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Thread: Rare human mitochondrial HV lineages

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    Rare human mitochondrial HV lineages

    Rare human mitochondrial HV lineages spread from the Near East and Caucasus during post-LGM and Neolithic expansions
    Michel Shamoon-Pour, Mian Li & D. Andrew Merriwether
    Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 14751 (2019)
    Published: 14 October 2019
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-48596-1
    Abstract
    Of particular significance to human population history in Eurasia are the migratory events that connected the Near East to Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Utilizing 315 HV*(xH,V) mitogenomes, including 27 contemporary lineages first reported here, we found the genetic signatures for distinctive movements out of the Near East and South Caucasus both westward into Europe and eastward into South Asia. The parallel phylogeographies of rare, yet widely distributed HV*(xH,V) subclades reveal a connection between the Italian Peninsula and South Caucasus, resulting from at least two (post-LGM, Neolithic) waves of migration. Many of these subclades originated in a population ancestral to contemporary Armenians and Assyrians. One such subclade, HV1b-152, supports a postexilic, northern Mesopotamian origin for the Ashkenazi HV1b2 lineages. In agreement with ancient DNA findings, our phylogenetic analysis of HV12 and HV14, the two exclusively Asian subclades of HV*(xH,V), point to the migration of lineages originating in Iran to South Asia before and during the Neolithic period. With HV12 being one of the oldest HV subclades, our results support an origin of HV haplogroup in the region defined by Western Iran, Mesopotamia, and the South Caucasus, where the highest prevalence of HV has been found.
    -------------------------------

    Important article.
    Post-Glacial migration from the Near East to Europe
    Neolithic expansion into Europe
    Expansion into Africa
    The non-European HV*(xH,V) subclades point at a pre-Neolithic migration from Iranian plateau to South Asia
    HV1b2 is an Ashkenazi Jewish subclade with links to Northern Mesopotamia
    ---------------
    Of course we can try to associate original autosomal components, Y-DNA and languages. I would guess haplogroup J (J1,J2), CHG-Iran complex and PIE languages in the cradle
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    The ancient Neolithic HV samples in Europe belong to HV0 subclade. Moreover, HV* has also been detected in the pre-Neolithic Europe, and many Asian HV clades made it to Europe only during the metal periods.

    The oldest European HV samples are these: Magdalenian Spain La Pasiega HV/H (?), Late Epigravettian Grotta d’Oriente Čgadi Sicily OrienteB ca 8500 BCE HV, British Early Mesolithic SW England Aveline_3 I6745 8750-8459 cal. BCE H13 / HV.

    The Neolithic HV0 samples are these:
    HV0: Starčevo NE Vinkovci Nama Croatia VINK3 HV0, NL Trypillians V3.16.1 3600 BC Ukraine HV0, Rössen NE Oberweiderstedt Germany OSH10 HV0, Lengyel NE Brześć Kujawski Poland O.26 HV0, Rössen NE Wittmar Germany Witt26 + Witt27 + Witt46 HV0, MN Bom Santo Cave Portugal #06 HV0, Late NE Calden Germany HV0, MN Odagsen Germany KI116 + KI168 + Kl186 HV0, MN Treilles Aveyron573 + Aveyron609 France HV0 x2
    HV0+195: Cardial Neolithic Cueva de Chaves NE Catalonia CHA001_MT 5308–5057 BCE HV0+195, Ballynahatty MN/LN HV0 (195), Scotland Neolithic Raschoille Cave Oban c. 3600 BCE I3137 HVO+195
    HV0a: Balcan Neolithic Vinča Vc6 5400 BC HV0a, MN Hungary ALPc Tiszadob Bükk Tiszadob-Ókenéz I2376 HV0a, LN Hungary Sopot Fajsz-Garadomb I1890 HV0a, LNE Cueva de los Cuarenta/South Spain 40331 3600 BC HV0a, TRB Neolithic Ansarme dolmen Gotland ans017 3330 BC HV0a

    There are some HV* samples in LBK but the amount of HV* is small compared to J1c, T2b and H. The only HV clade that is typical for Neolithic farmers is HV0.
    LBKT NE Balatonszárszó Hungary BSZ19 HV, Balcan Neolithic Lepenski Vir I5405/Lepi_17 5700 BCE HV, Epicardial NE Paternabidea Navarra PAT-3E2 HV, LBK NE Derenburg Germany DEB4 + DEB5 + DEB20 HV, LBK NE Karsdorf Germany KAR17 HV, French Alsace LBK Obernei OB 4089 HV, French Alsace LBK Obernei OB 4015 4688-4505 cal. BC HV, Rössen NE Oberweiderstedt Germany OB4015 HV, Schöningen NE Salzmünde Germany SALZ24 HV, Regional TRB Salzmünde Germany SALZ48 HV, MN Hungary ALPc Mezőkövesd-Mocsolyás I3537 HV, Late NE Paimogo Portugal PM13514 HV/L3

    Excluding HV0, ancient HV samples are located mostly in West Asia and on the steppe and these arrive in Europe during the Bronze Age. HV12 has been detected in Trypillians but it is almost non-existant in Europe: Eneolithic trypillians Vertebra Cave Ukraine VC001 Site 7 HV12b (356C), Eneolithic trypillians Vertebra Cave Ukraine VC038 HV12b.

