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Thread: Aegean Islands: evidence of significant genetic variation? Here is some evidence.

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    Aegean Islands: evidence of significant genetic variation? Here is some evidence.

    Here is some evidence I have gathered that shows the Aegean islands are genetically quite diverse, and my personal interpretation of the evidence I have at my disposal for this.

    Overall findings, which I explain in depth:
    1. Variation is more determined by the individual island rather than which chain it falls into.
    2. Crete and Ikaria are most consistently similar to, and difficult to differentiate from, Sicilians and South Italians. Ikaria deviates from the other North Aegean islands, possibly less influenced by outside influence.
    3. The Dodecanese is highly various, with some individuals shifted toward Maniots, others firmly within Sicilian/Cretan territory, and and others toward Cypriots and Anatolian Turks, but no one fully plots with mainlanders nor with Cypriots. The "average" is still within the Sicilian/Cretan cluster. Dodecanese who are strongly West Asian shifted that I have seen, have either surnames of Pontic origin, Turkish etymology, or documented ancestry from Anatolian Greek settlers, and thus truly outlying Dodecanese samples may be indicative of foreign, NOT preserved, lineages.
    4. Samos, Chios, and Euboea seem to be significantly closer to mainland Greeks than the other islands are, with some individuals appearing as if they were mainland Greeks themselves. This could be due to mainland repopulation, which would have brought Slavic ancestry to the islands.

    I see evidence for recent mainland Greek input into the North Aegean and northern Dodecanese, and recent Pontic and/or Anatolian Greek input into the southern Dodecanese, which may explain many of the outliers. By virtue of its geography it is possible that the Cyclades may have always been continuous with the southern and eastern Peloponnese.


    FOR POINT OF REFERENCE -- MANIOT AND CYPRIOT on Eurogenes K15:

    Maniot:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Greek 4.61
    2 Central_Greek 6.59
    3 Ashkenazi 7.83
    4 Greek_Thessaly 7.87
    5 East_Sicilian 7.94
    6 Italian_Abruzzo 8.31
    7 South_Italian 9.25
    8 West_Sicilian 9.98
    9 Bulgarian 10.86
    10 Tuscan 12.59
    Cypriot:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Cyprian 5.35
    2 Lebanese_Muslim 8.07
    3 Syrian 10.76
    4 Lebanese_Christian 10.88
    5 Assyrian 11.38
    6 Samaritan 11.53
    7 Kurdish_Jewish 11.97
    8 Tunisian_Jewish 12.21
    9 Sephardic_Jewish 12.21
    10 Italian_Jewish 12.61

    CRETE plots with and share significant IBD with Sicily and South Italy:

    It does not even need to be said by now that Crete is genetically similar to Sicilians/South Italians, but I will do it for comparison's sake. This has been established by multiple studies, is evident on 23andme. As mentioned, the new Cretan study specifically states in the Supplementary Info, that Cretans overlap with Sicilians first, and then on a secondary level with Peloponnesians and Ashkenazim.

    The Cretans overlap with Sicily and also have some overlap with the Ashkenazi and the Peloponnese.
    c. PCA plot for Cretans and Sicily. There is an overlap between most of the Sicilians with the Cretan
    samples. With the exception of two samples from Trapani, the Sicilians seem to be in the same cluster as the Cretans.
    ADMIXTURE analysis results for the Cretans and the Sicilian populations. The orange color bar denotes Cretan populations, the blue color bar denotes Sicilian populations. A range of two to eight hypothetical ancestral populations (K) is used. There is no clear differentiation between the Cretans and the Sicilians. The more K increases, the more the Sicilians follow the patterns of the Cretans with internal substructure becoming more prominent in each individual.
    and shows this PCA. With the exception of two Trapanese outliers, all other Sicilian provinces sampled plot firmly within Cretan variation.



    Cretan 23andme results also suggest this, too... these are all Cretans I share with who either score Sicily as a region for IBD sharing and/or their European/MENA ratio is within South Italian variation. What is even more shocking is actually a Cretan and South Aegean population is listed under "Greek and Balkan" but these Cretans and Dodecanese typically score Italian (in most cases with Sicily highlighted) first and only when Crete comes up under Greece for them, does that category inflate.

