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Thread: On the Genetic Position of Cornwall

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    On the Genetic Position of Cornwall

    Cornwall is a very intriguing region of Britain, and part of what makes it so intriguing is that it seems to have such a strong national culture despite not being technically separate from England, in the way that Wales and Scotland are. The people I’ve had conversations with who are of Cornish descent often express a strong Celtic identity.
    We have four major genetic studies on Britain and Ireland, and Cornwall’s genetic position in these studies is quite interesting. I’ve grouped together what I consider to be some of the most important charts and graphs which include Cornwall for the purpose of more easily examining the relationship of this region compared to the other regions in Britain and Ireland.
    CornwallDendrograms.png
    First, we have the dendrograms, which show us how the samples cluster. Note that in the top dendrogram, the pink cross represents Cornwall and the red square represents England. In the dendrograms from the People of the British Isles (POBI) and the Insular Celtic Population Structure and the Genomic Footprints of Migration (ICPS) we see that Cornwall, while still in the same grouping as England, is the most distinct cluster in that grouping, yet it is not as distinct as the clusters in Northern England. The POBI dendrogram is on the top of the image and the ICPS dendrogram is center left. The center right dendrogram is from the Irish DNA Atlas (IDA) and this time it shows the Northern English clusters as the most distinct in the English clusters grouping, with Cornwall being the second most distinct. Finally, we have the dendrogram from the Genetic Landscape of Scotland and the Isles (GLSI) which departs from the dendrograms we saw in the previous three studies by grouping Cornwall more closely to England than the Welsh borders, or the Marches. Although the clusters representing Northern England cluster with Scotland in both the POBI and the ICPS studies, Cornwall remains clustered with England, albeit more distantly than the distinctive English regions such as Devon. This indicates that Cornwall is more like Central England than the Northern English regions are.
    CornwallPCA.png
    Second, we have some t-SNE and PCA charts from the ICPS and the GLSI. I was unable to identify the Cornish markers in the PCA charts from the IDA and the GLSI and so I was unable to include those here. The top image is PC 1 and 3 from the ICPS, the central image is PCA 1 and 2 from the ICPS, the bottom left is the t-SNE from the GLSI, the bottom center is PC 1 and 4 from the ICPS, and the bottom right is the t-SNE from the ICPS. Please note that Cornwall in the ICPS is a pale-yellow colour, and I’ve included a snippet from the dendrogram for reference to help identify Cornwall’s position in ICPS PCAs 1 and 2 and 1 and 3. In ICPS PCA 1 and 2 and 1 and 3 Cornwall’s position can be located as underneath YOR. It is distinctively left of the red English markers and seems to cluster with York, North-East England, Cumbria, and Devon most closely. PCA 1 and 3 (top) shows more easily identifiable British clusters than PCA 1 and 2, and what is notable there is that the Welsh Borders are positioned further from England than Cornwall is. However, in PCA 1 and 4 (bottom center) and the ICPS t-SNE, (bottom right) Cornwall is incredibly distinctive, appearing closer to South Wales than to England in PCA 1 and 4. Cornwall also shows a notable degree of separation from the English cluster in the GLSI t-SNE, comparable to that of the Northern English cluster. Despite this, only ICPS PCA 1 and 4 show Cornwall with a greater degree of separation from England than a Scottish cluster. These charts show that in some dimensions Cornwall does have a notable amount of genetic distinctiveness, although other dimensions show that the opposite can be seen as well.
    CornwallAncientComparison.png
    Third, we have two forms of comparison with ancient Insular Celtic genomes to the modern British and Irish clusters. The left chart is a k2 from the ICPS which sorts ancestry by samples from ancient Anglo Saxons (red bar) and ancient Britons (green bar.) The right panel shows how these samples appear when analyzed in the same way and includes the Driffield Terrace Romano-British samples. I added the black line across the graph to show that the Irish NLU cluster has more ancient Briton like ancestry than 3 of the 4 ancient British samples do and looks like it might be close to a median point of all four of these samples. The blue line across the graph represents Cornwall’s position, and interestingly it appears to share about the same amount of ancient Briton like ancestry that North-East England does in this analysis. Cornwall has less Anglo-Saxon like ancestry in this analysis than Devon, the Welsh Borders, Cheshire, South England, West England, Yorkshire, and Cumbria. However, it shows more Anglo-Saxon like ancestry than Orkney, Wales, Scotland, or Ireland. The chart on the right, from the GLSI, shows shared drift with the ancient Gael samples found in Iceland, with the left of the chart representing more shared drift and the right of the chart showing less. We see that Argyll and Donegal share the most while England and Devon share the least. However, in this analysis, Cornwall appears to share less drift with the ancient Gaels than the Welsh Marches cluster does. It also appears to be in about the same position as the Northern English marker, which is very interesting given how similar it is the ICPS k2. Again, we see that Cornwall lacks the same genetic distinction that the other Celtic Nations of Britain have.

