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Thread: Most likely SOURCE of extra "Levantine" in SE European populations?

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    Most likely SOURCE of extra "Levantine" in SE European populations?

    I am making a separate thread about this so it does not spill over into other threads.

    So we know from Bronze Age Sicilians and Mycenaeans/Minoans that there was Caucasus/CHG/Iran Neolithic input already in Southeastern Europe, but not anything Semitic or Afroasiatic in origin which is in fact not indigenous to the region.

    We also know that we can attribute North African input to the Moorish period, as we see that, like Spain and Portugal, you need North African to model Sicilians (especially West), Maltese, and Calabrians. We also can reduce, for Greek groups especially, the amount of Levantine scored by adding "ARM_LBA" to capture migration from Anatolia, both ancient and recent.

    With Western Jews we know their Levantine is because their ultimate origin is in the Levant. But based on the evidence, what source should we attribute remaining and unaccounted for Levantine input in Sicily, Calabria, Crete, Cyprus and so on? Is it Phoenician? Is it from Anatolia also? Or is it from the Byzantine period? Arab rule? etc.

    And related to the new Roman paper which found Levantine migration took place to the Italian Peninsula in the Imperial period, should we attribute extra Levantine in Lazio, Marche, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Apulia, Basilicata, and Umbria to this? The Levantine component is still needed around 7-10% for people from mainland Greece, Marche, Umbria, etc.


     

    Maltese
    Distance: 1.0894% / 0.01089441
    Aggregated
    23.0 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    21.6 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    15.6 GRC_Mycenaean
    14.4 ARM_LBA
    11.6 Berber_Tunisia_Chen
    7.0 DEU_MA
    6.8 CZE_Early_Slav

    Sicilian_East
    Distance: 1.1638% / 0.01163763
    Aggregated
    27.0 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    21.6 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    21.2 GRC_Mycenaean
    16.0 DEU_MA
    11.6 ARM_LBA
    2.4 Berber_Tunisia_Chen
    0.2 CZE_Early_Slav

    Sicilian_West
    Distance: 0.9561% / 0.00956118
    Aggregated
    36.6 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    24.2 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    14.8 ARM_LBA
    7.8 DEU_MA
    7.2 CZE_Early_Slav
    7.0 Berber_Tunisia_Chen
    2.4 GRC_Mycenaean

    Greek_Crete
    Distance: 1.2908% / 0.01290788
    Aggregated
    31.6 GRC_Mycenaean
    29.0 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    19.2 ARM_LBA
    14.6 CZE_Early_Slav
    5.6 Bell_Beaker_ITA

    Greek
    Distance: 1.5151% / 0.01515095
    Aggregated
    35.8 CZE_Early_Slav
    32.4 GRC_Mycenaean
    11.0 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    10.4 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    10.4 ARM_LBA

    Cypriot
    Distance: 1.1673% / 0.01167299
    Aggregated
    50.6 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    22.4 GRC_Mycenaean
    19.8 ARM_LBA
    7.2 Bell_Beaker_ITA

    Italian_Abruzzo
    Distance: 1.0365% / 0.01036521
    Aggregated
    26.4 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    21.6 GRC_Mycenaean
    18.4 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    18.2 ARM_LBA
    8.8 DEU_MA
    6.6 CZE_Early_Slav

    Italian_Apulia
    Distance: 1.1189% / 0.01118890
    Aggregated
    25.8 GRC_Mycenaean
    24.2 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    19.6 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    18.0 ARM_LBA
    10.0 CZE_Early_Slav
    2.2 DEU_MA
    0.2 Berber_Tunisia_Chen

    Italian_Basilica
    Distance: 1.0358% / 0.01035810
    Aggregated
    27.2 GRC_Mycenaean
    21.0 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    20.4 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    16.8 ARM_LBA
    12.2 CZE_Early_Slav
    2.0 DEU_MA
    0.4 Berber_Tunisia_Chen

    Italian_Calabria
    Distance: 1.0641% / 0.01064055
    Aggregated
    30.8 GRC_Mycenaean
    20.4 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    19.8 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    19.0 ARM_LBA
    5.6 CZE_Early_Slav
    4.2 Berber_Tunisia_Chen
    0.2 DEU_MA