    Crete:


    Crete:


    Crete:


    Crete:


    Crete:


    Half Cretan, half Rhodian:


    Half Cretan, half British:



    Dodecanese has significant diversity, ranging from quite mainland Greek shifted to being intermediate with, but NOT plotting with, Cyprus:

    This person from Karpathos and the following one from Kalymnos clearly show that some Dodecanese are a bit West Asian shifted, but it may be due to outside influence. The former has a Pontic surname with Turkish etymology, and the latter has partial documented ancestry from Smyrna/Izmir in western Turkey.







    While Dodecanese are definitely, overall, closer to Sicilians/Cretans than to Cypriots, especially on the smaller and more secluded islands which would suggest that we see Dodecanese outliers in Karpathos/Rhodes sometimes due to non-native input... you do find Dodecanese also shifting toward mainland Greece even. See Tilos and Patmos below.

    Symi:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Sephardic_Jewish 6.26
    2 South_Italian 7.47
    3 Italian_Jewish 8.24
    4 Algerian_Jewish 8.26
    5 Tunisian_Jewish 8.97
    6 Cyprian 9.89
    7 East_Sicilian 10.1
    8 Central_Greek 10.45
    9 West_Sicilian 11.31
    10 Italian_Abruzzo 11.81

    Rhodes:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Central_Greek 8.33
    2 South_Italian 8.45
    3 East_Sicilian 8.82
    4 Ashkenazi 9.28
    5 Cyprian 10.75
    6 Italian_Jewish 10.79
    7 Sephardic_Jewish 11.09
    8 Algerian_Jewish 12.21
    9 Italian_Abruzzo 12.31
    10 Greek_Thessaly 13.08

    Tilos:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Central_Greek 3.87
    2 East_Sicilian 4.72
    3 South_Italian 5.23
    4 Italian_Abruzzo 5.8
    5 Ashkenazi 6.84
    6 Greek_Thessaly 8.47
    7 West_Sicilian 8.69
    8 Greek 9.5
    9 Italian_Jewish 9.82
    10 Sephardic_Jewish 10.77
    Patmos:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Central_Greek 5.56
    2 East_Sicilian 6.99
    3 South_Italian 7.3
    4 Ashkenazi 7.7
    5 Greek 7.74
    6 Greek_Thessaly 8.57
    7 Italian_Abruzzo 9.22
    8 West_Sicilian 9.97
    9 Italian_Jewish 10.99
    10 Algerian_Jewish 11.87
    Kalymnos:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 South_Italian 5.41
    2 Central_Greek 6.93
    3 East_Sicilian 7.39
    4 Sephardic_Jewish 7.73
    5 Italian_Jewish 8.58
    6 Italian_Abruzzo 8.96
    7 Ashkenazi 9.16
    8 Algerian_Jewish 9.78
    9 West_Sicilian 10.16
    10 Cyprian 10.74
    Kalymnos:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 South_Italian 7.45
    2 Central_Greek 8.82
    3 Sephardic_Jewish 8.95
    4 Cyprian 9.02
    5 Italian_Jewish 9.06
    6 East_Sicilian 9.24
    7 Ashkenazi 10.08
    8 Algerian_Jewish 10.29
    9 Tunisian_Jewish 10.93
    10 Italian_Abruzzo 11.87
    Kastellorizo:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 South_Italian 8.56
    2 Cyprian 9.7
    3 Central_Greek 9.77
    4 East_Sicilian 10.38
    5 Italian_Jewish 10.56
    6 Sephardic_Jewish 10.86
    7 Algerian_Jewish 11.98
    8 Ashkenazi 12
    9 Italian_Abruzzo 12.79
    10 Tunisian_Jewish 13.15
    Kalymnos:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Cyprian 8.44
    2 South_Italian 8.59
    3 Central_Greek 9.79
    4 East_Sicilian 10.55
    5 Italian_Jewish 10.8
    6 Sephardic_Jewish 10.99
    7 Algerian_Jewish 11.54
    8 Ashkenazi 11.88
    9 Tunisian_Jewish 12.89
    10 Lebanese_Muslim 13.08
    Karpathos:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Italian_Jewish 7.06
    2 Sephardic_Jewish 8.53
    3 Cyprian 8.54
    4 South_Italian 8.89
    5 Algerian_Jewish 8.91
    6 Libyan_Jewish 8.97
    7 Tunisian_Jewish 9.94
    8 East_Sicilian 10.23
    9 Central_Greek 10.53
    10 Ashkenazi 10.65

    NORTH AEGEAN and CYCLADES have more affinity to mainland Greece and/or are "north shifted", bridging the gap between Sicily/Crete/Dodecanese and mainland Greeks:

    Even though these regions are omitted from nearly every professional study, both GEDmatch results as well as 23andme indicate to me that these islands are somewhere intermediate between the Sicily/Crete cluster and mainland Greeks. On 23andme, the West Asian is typically decreased and/or the "Greek and Balkan" category exceeds the Italian.

