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Thread: African population phylogeny

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    African population phylogeny

    What's the state of the art on the branching and admixture patterns within Africa, counting out ANA.

    Is U6 in North Africa from Europe or from the Middle East?

    Is Lazaridis 2018's ANA concept more plausible than Taforalt being a mix of sub-Saharan and Natufian?
    Our co-modeling of Epipaleolithic Natufians and Ibero-Maurusians from Taforalt confirms that the Taforalt population was mixed11, but instead of specifying gene flow from the ancestors of Natufians into the ancestors of Taforalt as originally reported, we infer gene flow in the reverse direction (into Natufians). The Neolithic population from Morocco, closely related to Taforalt17 is also consistent with being descended from the source of this gene flow, and appears to have no admixture from the Levantine Neolithic (Supplementary Information section 3). If our model is correct, Epipaleolithic Natufians trace part of their ancestry to North Africa, consistent with morphological and archaeological studies that indicate a spread of morphological features22 and artifacts from North Africa into the Near East. Such a scenario would also explain the presence of Y-chromosome haplogroup E in the Natufians and Levantine farmers6, a common link between the Levant and Africa. Moreover, our model predicts that West Africans (represented by Yoruba) had 12.5±1.1% ancestry from a Taforalt-related group rather than Taforalt having ancestry from an unknown Sub-Saharan African source11; this may have mediated the limited Neanderthal admixture present in West Africans23. An advantage of our model is that it allows for a local North African component in the ancestry of Taforalt, rather than deriving them exclusively from Levantine and Sub-Saharan sources.
    Last edited by ren; 12-20-2019 at 01:33 AM.

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    If ANA isn't real that would mean something like Taforalt would have to be an unadmixed base population mixing into Eurasia and Sub-Saharan Africa, wouldn't it? Taforalt didn't show up as admixed in either f3 or LD, though that could easily be due to drift.

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    I''ve seen studies where Nilotic people are grouped into a branch with Eurasians, or in other words, Eurasians are nested within a central-eastern African population as opposed to a West African/Bantu population. If so, just what is African and what is Eurasian really get blurred. Should ANA be regarded as just another "sub-Saharan" population? Then what's the clear break between ANA and Basal Eurasians.. and beyond..

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    There's no Sub-Saharan in Iberomaurusians. ANA would be ancestral to Eurasians or the so-called Basal Eurasian. ANA is likely in all modern Africans. I can't find one without significant stats with Iberomaurusians.

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    The non ANA side of Iberomaurusians is close to Anatolia HG.

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    I don't mean sub-Saharan geographically. My point is, would regarding ANA as non-sub-Saharan, or non-African, about as fruitless as regarding ancient central Africans (represented now genetically by Nilo-Saharan speakers) as non-sub-Saharan, or non-African, simply because they ultimately lead to Eurasians, as opposed to a West African branch. I'm other words, outside of Khoi-San populations, there would be two branches, West African and Ancient Central-Eastern African, which would include Eurasians. Regarding them as in some way as non-sub-Saharan loses meaningful value if they look and act like sub-Saharans. For example, Natufians are well-documented to have "Negroid" traits, and I imagine it came from ANA.

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    Well, if ANA were North African (not that we really know yet of course) then they'd be African but not Sub-Saharan, obviously. I don't know why you'd want to call them Sub-Saharan, or non-African, that seems pointlessly confusing. Unless they came from Sub-Saharan East Africa during the Upper Palaeolithic, I guess, which I think is a possibility. (Or, conversely, from Eurasia, being some pre-Dzudzuana group, but that doesn't seem too compelling.)
    Last edited by Megalophias; 12-23-2019 at 03:34 AM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Chad Rohlfsen View Post
    There's no Sub-Saharan in Iberomaurusians. ANA would be ancestral to Eurasians or the so-called Basal Eurasian. ANA is likely in all modern Africans. I can't find one without significant stats with Iberomaurusians.
    Is there any way to reconcile both your pan-SSA model and the proposed basal-African ghost ancestry in West Africans? Would it alter the levels of ANA and South Africa-HG ancestry in Mota?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Megalophias View Post
    Well, if ANA were North African (not that we really know yet of course) then they'd be African but not Sub-Saharan, obviously. I don't know why you'd want to call them Sub-Saharan, or non-African, that seems pointlessly confusing. Unless they came from Sub-Saharan East Africa during the Upper Palaeolithic, I guess, which I think is a possibility. (Or, conversely, from Eurasia, being some pre-Dzudzuana group, but that doesn't seem too compelling.)
    ANA (Anciaet North African) preceded Ibero-Maurusian and was a component of IBM . The transition was about 25-20,000BP. The cuture corresponding to ANA was Aterian

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aterian
    "The Aterian is a Middle Stone Age (or Middle Palaeolithic) stone tool industry centered in North Africa, but also possibly found in Oman and the Thar Desert.[2] The earliest Aterian dates to c. 145,000 years ago, at the site of Ifri n'Ammar in Morocco.[3] However, most of the early dates cluster around the beginning of the Last Interglacial, around 150,000 to 130,000 years ago, when the environment of North Africa began to ameliorate.[4] The Aterian disappeared around 20,000 years ago.

    The Aterian is primarily distinguished through the presence of tanged or pedunculated tools,[5] and is named after the type site of Bir el Ater, south of Tébessa.[6] Bifacially-worked, leaf-shaped tools are also a common artefact type in Aterian assemblages, and so are racloirs and Levallois flakes and cores. Items of personal adornment (pierced and ochred Nassarius shell beads) are known from at least one Aterian site, with an age of 82,000 years.[7]
    .

    This a strong evidence of the presence of HomoSapiens north of Sahara and with a difficult contact (arid intermediate regions) with the first Eurasians who were present in Near East, Arabian Peninsula and NE Africa. When the first Eurasians went through the arid Iranian plateaus towards South and East Asia, t was the first division of the Eurasians between those remained in West Asian west of the Zagros mountains and NE Africa who are named BE 'Basal Eurasian' and those gone East from Zagros mountains to Pacific Ocean named 'Crown Eurasian'.

    2 hypotheses for the Iranian travel to India, Indochina, Indonesia and South China.
    1) Before the first pleniglacial of the last glaciation (85-75,000BP)
    2) After the first pleniglacial of the last glaciation (60-50,000BP)

    This travel corresponds to the bifurcations of the Y-haplogroups F, C and D and the mt haplogroups M and N.

    Probably ANA and BE corresponds to E1b1b-M215 and maybe the mt hg M1 and N1..
    Last edited by palamede; 12-23-2019 at 03:49 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by blackflash16 View Post
    Is there any way to reconcile both your pan-SSA model and the proposed basal-African ghost ancestry in West Africans? Would it alter the levels of ANA and South Africa-HG ancestry in Mota?
    I'm putting it together for a post right now. I've had a graph that featured a lot of ANA in West Africans. This led to a 0 on the tree from South Africa 2000BP to Yoruba. That could require an ancient West African branch. However, the significant Z towards IBM and Mota could mean Mota into South Africa creating the appearance of an ancient West African branch.

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