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Thread: Early U106: A Hypothesis

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    Early U106: A Hypothesis

    A lively discussion has started to develop over the origins of U106 on this forum, and I have decided to create a separate topic devoted to this subject. At the same time, I will add in my own hypothesis.

    First of all, I will use Iain McDonald's age analysis (based on the old Build37 Big Y and Y Elite results) at: http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/~mcdonald/genetics/table.html. Even this somewhat dated analysis is comprised of many more U106+ samples than YFull has to date, and when it comes to age analysis, size does matter. McDonald dates the origin of U106 itself to 3022 BC with a 95% Confidence Interval between 3699 BC — 2465 BC.

    The two earliest U106+ remains to date (RISE98 & I7196) are dated to roughly 2300BC - 2000 BC, which is likely several hundred years after U106's origins. We are missing data from the critical genesis period of U106's development. As such, we cannot even make a valid educated guess about the origins of U106 itself.

    While we don't have any information on the earliest days of U106, I believe the Ancient/Medieval/Royal U106+ results published to date https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets...gid=1743270299 gives us enough information to hypothesize about some of the subclades of U106.

    What stands out most to me is how one subclade, Z156, is predominantly found in central Europe, while the other subclades (Z301, Z18 and U106+/Z381-/Z18-) are predominantly found in Scandinavia. Z301 and Z156 are the two major claces of Z381 while both Z381 and Z18 are direct subclades of BY30097. The estimated dates of origin (95% CI) are:

    Z381 2964 BC (3589 BC — 2432 BC)
    Z301 2752 BC (3362 BC — 2211 BC)
    Z156 2864 BC (3470 BC — 2324 BC)

    Z18 2380 BC (3079 BC — 1773 BC)

    These dates of origin for Z381 and its two main subclades are not all that far removed from the age of U106 itself, while Z18 is considerably younger than the rest.

    The separation between Z156 and the rest of U106 can be seen even in the very earliest U106+ remains discovered to date. RISE98 is U106+/Z381-/Z18- and is found in Scandinavia, while I7196 is Z156+ and is found near what is now Prague, Czech Republic.

    I have plotted the U106+ remains on a Community Walk map http://www.communitywalk.com/map/index/2236108 and made some attempt to color-code the SNP results (I am partially color blind, so it is a challenge). I have made Z156 and its two major subclades (DF98 & DF96) various shades of blue. Of the 13 Z156+ results (which include DF96 & DF98) 3 are in England (the two Roman Gladiators in York and a Viking buried at Oxford University) with 1 found in Denmark and the another one in Sweden. The other 8 are found in Central Europe, spread between Spain (I10895) and Szolad, Hungary.

    There are a scattering of Z381 & Z18 results found outside of Scandinavia, but it is clear where the bulk of these clades are found in Scandinavia (and England which could be explained by the Germanic and Viking settlements on the Island).
    Last edited by Wing Genealogist; 08-25-2019 at 12:15 PM. Reason: clarifying more Z156 found outside of Central Europe
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    The thing that stands out to me is that U106 is absent from Olalde et al's Kurgan Bell Beaker samples. In other words, AWOL from Central Europe, Britain, and Iberia during the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age. Yet RISE 98 turns up in Sweden circa 2300 BC, and Olalde et al did not sample the northeastern sphere of Kurgan Bell Beaker.

    IMHO, U106, DF99, DF19, and L238 were probably all up in NE Kurgan Bell Beaker.

    Then U106 turns up in Migration Period Germanics. Sorry that upsets those who want U106 to be Celtic, but that's the way it goes.
     


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    Except RISE 98 is supposed to have been RC dated, and I7196 is just dated based on estimates for Unetice.

    Don't get ahead of yourself.
    I7196 is dated from grave goods as well as other burial information (ie how body was laid, orientation to the sun & stars, etc.) and the researchers who discovered the remains stated they belonged to the older phases of the Unetice culture. Yes, it would be great if the remains were radiocarbon dated, but we simply have to go by the information we have been presented.

    I am not saying I7196 is older than RISE98, but by the same token, we cannot say RISE98 is older simply because he was RC dated.

    We know Z156 was found as far south as Prague by c2000 BC, but the remains themselves cannot say whether Z156 was a fairly recent arrival, or whether his Y-DNA line was there for centuries. The fact Z156 was not found in the major Bell Beaker paper by Olade does lend evidence where I7196 may have been a fairly recent arrival.

    As you state, the vast majority of these results are from the Germanic Migration Period. Even during that period, there was a marked difference in the migration patterns of Z156 versus U106+/Z156-. Most of the Z156 migration was into central Europe, while most of the U106+/Z156- migration was into England and Iceland.
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    Duplicate posting
    Last edited by Wing Genealogist; 08-24-2019 at 09:43 PM. Reason: Duplicate post
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    Quote Originally Posted by rms2 View Post
    The thing that stands out to me is that U106 is absent from Olalde et al's Kurgan Bell Beaker samples. In other words, AWOL from Central Europe, Britain, and Iberia during the Late Neolithic/Early Bronze Age. Yet RISE 98 turns up in Sweden circa 2300 BC, and Olalde et al did not sample the northeastern sphere of Kurgan Bell Beaker.

    IMHO, U106, DF99, DF19, and L238 were probably all up in NE Kurgan Bell Beaker.