    Here below you find the other Neolithic era HV samples located in Europe:
    LBK NE Viesenhäuser Hof Germany S0019/LBK1254 HV6’17, MN Germany Baalberge Quedlinburg IX I0559/QLB15D 3600 BC HV6’17 (y line R1b1a)

    I have not noted any HV1b in ancient Europe, but these two samples outside of Europe are of interest: Kanaan BA Sidon EGAN00001390965 HV1b1,
    Pastoral Neolithic Gishimangeda Cave Karatu District Tanzania I13980 2738-2490 BP HV1b

    As HV is pretty old, 40-50 kya, it has had plenty of time to spread around.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kristiina View Post
    As HV is pretty old, 40-50 kya, it has had plenty of time to spread around.
    At least one carrier of HV1a1a has somehow spread to eastern Siberia or Mongolia, where members of this clade have been observed among Yakut, Khamnigan, Buryat, and Barghut as I recall.

    According to Eliška Musilová, Verónica Fernandes, Nuno M. Silva, et al. (2011) ("Population history of the Red Sea—genetic exchanges between the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa signaled in the mitochondrial DNA HV1 haplogroup"), the TMRCA of HV1a1 is estimated to be 10,268 (3,602–17,194) years. As usual when it comes to TMRCA estimates of clades of mtDNA, the confidence interval is too large for this estimate to be very useful.

    The geographical distributions of members of HV1a1a and its nearest outgroups (HV1a1*, HV1a1b) suggest that HV1a1 might have originated in Upper Mesopotamia or the territory of (Greater) Armenia.

    How might members of this haplogroup have spread to Tunisia, Yemen, Siberia, and Mongolia? I would like to see some more detailed research regarding the HV clade and especially HV1a1.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kristiina View Post
    The ancient Neolithic HV samples in Europe belong to HV0 subclade. Moreover, HV* has also been detected in the pre-Neolithic Europe, and many Asian HV clades made it to Europe only during the metal periods.

    The oldest European HV samples are these: Magdalenian Spain La Pasiega HV/H (?), Late Epigravettian Grotta d’Oriente Čgadi Sicily OrienteB ca 8500 BCE HV, British Early Mesolithic SW England Aveline_3 I6745 8750-8459 cal. BCE H13 / HV.

    The Neolithic HV0 samples are these:
    HV0: Starčevo NE Vinkovci Nama Croatia VINK3 HV0, NL Trypillians V3.16.1 3600 BC Ukraine HV0, Rössen NE Oberweiderstedt Germany OSH10 HV0, Lengyel NE Brześć Kujawski Poland O.26 HV0, Rössen NE Wittmar Germany Witt26 + Witt27 + Witt46 HV0, MN Bom Santo Cave Portugal #06 HV0, Late NE Calden Germany HV0, MN Odagsen Germany KI116 + KI168 + Kl186 HV0, MN Treilles Aveyron573 + Aveyron609 France HV0 x2
    HV0+195: Cardial Neolithic Cueva de Chaves NE Catalonia CHA001_MT 5308–5057 BCE HV0+195, Ballynahatty MN/LN HV0 (195), Scotland Neolithic Raschoille Cave Oban c. 3600 BCE I3137 HVO+195
    HV0a: Balcan Neolithic Vinča Vc6 5400 BC HV0a, MN Hungary ALPc Tiszadob Bükk Tiszadob-Ókenéz I2376 HV0a, LN Hungary Sopot Fajsz-Garadomb I1890 HV0a, LNE Cueva de los Cuarenta/South Spain 40331 3600 BC HV0a, TRB Neolithic Ansarme dolmen Gotland ans017 3330 BC HV0a

    There are some HV* samples in LBK but the amount of HV* is small compared to J1c, T2b and H. The only HV clade that is typical for Neolithic farmers is HV0.
    LBKT NE Balatonszárszó Hungary BSZ19 HV, Balcan Neolithic Lepenski Vir I5405/Lepi_17 5700 BCE HV, Epicardial NE Paternabidea Navarra PAT-3E2 HV, LBK NE Derenburg Germany DEB4 + DEB5 + DEB20 HV, LBK NE Karsdorf Germany KAR17 HV, French Alsace LBK Obernei OB 4089 HV, French Alsace LBK Obernei OB 4015 4688-4505 cal. BC HV, Rössen NE Oberweiderstedt Germany OB4015 HV, Schöningen NE Salzmünde Germany SALZ24 HV, Regional TRB Salzmünde Germany SALZ48 HV, MN Hungary ALPc Mezőkövesd-Mocsolyás I3537 HV, Late NE Paimogo Portugal PM13514 HV/L3

    Excluding HV0, ancient HV samples are located mostly in West Asia and on the steppe and these arrive in Europe during the Bronze Age. HV12 has been detected in Trypillians but it is almost non-existant in Europe: Eneolithic trypillians Vertebra Cave Ukraine VC001 Site 7 HV12b (356C), Eneolithic trypillians Vertebra Cave Ukraine VC038 HV12b.