    Italian_Campania
    Distance: 0.9552% / 0.00955240
    Aggregated
    24.2 GRC_Mycenaean
    23.6 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    23.4 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    17.2 ARM_LBA
    6.6 CZE_Early_Slav
    3.8 DEU_MA
    1.2 Berber_Tunisia_Chen

    Italian_Lazio
    Distance: 1.4473% / 0.01447329
    Aggregated
    40.8 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    19.2 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    15.4 ARM_LBA
    10.6 GRC_Mycenaean
    8.0 CZE_Early_Slav
    6.0 DEU_MA

    Italian_Marche
    Distance: 1.1405% / 0.01140477
    Aggregated
    29.6 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    19.2 GRC_Mycenaean
    17.6 DEU_MA
    15.2 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    14.2 ARM_LBA
    4.2 CZE_Early_Slav

    Italian_Molise
    Distance: 1.0890% / 0.01089032
    Aggregated
    25.2 GRC_Mycenaean
    24.2 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    18.6 ARM_LBA
    15.4 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    11.4 CZE_Early_Slav
    5.2 DEU_MA

    Italian_South
    Distance: 0.9649% / 0.00964926
    Aggregated
    24.8 GRC_Mycenaean
    21.8 ARM_LBA
    20.0 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    18.6 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    10.8 DEU_MA
    2.6 CZE_Early_Slav
    1.4 Berber_Tunisia_Chen

    Italian_Tuscany
    Distance: 1.5166% / 0.01516600
    Aggregated
    35.6 GRC_Mycenaean
    25.2 DEU_MA
    17.8 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    8.0 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    7.0 ARM_LBA
    6.4 CZE_Early_Slav

    Italian_Umbria
    Distance: 1.3391% / 0.01339056
    Aggregated
    29.2 GRC_Mycenaean
    26.8 Bell_Beaker_ITA
    17.0 ARM_LBA
    14.2 DEU_MA
    7.6 Levant_Canaanite_MBA
    4.6 CZE_Early_Slav
    0.6 Berber_Tunisia_Chen

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    The inclusion of ARM_LBA decreases Levantine input in Sicilians by about 5-7% but for Cretans and mainland southern Italians, by over 10%. So some of this Near Eastern in these populations is in fact from Anatolian or Caucasian sources and is not actually from the Levant.

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    I think we have different definitions of Southeast Europeans. In Europe that usually means the Balkans and perhaps Slovenia, Romania, Moldova, parts of Ukraine and maybe Hungary.
    It's definitely not used for Italy and Malta.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Dorkymon View Post
    I think we have different definitions of Southeast Europeans. In Europe that usually means the Balkans and perhaps Slovenia, Romania, Moldova, parts of Ukraine and maybe Hungary.
    It's definitely not used for Italy and Malta.
    I am referring to southern Italy, Malta, and the Aegean islands for the purpose of this thread.

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    Explain the Levantine component in these populations. For instance I get the Armenian LBA component in mainland Greeks linked to Mycenean ancestry but where is the evidence for Levantine genetic influx in the mainland during the MBA?

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    I believe SE Europe and the Levant were once more homogeneous, culturally and genetically. Ultimately climate change shifted the "population base" more northwest. Balkans became more shifted toward Continental types ("Epirotics" for mainland Greeks, for example) as a result.

    Farther afield islands retain more of the population base due to less Continental mingling.

    Meanwhile, continuing the domino effect, the old hinterlands of the Levant received an influx of peoples from the south and east while still retaining the old population base. History repeats itself; similar people often take similar migratory routes throughout time. And these later "Levantines 2.0" simply "refreshed" peripheral SE Euro areas with even more population base (with a dash of the newer southern/eastern components).

    All in all, though, I think the bulk of this "extra" stuff is just various groups retaining more of the old population base due to cline, isolation, and even some random chance. Our tools probably aren't yet able to sort out exactly who is who because of all the overlapping peoples in both space and time.

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    Quote Originally Posted by TonyC View Post
    Explain the Levantine component in these populations. For instance I get the Armenian LBA component in mainland Greeks linked to Mycenean ancestry but where is the evidence for Levantine genetic influx in the mainland during the MBA?
    There isn't really. The mainland did not receive this to any significant degree.

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