    I’m not saying that Cornwall is not at all genetically distinct from England, it clearly separates from England consistently in each study. However, the degree of distinction we see in Cornwall is more comparable to that of the degree of separation we see in Northern England and is certainly less than that of Wales or Scotland. The question I am asking those of you who took the time to read this is: “why do you think Cornwall remains so similar to England genetically despite its distinctive cultural identity?” I personally think that there are two major options, the first could be that the Cornish have not retained that much of their Insular Celtic genetic legacy, perhaps due to migrations from England. However, I think that there could be a second possibility: what if we were to frame the question as “why is England as genetically similar to Cornwall as it is?” Could it be that the genetic distance between England and Cornwall is representative of England retaining much of their Insular Celtic heritage instead?
    Paper trail ancestry to the best of my knowledge:
    English (possibly containing some Welsh ancestry) 31.25%, Scottish 17.96%, Scotch-Irish 12.5%, Eastern German 12.5%, Eastern European (Likely Polish possibly including Romanian) 12.5%, French 7.81%, Native American (Saulteaux and Assiniboine) 2.34%, and Colonial American, 3.125%, which cannot be traced with certainty. With certainty, there is Dutch (at least 1.36%) and some English.

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    It seems to me like what we are seeing here is that to the extent where England and Scotland can be separated, Northern England (essentially Yorkshire and northward) goes in the direction of Scotland, while Cornwall is simply the least Germanic part of genetic Southern England. But for this to be the case, we also must conclude that southern England itself is mostly indigenous rather than Germanic, though they do have some Germanic input as well that separates them somewhat from Cornwall.

    Ireland, of course, is overall genetically related to, but distinct from the island of Britain with the exception of southwest Scotland.

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    My hope for this thread was that people might post what they think the most likely reason for the genetic situation of Cornwall is, and that we might hear from some people who are knowledgeable about the history and culture of Cornwall.
    Paper trail ancestry to the best of my knowledge:
    English (possibly containing some Welsh ancestry) 31.25%, Scottish 17.96%, Scotch-Irish 12.5%, Eastern German 12.5%, Eastern European (Likely Polish possibly including Romanian) 12.5%, French 7.81%, Native American (Saulteaux and Assiniboine) 2.34%, and Colonial American, 3.125%, which cannot be traced with certainty. With certainty, there is Dutch (at least 1.36%) and some English.

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    My surname was first found in England in Cornwall in the 15th C . I get next to no Cornish in Poi's calculators while my father gets >2 to < 10.
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    Quote Originally Posted by sktibo View Post
    My hope for this thread was that people might post what they think the most likely reason for the genetic situation of Cornwall is, and that we might hear from some people who are knowledgeable about the history and culture of Cornwall.
    I've only just seen this informative post. Nice work. I suspect the truth lies in a combination of the two theories you raise. It strikes me that the typical practice of classing modern testers by grandparents' birthplaces is particularly problematic in the 21st century for somewhere like Cornwall, which has seen increasing settlement from the rest of England recently. We'd probably have to have Cornish samples from 1500 at the latest to give an accurate picture of unadmixed "modern" Cornish DNA.
    There are two sources in particular from outside the commonly considered agricultural and mining/industrial spheres that we could bear in mind too.
    The first is wider English impact on the gentry class, where women from elsewhere in England were married advantageously in Cornwall. Look at the trees of such famous Cornish families as the Godolphins or Killigrews to see how that happened.
    The second - and perhaps more significant - involves the Anglican clergy serving throughout the Cornish parishes in recent centuries. These well-educated clergymen often came from English counties but settled in their adopted parishes, were accompanied by their wives or married locals and had children. You can look up lists of incumbents serving in parishes for yourselves and see that many had non-Cornish English origins and surnames. Their offspring must have left a considerable impact on Cornwall over hundreds of years.
    (While I'm on the clergy, Methodism also arrived from England in the 18th century and spread throughout Cornwall of course. I know there were both Cornish and wider English preachers and hangers on in Wesley's popular movement so would guess there was at least some demographic effect, though I can't find evidence to help quantify this.)