    Then U106 turns up in Migration Period Germanics. Sorry that upsets those who want U106 to be Celtic, but that's the way it goes.
    Unetice isn't Celtic. Those other haplogroups haven't been found in Unetice.R U106 has been found in Unetice,Z381 its majority branch.
    Last edited by uintah106; 08-24-2019 at 11:45 PM.

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    it looks to me that U106 was east of the Elbe and probably east of the Oder until the latest part of the beaker period. It seems to have not had access to the Elbe, Danube, and north Sea until the end of the beaker era. Then afterwards it seems to have access to them all though it was apparently stopped at the Rhine. As U106 is a close cousin of P312, I tend to think P312 did exactly the same thing as U106 but 3-400 years earlier - it was excluded from the main central CW 'classic' R1a network of Germany, Denmark, Holland etc, probably because it was denied access to the Elbe, Danube and north Sea. Then c. 2550BC it broke through into that exclusion zone - with accessing the Elbe perhaps the key. So if you rewind back before 2550BC, I suspect both U106 and P312 were somewhere east of the Oder. That also is a zone where aspects of the beaker burial rite are known among CW and CW related groups pre-2550BC. I have a hunch that area between the Oder and Elbe was a real battleground because it was effectively key to accessing Europe north of the Alps. If you couldnt get past it, its a long journey to get round Denmark to access the North Sea and its rivers or go the length of the Oder to the Moravian gate to reach the Danube.

    So, IMO all L151 was bottled up east of the Oder somewhere c. 3000-2550BC and may have been able to use rivers to access the Baltic but not the North Sea. Regardless of it being an atypical burial, finding a U106 guy in later battle axe Sweden out of a sample of only 2 or 3 men suggests U106 had access to the Baltic. The L11xP312xU106 guy found in a non-beaker burial in Csepel surely could only have got there by using the Oder and Moravian gates to the Danube. IMO he and the Swedish guy tend to point to U106 on the Oder c. 2200-2300BC, parallel to the final part of the bell beaker culture in central Europe. It may have been in that area earlier but it should be remembered that, even with the earlier calculated dating of U106 and P312, they were still young at the start of CW shortly after 3000BC so they might not be easy to pick up in their first couple of centuries of existence. They would have only been small groups in the earliest phase of CW and that may be why the early wave of CW seems to be R1a rather than L151.

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    it looks to me that U106 was east of the Elbe and probably east of the Oder until the latest part of the beaker period. It seems to have not had access to the Elbe, Danube, and north Sea until the end of the beaker era. Then afterwards it seems to have access to them all though it was apparently stopped at the Rhine. As U106 is a close cousin of P312, I tend to think P312 did exactly the same thing as U106 but 3-400 years earlier - it was excluded from the main central CW 'classic' R1a network of Germany, Denmark, Holland etc, probably because it was denied access to the Elbe, Danube and north Sea. Then c. 2550BC it broke through into that exclusion zone - with accessing the Elbe perhaps the key. So if you rewind back before 2550BC, I suspect both U106 and P312 were somewhere east of the Oder. That also is a zone where aspects of the beaker burial rite are known among CW and CW related groups pre-2550BC. I have a hunch that area between the Oder and Elbe was a real battleground because it was effectively key to accessing Europe north of the Alps. If you couldnt get past it, its a long journey to get round Denmark to access the North Sea and its rivers or go the length of the Oder to the Moravian gate to reach the Danube.

    So, IMO all L151 was bottled up east of the Oder somewhere c. 3000-2550BC and may have been able to use rivers to access the Baltic but not the North Sea. Regardless of it being an atypical burial, finding a U106 guy in later battle axe Sweden out of a sample of only 2 or 3 men suggests U106 had access to the Baltic. The L11xP312xU106 guy found in a non-beaker burial in Csepel surely could only have got there by using the Oder and Moravian gates to the Danube. IMO he and the Swedish guy tend to point to U106 on the Oder c. 2200-2300BC, parallel to the final part of the bell beaker culture in central Europe. It may have been in that area earlier but it should be remembered that, even with the earlier calculated dating of U106 and P312, they were still young at the start of CW shortly after 3000BC so they might not be easy to pick up in their first couple of centuries of existence. They would have only been small groups in the earliest phase of CW and that may be why the early wave of CW seems to be R1a rather than L151.

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    Quote Originally Posted by uintah106 View Post
    Unetice isn't Celtic. Those other haplogroups haven't been found in Unetice.R U106 has been found in Unetice,Z381 its majority branch.
    Unetice wasnt a unitary phenomenon. The western Unetice group burial very like the bell beakers while the eastern group seemed to draw more on CW traditions. I think because the CW and bell beaker group look well genetically-ethnically defined we have been drawn into thinking this is true of all cultures. I think after 2000BC in central Europe the social networks became less clannish and more complex and material culture and innovation no longer had to be driven by migrations of a male lineage and the culture-genes-language correlation would have weakened. I think Unetice was like that - more of network than an ethnic grouping. A later parallel to that is the Hallstatt C culture where its strongly suspected the western group were Celtic but its likely the eastern groups were not. Same goes for Urnfield where its highly unlikely the entire spread was one ethnicity or language.

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    It still seems something shoved R1a into Norway during/after Battle axe culture.I think it was the entry of R1b into Scandinavia via Unetice Maybe NE beaker culture.

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    Quote Originally Posted by uintah106 View Post
    It still seems something shoved R1a into Norway during/after Battle axe culture.I think it was the entry of R1b into Scandinavia via Unetice Maybe NE beaker culture.
    The movement of U106 was from Scandinavia to Unetice.

    And U106 has nothing to do with any Beakers.

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