal side: J2a-S25258>SK1336, 5x Great Grandfather on Maternal side: E-V13>A7135, 6x Great Grandfather on Maternal side: J1-Z2331>L829

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