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    Quote Originally Posted by JonikW View Post
    I've only just seen this informative post. Nice work. I suspect the truth lies in a combination of the two theories you raise. It strikes me that the typical practice of classing modern testers by grandparents' birthplaces is particularly problematic in the 21st century for somewhere like Cornwall, which has seen increasing settlement from the rest of England recently. We'd probably have to have Cornish samples from 1500 at the latest to give an accurate picture of unadmixed "modern" Cornish DNA.
    There are two sources in particular from outside the commonly considered agricultural and mining/industrial spheres that we could bear in mind too.
    The first is wider English impact on the gentry class, where women from elsewhere in England were married advantageously in Cornwall. Look at the trees of such famous Cornish families as the Godolphins or Killigrews to see how that happened.
    The second - and perhaps more significant - involves the Anglican clergy serving throughout the Cornish parishes in recent centuries. These well-educated clergymen often came from English counties but settled in their adopted parishes, were accompanied by their wives or married locals and had children. You can look up lists of incumbents serving in parishes for yourselves and see that many had non-Cornish English origins and surnames. Their offspring must have left a considerable impact on Cornwall over hundreds of years.
    (While I'm on the clergy, Methodism also arrived from England in the 18th century and spread throughout Cornwall of course. I know there were both Cornish and wider English preachers and hangers on in Wesley's popular movement so would guess there was at least some demographic effect, though I can't find evidence to help quantify this.)
    Interesting stuff, thank you!
    So would you say that there was historically a noticeable effort to mix people from England into the Cornish population?
    Paper trail ancestry to the best of my knowledge:
    English (possibly containing some Welsh ancestry) 31.25%, Scottish 17.96%, Scotch-Irish 12.5%, Eastern German 12.5%, Eastern European (Likely Polish possibly including Romanian) 12.5%, French 7.81%, Native American (Saulteaux and Assiniboine) 2.34%, and Colonial American, 3.125%, which cannot be traced with certainty. With certainty, there is Dutch (at least 1.36%) and some English.

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    I wonder how much the ancient tin trade may have affected Cornwall’s makeup from early on - does ancient Cornwall look different from other nearby regions at similar times?
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    Quote Originally Posted by sktibo View Post
    Interesting stuff, thank you!
    So would you say that there was historically a noticeable effort to mix people from England into the Cornish population?
    I think it's more a matter of outside English people filling gaps for employers (including the church) when there was a shortage of trained local candidates and in marriage when there was a lack of eligible partners of the right class.
    Living DNA's former Cautious mode:
    Wales-related ancestry: 86.8%
    Cornwall: 8%
    North England-related ancestry: 5.2%
    Y line: Peak District, England. Big Y match: Scania, Sweden; TMRCA 1,100 ybp (YFull);
    mtDNA: traces to Glamorgan, Wales
    Mother's Y: traces to Llanvair Discoed, Wales

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    Recent member, first time poster here, procrastinating before starting work!

    Thanks for this thread Skitbo, and to others for their replies - especially JonikW whose comments align closely with my thoughts.

    This is a topic close to my heart (see my flags) and I'd like to develop a more detailed reply when I have time. Some of my initial thoughts about why Cornwall is a bit like England (but culturally a lot like Wales) are:

    1. Genetically, Cornwall comprises a liminal position between England and South Wales, with a genetic 'tug' towards England (stronger in a PC1/PC3, weaker in PC1/PC4 [Byrne et.al., 2018]) and a strong cultural similarity with Wales (anecdote: I've seen this affinity first-hand when observing the extent to which my Welsh-speaking partner, with no study of Cornish herself, is able to make sense of a lot of the Cornish language with little difficulty). I'd argue the key historical processes at play here are:

    - Accounting for the similarity between Cornwall and South Wales, both Cornwall and South Wales are 'stopping points' along the Atlantic seaways, which were argued by Cunliffe (2012) and others to have been the main route for the populating of Western Britain and Ireland in deep prehistory. The most ancient roots of both parts of the country are likely to be closely related if not identical. The closeness of Cornwall and South Wales, genetically, is quite clear from the PC1/PC4 analysis and also from the Irish DNA Atlas's breakdown of ancestral donations (in which Cornwall looks to have an almost identical set of donating populations as South Wales I [Gilbert et.al., 2017, p.6]; note that this is in contrast to the earlier breakdown presented in the POBI [Leslie et.al., 2015, p.311], a discrepancy between the two studies that needs more investigation).

    - Accounting for the similarity between Cornwall and England (and thus their proximity in the PC1/PC3 analysis), Cornwall was annexed by Wessex significantly earlier (9th Century) than Wales was conquered by England (post-Norman Conquest: 11th to 13th Centuries). The Domesday Book attests to the fact that Cornish land was divided between Anglo-Saxon landholders prior to the Norman Conquest. Even if these were absentee landlords, I'd argue that they would have employed at least some Anglo-Saxon estate managers on the ground in Cornwall. Over time, some of these individuals would have inter-married with the local population, resulting in a fairly early Anglo-Saxon introgression into the indigenous Cornish genetic stocks. On this, I'd like to see somebody do a GLOBETROTTER analysis to see just how far back the Germanic component to Cornish DNA goes. I also need to do some research to determine the extent to which Anglo-Saxon immigrants became part of the Cornish community in the pre-Conquest centuries.