    Chios:


    Chios:


    Chios/Samos:


    Cyclades:



    GEDMatch evidence suggests the same. I am using Eurogenes K15 here. Some of them are a bit north-shifted and even if Sicily or South Italy is at the top of the list you begin seeing more "northern" populations like Tuscans, Thessalian Greeks, and even Bulgarians appearing in their top 10.

    As "Central Greek" is a mixed mainland and islands sample from Athens, the Sporades islands, and North Aegean, anyone scoring this first is indeed north-shifted. We see on the Eurogenes K15 PCA plot also, that "Central Greece" is located north of Sicilians and Ashkenazim.

    In particular, Samos and Euboea seem to have a northward shift, and in fact appear to genetically be part of mainland, not island, Greece.

    Ikaria:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 South_Italian 4.67
    2 Sephardic_Jewish 6.53
    3 East_Sicilian 6.54
    4 Central_Greek 6.67
    5 Italian_Jewish 7.75
    6 Ashkenazi 8.47
    7 Algerian_Jewish 8.68
    8 Italian_Abruzzo 8.85
    9 West_Sicilian 9.46
    10 Tunisian_Jewish 10.39
    Ikaria:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 South_Italian 3.42
    2 Italian_Jewish 6.27
    3 East_Sicilian 6.69
    4 Central_Greek 6.82
    5 Sephardic_Jewish 6.84
    6 Algerian_Jewish 7.38
    7 West_Sicilian 9.02
    8 Italian_Abruzzo 9.13
    9 Ashkenazi 9.86
    10 Tunisian_Jewish 10.68

