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Thread: haplogroup U2

  1. #1
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    haplogroup U2

    U2 is a rare and interesting haplogroup. There was a U2 sample found in ancient remains dating to about 35,000 years ago at Kostenki, Russia. Around that time U2 appears to have spread both to Europe and to south Asia. Several suclades (U2a, U2b and U2c) are found most often in south Asia. U2d is found mostly in the Near East and southwest Asia, and U2e is found mostly in Europe. I'm uncertain of the migration history of U2e. It is estimated to be about 19,000 years old and it might have been among early Europeans, or it might have migrated to Europe with Neolithic farmers or herders.

    There is a new U2e1 Chinese sample from a study by Jiang et al., which is in an unnamed subclade that I'm calling U2e1h, with an age estimate of about 5000 ybp. There are 10 samples in this group with ancestry from: China, India, Russia, Ukraine, France, Denmark, and 2 samples each from Italy and Spain. This is another group that seems to fit a possible Indo-European expansion, although other explanations could be possible for the unusual distribution.

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  3. #2
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    Quote Originally Posted by GailT View Post
    U2 is a rare and interesting haplogroup. There was a U2 sample found in ancient remains dating to about 35,000 years ago at Kostenki, Russia. Around that time U2 appears to have spread both to Europe and to south Asia. Several suclades (U2a, U2b and U2c) are found most often in south Asia. U2d is found mostly in the Near East and southwest Asia, and U2e is found mostly in Europe. I'm uncertain of the migration history of U2e. It is estimated to be about 19,000 years old and it might have been among early Europeans, or it might have migrated to Europe with Neolithic farmers or herders.

    There is a new U2e1 Chinese sample from a study by Jiang et al., which is in an unnamed subclade that I'm calling U2e1h, with an age estimate of about 5000 ybp. There are 10 samples in this group with ancestry from: China, India, Russia, Ukraine, France, Denmark, and 2 samples each from Italy and Spain. This is another group that seems to fit a possible Indo-European expansion, although other explanations could be possible for the unusual distribution.
    Aren't U2e and U2d related to U2c?

    There is that Brahmin like (more likely a Shraman) Xiongnu sample who was R1a1/U2e1 from Duurlig Nars in North Eastern Mongolia.
    "the autosomal profile of MNX3 West Eurasian male is 14 times more probable from a Brah-min Indian than from a modern Caucasian"
    http://volgagermanbrit.us/documents/Kim_et_al.pdf
    Last edited by parasar; 01-16-2014 at 06:26 PM.

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  5. #3
    Is there any U2d in Europe or South Adia?

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    Quote Originally Posted by newtoboard View Post
    Is there any U2d in Europe or South Adia?
    It is present in Europe.

    The sequencing of the entire mitochondrial DNA belonging to haplogroup U2d reveals that this clade is defined by four coding-region mutations at positions 1700, 4025, 11893, and 14926. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that western Eurasian haplogroup U2d appears to be a sister clade with the Indo-Pakistani haplogroup U2c. Results of a phylogeographic analysis of published population data on the distribution of haplogroup U2d indicate that the presence of such mtDNA lineages in Europe may be mostly a consequence of medieval migrations of nomadic tribes from the Caucasus and eastern Europe to central Europe.
    http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol80/iss5/6/

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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    Aren't U2e and U2d related to U2c?
    U2c and U2d is related and branches from U2c'd defined by C16234T . We have a U2c'd sample from jordan
    http://www.ianlogan.co.uk/sequences_..._sequences.htm

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  9. #6
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    I have the following "relatives" on 23andme who are U2:

    U2a=8
    U2b1=2
    U2b2=3
    U2c=7
    U2e1=5

    It appears that U2 may be widely distributed in South asia.
    Paternal YDNA: G-P303+ -> G-Z30522+
    Paternal mtDNA: U7a3b1
    Maternal YDNA: R-Z2123+ -> R-YP526+
    Maternal mtDNA: C4a1 (T195C!)

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    Quote Originally Posted by BMG View Post
    U2c and U2d is related and branches from U2c'd defined by C16234T . We have a U2c'd sample from jordan
    http://www.ianlogan.co.uk/sequences_..._sequences.htm
    And T152C! connects U2e and U2c'd.
    http://www.mtdnacommunity.org/human-...phylogeny.aspx

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    The relationship between U2c and U2d is very old - Behar estimates the age of U2c'd as 39 kya. The common ancestor of U2c'd'e would be slightly earlier than U2c'd.

    I don't know of any U2c'd samples. Ian shows the branch point on his page but does not show a GenBank sample at that branch point.

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  14. #9
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    Here's my Genographic results I just got back today.

    Paternal Line: M42 > M168 > M89 > P128 > M45 > M207 > P231 > M343 > L278 > P310 > L21
    Maternal Line: L3 > N > R > U > U2 > U2E > U2E1'2'3

    MEDITERRANEAN
    43%
    NORTHERN EUROPEAN
    39%
    SOUTHWEST ASIAN
    15%
    NEANDERTHAL
    1.9%
    DENISOVAN
    1.9%



    YOUR FIRST REFERENCE POPULATION: BRITISH (UNITED KINGDOM)
    YOUR SECOND REFERENCE POPULATION: GREEK



    I find is curious there is no French reference population...

    And myFTDNA gives:


    Y-DNA R1b1a2a1a1b4 Shorthand R-L21 DF13
    mtDNA U2e1b


    I'm French Canadian, and I can track both Paternal and Maternal to France during the first colonization of Nouvelle France in the 1650's, and my paternal line to to 1033.

    Paternal: Gen. Raphael de Podio, Commander of the Roman Cavalry & Grand Chamberlain of the Roman Republic, Governor of Provinces of Lanquedoc & Dauphiny of Southeastern France (b. bef. 1033)
    Maternal: Marie Cholet, b.1602 and d. 1642

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  16. #10
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    Ian Logan has processed the 1041 mtDNA full sequence results from the Human Genome Diversity Project (link).

    There are 9 U2 samples from Pakistan include 3 U2a, 2 U2b and 4 U2e1. One of the U2e1 samples is in U2e1h (the group I posted on above which is widely distributed across Eurasia) and the other 3 form a new subclade of U2e1 only found in Pakistan.

    Based on the modern U2e distribution I still think a southwest Asian origin for U2e seems likely. In Mesolithic Europe there is the Blätterhöhle sample BLA3 dated at 11,200 ypb and identified as U2e based on HVR1 results. Then there are the two closely related Motala U2e1 samples dated at 8000 ybp, results still not published as far as I know. And then the Uznyi Oleni Ostrov U2e1 samples dated at 7500 ybp. So U2e was in Europe during the Mesolithic but I think it more likely that it originated in soutwest Asia or eastern Europe/Russia, and much of the present day European U2e1 could represent more recent migration from further east, perhaps with Indo European speakers. The only modern U2e* sample is from India.

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