    Here below you find the other Neolithic era HV samples located in Europe:
    LBK NE Viesenhäuser Hof Germany S0019/LBK1254 HV6’17, MN Germany Baalberge Quedlinburg IX I0559/QLB15D 3600 BC HV6’17 (y line R1b1a)

    I have not noted any HV1b in ancient Europe, but these two samples outside of Europe are of interest: Kanaan BA Sidon EGAN00001390965 HV1b1,
    Pastoral Neolithic Gishimangeda Cave Karatu District Tanzania I13980 2738-2490 BP HV1b

    As HV is pretty old, 40-50 kya, it has had plenty of time to spread around.
    The first documented HV1 sample in Europe is present in MBA Banbino, Ukraine (paper can be found
    here.
    ) All sorts of southern stuff may have got onto the Banbino area at that stage.

    Quote Originally Posted by Ebizur View Post
    At least one carrier of HV1a1a has somehow spread to eastern Siberia or Mongolia, where members of this clade have been observed among Yakut, Khamnigan, Buryat, and Barghut as I recall.

    According to Eliška Musilová, Verónica Fernandes, Nuno M. Silva, et al. (2011) ("Population history of the Red Sea—genetic exchanges between the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa signaled in the mitochondrial DNA HV1 haplogroup"), the TMRCA of HV1a1 is estimated to be 10,268 (3,602–17,194) years. As usual when it comes to TMRCA estimates of clades of mtDNA, the confidence interval is too large for this estimate to be very useful.

    The geographical distributions of members of HV1a1a and its nearest outgroups (HV1a1*, HV1a1b) suggest that HV1a1 might have originated in Upper Mesopotamia or the territory of (Greater) Armenia.

    How might members of this haplogroup have spread to Tunisia, Yemen, Siberia, and Mongolia? I would like to see some more detailed research regarding the HV clade and especially HV1a1.
    So far, there are two HV1a1 samples in the ancient Northern Caucasus and Armenia:

    KDC002.A0101 from Kudachurt, MBA North Caucasus (1900-1700 BC);

    arm46 from Karashamb, MBA Armenia (1800-1600 BC).

    Personally, I also belong to HV1a1, but I have only (MTDNA full sequence) matches from European countries like Poland, The Netherlands, France, UK and Russia. It appears there is also a European subgroup within the HV1a1 clade.

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    @ Radboud

    In addition to the Babino sample, in Europe I have recorded the samples below:
    EBA Bulgaria Shekerdja Mogila SM_24.2 HV1a'b'c
    Iron Age Piceni from Novilara Italy NOR20 83 650 BC HV1
    Longobard Hungary Hegykő LHHEG2 400-500 AD HV1a2
    Proto-Bulgarian Nojarevo Bulgaria 700-800 AD NJ 77 HV1

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    I disagree on this:

    Despite the remarkably old age inferred for certain HV*(xH,V) subclades in this region7, ancient DNA (aDNA) studies fail to provide evidence for the presence of haplogroup HV*(xH,V) in pre-Neolithic Italy. In fact, haplogroup HV*(xH,V) is not very common among ancient European individuals studied so far, with the oldest case belonging to a 7,000 year-old Linear Pottery Culture (LBK) individual from Central Europe9.


    How can you say that ancient DNA studies have failed to provide evidence for the presence of haplogroup HV*(xH,V) in pre-Neolithic Italy when the post-LGM samples are only three (or four?) one being Villabruna 13 kya, U5b2b, one Grotta d’Oriente sample I2158 SIC2, U2’3’4’7’8’9, and the other late Epigravettian Grotta d’Oriente Čgadi Sicily OrienteB ca 8500 BCE is precisely HV. Of course, the status of Magdalenian Spain La Pasiega HV/H is disputed, and British Early Mesolithic SW England Aveline_3 I6745 8750-8459 cal. BCE has been assigned to H13 / HV. These two could be early H samples.

    This is the paper: https://www.researchgate.net/publica...Islands_Sicily
    It is argued that the Italian sample is HV1.
    Last edited by Kristiina; 10-20-2019 at 01:40 PM.

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    On the one hand, they say:

    "supports a postexilic, northern Mesopotamian origin for the Ashkenazi HV1b2 lineages"

    meanwhile, they also say: "MtDNA data from the ancient Near East is limited, however, aDNA studies have revealed the presence of HV*(xH,V) lineages in Iran (HV), Levant (HV*, HV1b2)"
    הִנְנִי֩ מֵבִ֨יא אוֹתָ֜ם מֵאֶ֣רֶץ צָפ֗וֹן

    Jeremiah 31

    Other potential and/or likely recent lineages: R-A11720, J-FGC21085, E-FGC56023

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    HV1b2 has also been found in 2 ancient Egyptian mummies.

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    already posted in another thread HV0 (T195C) for father's mtDNA can be traced back to only around 1800 i Essex, Engalnd
    Last edited by Jan_Noack; 11-02-2019 at 04:56 AM.

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