    Chios:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Central_Greek 5.8
    2 South_Italian 6.61
    3 East_Sicilian 7.05
    4 Italian_Abruzzo 8.85
    5 Ashkenazi 9.1
    6 Greek_Thessaly 10.02
    7 Italian_Jewish 10.93
    8 Greek 11.42
    9 West_Sicilian 11.48
    10 Sephardic_Jewish 12.38
    Chios:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Central_Greek 7.41
    2 South_Italian 8.04
    3 Greek 8.26
    4 East_Sicilian 8.57
    5 Ashkenazi 9.64
    6 Italian_Abruzzo 10
    7 West_Sicilian 11.13
    8 Sephardic_Jewish 11.65
    9 Greek_Thessaly 11.85
    10 Italian_Jewish 12.52
    Chios:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Ashkenazi 5.68
    2 Central_Greek 7.01
    3 Greek 7.4
    4 East_Sicilian 8.06
    5 Greek_Thessaly 8.09
    6 Italian_Abruzzo 8.95
    7 South_Italian 10.18
    8 West_Sicilian 10.96
    9 Bulgarian 12.08
    10 Sephardic_Jewish 13.05
    Samos/Euboea:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Greek 4.76
    2 West_Sicilian 6.13
    3 Italian_Abruzzo 6.45
    4 Tuscan 6.99
    5 Central_Greek 8.23
    6 Greek_Thessaly 8.4
    7 East_Sicilian 8.86
    8 Ashkenazi 9.85
    9 South_Italian 10.26
    10 Bulgarian 10.82
    Euboea:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Greek_Thessaly 3.14
    2 Greek 5.26
    3 Central_Greek 6.96
    4 Italian_Abruzzo 7.27
    5 East_Sicilian 7.58
    6 Ashkenazi 7.86
    7 Tuscan 8.22
    8 Bulgarian 8.92
    9 West_Sicilian 9.21
    10 South_Italian 10.28
    Samos:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Central_Greek 7.49
    2 Italian_Abruzzo 7.6
    3 West_Sicilian 7.78
    4 South_Italian 8.11
    5 East_Sicilian 8.12
    6 Ashkenazi 8.52
    7 Italian_Jewish 9.4
    8 Greek 10.64
    9 Sephardic_Jewish 10.84
    10 Algerian_Jewish 11.18
    Chios/Samos:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Central_Greek 3.88
    2 East_Sicilian 4.63
    3 Ashkenazi 5.31
    4 Greek_Thessaly 6.1
    5 Italian_Abruzzo 6.45
    6 South_Italian 6.56
    7 Greek 7.69
    8 West_Sicilian 7.96
    9 Italian_Jewish 9.99
    10 Tuscan 10.35
    Cyclades:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Central_Greek 3.01
    2 East_Sicilian 4.7
    3 Greek 5.28
    4 Ashkenazi 5.58
    5 South_Italian 5.77
    6 Italian_Abruzzo 6.13
    7 Greek_Thessaly 7.11
    8 West_Sicilian 7.41
    9 Italian_Jewish 10.14
    10 Sephardic_Jewish 10.76
    Cyclades:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 South_Italian 3.24
    2 East_Sicilian 4.19
    3 Central_Greek 4.4
    4 Italian_Jewish 5.48
    5 Ashkenazi 6.19
    6 West_Sicilian 6.63
    7 Italian_Abruzzo 6.68
    8 Sephardic_Jewish 6.81
    9 Algerian_Jewish 7.38
    10 Greek 9.93
    Cyclades:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Central_Greek 4.07
    2 East_Sicilian 5.2
    3 Italian_Abruzzo 5.57
    4 Ashkenazi 6.48
    5 South_Italian 6.91
    6 Greek_Thessaly 7.34
    7 Greek 7.79
    8 West_Sicilian 9.15
    9 Tuscan 11.24
    10 Italian_Jewish 11.78
    Cyclades:
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 South_Italian 3.72
    2 Central_Greek 4.7
    3 East_Sicilian 4.73
    4 Italian_Jewish 6.92
    5 Ashkenazi 7
    6 Italian_Abruzzo 7.2
    7 West_Sicilian 8.14
    8 Sephardic_Jewish 8.48
    9 Algerian_Jewish 9.12
    10 Greek_Thessaly 10.14
    Half Crete, half Cyclades: as we can see this person does shift northward a bit in that they have "Central Greek" as their top population.
    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Central_Greek 3.35
    2 East_Sicilian 4.65
    3 South_Italian 5.22
    4 Ashkenazi 5.57
    5 Italian_Abruzzo 7.12
    6 Greek_Thessaly 8.48
    7 Italian_Jewish 8.81
    8 West_Sicilian 9.14
    9 Greek 9.34
    10 Sephardic_Jewish 10.13
    Last edited by Sikeliot; 07-07-2019 at 07:01 PM.

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    Really good break down of the genetic variation in Crete and the Aegean Islands. I think it gives a good picture of how diverse these groups are and how they tend to cline East to West.The Euboea sample is strikingly similar to a standard mainlander. I would argue there’s way less variation on the mainland (with the exception of Tsakonia and Mani). If you look at standard Peloponnesian results they’re similar to Rumeli, Thessaly and Epirus. The variation occurs with Macedonian or Thracian samples Curious do you see any West Asian in Maniot results and if so where would it come from given the relative isolation of that group.

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    Quote Originally Posted by TonyC View Post
    Curious do you see any West Asian in Maniot results and if so where would it come from given the relative isolation of that group.
    No, I do not.

    What is striking to me is all the Aegean islanders seem to conglomerate around the South Italian cluster, but on different sides of it (and South Italians are varied too). Like Dodecanese seem to be more similar to Calabria, while Cyclades are more similar to Apulia and so on.

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    Quote Originally Posted by TonyC View Post
    Really good break down of the genetic variation in Crete and the Aegean Islands. I think it gives a good picture of how diverse these groups are and how they tend to cline East to West.The Euboea sample is strikingly similar to a standard mainlander. I would argue there’s way less variation on the mainland (with the exception of Tsakonia and Mani). If you look at standard Peloponnesian results they’re similar to Rumeli, Thessaly and Epirus. The variation occurs with Macedonian or Thracian samples Curious do you see any West Asian in Maniot results and if so where would it come from given the relative isolation of that group.