    - Archaeology is beginning to suggest that Vikings were active in Cornwall at a similar time (indeed, Vikings and Cornish allied together against Egbert of Wessex - a case of "my enemy's enemy is my friend", perhaps?). It would be interesting to compare and contrast the extent of Viking activity in Cornwall and South Wales to determine whether Cornwall's difference from Wales is at least in part due to differential Viking contributions to local DNA.

    - Cornwall is also going to start to look like a blend of England and Wales, genetically, because medieval and early post-medieval aristocratic/gentry inter-marriage was a cross-border thing - these families didn't just look to the next door neighbours for mates. In addition to the Godolphins and Killigrews mentioned by JonikW, my own Cornish family tree includes at least four other surnames (Carew, Trevanion, Pollard, Apeley) that arrived in Cornwall from elsewhere in England and Wales, all via Devon. Other families would no doubt continue to broaden this picture. It would be interesting to map medieval aristocratic inter-marriage to see the extent to which this was a one-way (e.g. non-Cornish people marrying into Cornish families) or a two-way thing (Cornish people marrying into non-Cornish families and vice versa).

    - More recently, post-medieval (and probably medieval) cross-border marriage amongst commoners, of which JonikW's example of clergy in Cornwall is a good one, will have spread non-Cornish English DNA into the peninsula. In this respect, my Tink-Webb families are also illustrative: throughout the 19th Century, these working class families can be found both marrying and re-locating back and forth across the Tamar on multiple occasions. Plymouth seems to have had a fair bit of genetic 'gravity' in these cases, drawing people into its orbit from Cornwall and further afield in Devon. Processes like JonikW's clergy movements and my mob moving in and out of Plymouth will have constituted recent introgressions of Anglo-Saxon genetic elements from England into Cornwall and will also have served to reinforce Ancient British genetic elements on the Devon side of the river.

    2. Thinking about Skitbo's question about why England is a bit like Cornwall genetically but not culturally, I think what we have here is that England is genetically founded on both ancient British populations and a significant proportion of incomers from Germany. The descendants of those German incomers 'thin out' a lot when we hit the Celtic-speaking countries and counties. However, whilst the Anglo-Saxons came to dominate England culturally, they were unable to extend that cultural conquest to the Atlantic coasts of Britain, allowing Celtic cultures and languages to survive (in some cases until the present). The reason for this can be found in the Early Medieval Period. This was a time when cultural identities were solidifying into the forms that we still recognise today. In Cornwall, Wales, Cumbria, and Scotland - all of these lands were holding on stubbornly to Celtic languages and cultures and were being recognised by themselves and the newcomers alike as different. In this context, it's easy to see that the Cornish, once they had a well-formed sense of their own distinctiveness from the invading and conquering people of Wessex, were not going to let go of that distinctiveness unless absolutely forced to by a tiny but ruthless minority, unless the scale of Anglo-Saxon introgression was on a par with south-eastern England (which it wasn't, as we can tell from the PC1/PC4 analysis), or unless long-term historical processes eventually acted to make English the language of politics and economics across the Isles (which eventually is what happened, but it took long enough for Cornish Celtic culture to be preserved).

    Lastly, how far back does the sense of Cornish 'difference' go? My own gut feeling is that it probably has very early roots - it seems to me that, whether the pre-Roman Cornovii were separate from Dumnonia entirely, or more likely a sub-set of Dumnonia, the people of what is Cornwall have been thought of as having a distinctiveness from the people of what is now the rest of the West Country for a very long time indeed. I find it fascinating that we can still detect the outlines of these very ancient communities some 2,000+ years and four invasions later.

    So that's been a bit more than a little bit of procrastination and both lunch and work really beckon now. I'll be interested to see other perspectives or info on these matters!

    Cheers,

    KT

    References

    Byrne, R.P., Martiniano, R., Cassidy, L.M. Carrigan, M., Hellenthal, G., Hardiman, O., et.al. (2018) Insular Celtic population structure and genomic footprints of migration. PLoS Genet 14(1): e1007152. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007152

    Cunliffe, B. (2012). Britain Begins. Glasgow, Great Britain: Oxford University Press.

    Gilbert, E., O’Reilly, S., Merrigan, M. et al. (2017). The Irish DNA Atlas: Revealing Fine-Scale Population Structure and History within Ireland. Sci Rep 7, 17199. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-17124-4

    Leslie, S., Winney, B., Hellenthal, G. et al. (2015). The fine-scale genetic structure of the British population. Nature 519, 309–314. doi:10.1038/nature14230

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