    Here is another Aegean islander from Lemnos, in the North Aegean. This one is not very different, I imagine, from some people in Mani or Tsakonia. Greek/Balkan is high, Italian is secondary, and West Asian is low. This is consistent with my inclination that the North Aegean and Cyclades show more continuity with the mainland.


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    Hi, new to this forum. 6/8 of my great grandparents were born on the island of Fourni, one on Ikaria, one on Samos. I research Greek DNA at GEDmatch and am very interested in this conversation. I would agree with much of analysis above, especially the reality that you must look island by island to find patterns, and that the more genetically isolated islands (like Ikaria and Kalymnos, for instance) return different results than islands with histories of abandonment and resettlement. In my experience, Chiotes nor Samiotes form tight genetic clusters like Fourniotes, Ikarians, and Kalymniotes do. I am not sure it is as easy to form conclusions about the populations of those islands.

    I also much prefer MDLP K16 to Eurogenes K15 because it has so many more Greek samples. K15 has only Central Greece and Thessaly, no Greek islands. At any rate, here are my results on MDLP K16 and Eurogenes K15. I will post results from my family members if that is helpful.

    K16

    Admix Results (sorted):

    # Population Percent
    1 Caucasian 40.65
    2 Neolithic 25.72
    3 Steppe 12.59
    4 NorthEastEuropean 9.47
    5 NorthAfrican 5.59
    6 NearEast 5.44
    7 EastAfrican 0.31
    8 Oceanic 0.22

    Single Population Sharing:

    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Italian (SouthItaly) 3.37
    2 Greek (Athens) 3.98
    3 Jew (Ashkenazi) 4.03
    4 Sicilian (Sicily) 4.2
    5 Maltese (Malta) 4.44
    6 Jew (Ashkenazim) 5.06
    7 Greek (Greece) 5.18
    8 Italian (Abruzzo) 5.53
    9 Greek (Macedonia) 6.07
    10 Jew (Bulgaria) 6.62
    11 Greek (Peloponnes) 6.89
    12 Greek (Greece) 6.89
    13 Albanian (Albania) 7.21
    14 Jew (Italian) 7.41
    15 Greek (Thessaloniki) 7.44
    16 Jew (Ashkenazi) 7.52
    17 Jew (Sephardim) 8.25
    18 Jew (Turkey) 8.32
    19 Jew (Turkish_Sephardim) 8.63
    20 Jew (Algeria) 9.36

    K15

    # Population Percent
    1 East_Med 30.42
    2 West_Med 18.23
    3 West_Asian 15.97
    4 Atlantic 10.8
    5 North_Sea 10.51
    6 Red_Sea 5.47
    7 Eastern_Euro 4.75
    8 Baltic 3.74
    9 Southeast_Asian 0.06
    10 Northeast_African 0.05

    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Central_Greek 4.95
    2 South_Italian 5.09
    3 East_Sicilian 5.51
    4 Ashkenazi 6.68
    5 Italian_Jewish 7.12
    6 Italian_Abruzzo 7.72
    7 Sephardic_Jewish 8.52
    8 West_Sicilian 8.82
    9 Algerian_Jewish 9.16
    10 Greek_Thessaly 10.89
    11 Greek 10.96
    12 Tunisian_Jewish 12.39
    13 Cyprian 12.55
    14 Libyan_Jewish 12.98
    15 Tuscan 13.25
    16 Lebanese_Muslim 16.26
    17 Syrian 17.32
    18 Turkish 17.4
    19 Bulgarian 18.48
    20 Samaritan 19.31

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    OP, there is no such thing as surnames of Pontic origin. You need to do your homework. If you are referring to surnames with -idis as their last syllables, this applies to any last name that was not deemed Hellenic enough by the Greek Church and thus was changed to have that ending.

    So you can have anyone with that last name ending, regardless of their 'origin' during the population movements.
    Last edited by dosas; 07-11-2019 at 06:00 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Greekscholar View Post
    I also much prefer MDLP K16 to Eurogenes K15 because it has so many more Greek samples. K15 has only Central Greece and Thessaly, no Greek islands. At any rate, here are my results on MDLP K16 and Eurogenes K15. I will post results from my family members if that is helpful.
    So what you prefer isn't the PCA itself, it's the Oracle's array of references, right? These references can be self-made provided you have the kit numbers and their geographical location anyway. If I'm not mistaken MDLP K16 uses about half the SNPs Eurogenes K15 does, and it's at least equally old. Both are outdated to G25, but I'd much prefer David's K15 over MDLP's K16


    And welcome to the forum
    YDNA E-Y31991>PF4428>Y134097>Y134104>Y168273>FT17866 (TMRCA ~1100AD) - Domingos Rodrigues, b. circa 1690 Hidden Content , Viana do Castelo, Portugal - Stonemason, miller.
    mtDNA H20 - Monica Vieira, b. circa 1700 Hidden Content , Porto, Portugal

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    [1] "distance%=1.6023"

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ruderico View Post
    So what you prefer isn't the PCA itself, it's the Oracle's array of references, right? These references can be self-made provided you have the kit numbers and their geographical location anyway. If I'm not mistaken MDLP K16 uses about half the SNPs Eurogenes K15 does, and it's at least equally old. Both are outdated to G25, but I'd much prefer David's K15 over MDLP's K16


    And welcome to the forum
    Yes, I prefer the Oracle because it has more built-in Greek reference samples. I also prefer the categories K16 use to describe admix. Geographic terms like "Atlantic" "East Med" etc. don't mean as much to me as population groups like "Neolithic" "Steppe" etc. as well. I have seen threads here before I joined where people were offering up their Eurogenes results to help build a better reference panel for different Greek populations. I will try and find that thread as I learn my way around the website. Thanks for the welcome.

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    The sample from Euboea is from north or south, also coast or mountains?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Greekscholar View Post
    K15

    # Population Percent
    1 East_Med 30.42
    2 West_Med 18.23
    3 West_Asian 15.97
    4 Atlantic 10.8
    5 North_Sea 10.51
    6 Red_Sea 5.47
    7 Eastern_Euro 4.75
    8 Baltic 3.74
    9 Southeast_Asian 0.06
    10 Northeast_African 0.05

    # Population (source) Distance
    1 Central_Greek 4.95
    2 South_Italian 5.09
    3 East_Sicilian 5.51
    4 Ashkenazi 6.68
    5 Italian_Jewish 7.12
    6 Italian_Abruzzo 7.72
    7 Sephardic_Jewish 8.52
    8 West_Sicilian 8.82
    9 Algerian_Jewish 9.16
    10 Greek_Thessaly 10.89
    11 Greek 10.96
    12 Tunisian_Jewish 12.39
    13 Cyprian 12.55
    14 Libyan_Jewish 12.98
    15 Tuscan 13.25
    16 Lebanese_Muslim 16.26
    17 Syrian 17.32
    18 Turkish 17.4
    19 Bulgarian 18.48
    20 Samaritan 19.31

    Going by this, you'd plot about halfway between Cretans (using "South Italian" as a proxy for Cretans) and the southernmost-plotting mainland Greeks which usually come up near "Central Greece." You're still within South Italian and Cretan variation though, but slightly shifted toward mainland Greeks. You're actually a lot like the Cyclades samples I have. You're also close to my Sicilian cousin from Palermo except you're slightly shifted toward mainland Greece. Which I suppose makes sense. Her "Red Sea" is a little higher than yours, and her "Baltic" and "East Euro" are lower.

    I think Chios and Samos have seen recent settlement from mainland Greece which might shift them toward the mainland (and also means, among islanders, they might carry the most indirect Slavic influence). But what interests me is that the islands do not follow a north to south genetic gradient.

    If we treat Sicily/South Italy or Crete as "baseline" then both Patmos and Tilos in the Dodecanese as well as many Chios/Samos samples, Euboea, and to some extent the Cyclades all shift toward mainland Greece, while other Dodecanese islands are on the more MENA end of the Sicilian/Cretan spectrum. So there is variation in all the island chains which might really be a representation of who does, and doesn't, have recent mainland Greek input.

    Chios has variation though. Here is one scoring very high Italian on 23andme, but less MENA than most Sicilians/Cretans/etc.



    And then to compare here is a Sicilian (Palermo/Trapani regions)... the difference is that 20% or so "Balkan" is mainland Greek affinity in Chios that shifts them a bit north, along with the higher West Asian in the Sicilian.




    In my experience the more 'isolated' islands come up closer to Sicilians and Calabrians, which might be why you're closer to them than some other islands would be.
    Last edited by Sikeliot; 07-13-2019 at 08:05 PM.

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