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Thread: Spread of Steppe ancestry to the Western Mediterranean (Fernandes et al. 2020)

  1. #1
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    Spread of Steppe ancestry to the Western Mediterranean (Fernandes et al. 2020)

    Now officially published: The spread of steppe and Iranian-related ancestry in the islands of the western Mediterranean

    Steppe-pastoralist-related ancestry reached Central Europe by at least 2500 bc, whereas Iranian farmer-related ancestry was present in Aegean Europe by at least 1900 bc. However, the spread of these ancestries into the western Mediterranean, where they have contributed to many populations that live today, remains poorly understood. Here, we generated genome-wide ancient-DNA data from the Balearic Islands, Sicily and Sardinia, increasing the number of individuals with reported data from 5 to 66. The oldest individual from the Balearic Islands (~2400 bc) carried ancestry from steppe pastoralists that probably derived from west-to-east migration from Iberia, although two later Balearic individuals had less ancestry from steppe pastoralists. In Sicily, steppe pastoralist ancestry arrived by ~2200 bc, in part from Iberia; Iranian-related ancestry arrived by the midsecond millennium bc, contemporary to its previously documented spread to the Aegean; and there was large-scale population replacement after the Bronze Age. In Sardinia, nearly all ancestry derived from the island’s early farmers until the first millennium bc, with the exception of an outlier from the third millennium bc, who had primarily North African ancestry and who—along with an approximately contemporary Iberian—documents widespread Africa-to-Europe gene flow in the Chalcolithic. Major immigration into Sardinia began in the first millennium bc and, at present, no more than 56–62% of Sardinian ancestry is from its first farmers. This value is lower than previous estimates, highlighting that Sardinia, similar to every other region in Europe, has been a stage for major movement and mixtures of people.



    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

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    I'll just say this: It's reasonable to assume that what we're seeing in BA Sicily also counts for the rest of Southern Italy, and considering what these samples look like, it's hard to avoid the conclusion that Greek settlement in what eventually came to be known as "Magna Graecia" was the most demographically-successful colonisation event prior to the discovery of the American continent.
    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

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  5. #3
    What's means in résumé? Sardinians are not EEF, in majority (like in the global 25 samples) ?
    Last edited by Logistic; 02-24-2020 at 07:18 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Agamemnon View Post
    I'll just say this: It's reasonable to assume that what we're seeing in BA Sicily also counts for the rest of Southern Italy, and considering what these samples look like, it's hard to avoid the conclusion that Greek settlement in what eventually came to be known as "Magna Graecia" was the most demographically-successful colonisation event prior to the discovery of the American continent.
    ^^The above is largely echoed in the authors' following statement:

    [...] our analysis documents the impact of the Phoenician and Greek colonial periods as well as subsequent immigration on the islands of the western Mediterranean93. For example, all six individuals in our analysis dataset from the Balearic Islands and post-Bronze Age period are consistent with having no ancestry from earlier local groups. In conjunction with previous findings, the emerging picture is that, from the Iron Age onward, the coastal regions of the western Mediterranean were characterized by ethnically segregated populations of immigrants and local groups who co-existed in geographical proximity; indeed, there is direct documentation of this from the Greek colony of Empúries in northeast Iberia, where two clusters of genetically distinct individuals coexisted, consistent with the historical descriptions by Strabo25. In some regions, such as the Balearic Islands and Sicily, our data are consistent with a nearly complete replacement of the pre-Iron-Age populations (although we cannot rule out a degree of local continuity for either set of islands).

    In the case of Sicily and much of Southern Italy, it is almost certain that Greek settlement had a huge role in this "nearly complete replacement of the pre-Iron-Age populations", and to a smaller extent Phoenician settlement as well.

    It is indeed looking as if what has been labeled the "Eastern Mediterranean" profile is really Greek in essence.
    Last edited by Agamemnon; 02-24-2020 at 07:32 PM.
    ᾽Άλλο δέ τοι ἐρέω, σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν:
    κρύβδην, μηδ᾽ ἀναφανδά, φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν
    νῆα κατισχέμεναι: ἐπεὶ οὐκέτι πιστὰ γυναιξίν.


    -Αγαμέμνων; H Οδύσσεια, Ραψωδία λ

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  9. #5
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    This ibiza_phoenician sample was almost fully north african ? and the last sicilian sample was almost half north african ?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Agamemnon View Post
    I'll just say this: It's reasonable to assume that what we're seeing in BA Sicily also counts for the rest of Southern Italy, and considering what these samples look like, it's hard to avoid the conclusion that Greek settlement in what eventually came to be known as "Magna Graecia" was the most demographically-successful colonisation event prior to the discovery of the American continent.
    Am I missing something? (Probably I am since I don't have access to the paper). There is nothing from Southern Italy from 900BC to today, right? I say the Romans could have had a bigger demographic impact than the Greeks in S Italy. We don't have anything for 3000 years of turbulent history. I'm surprise that the paper itself (with an horrible PCA and an horrible model with Morocco LN and not Levant) jumped to any conclusion whatsoever with such an obvious lack of data.

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    Quote Originally Posted by TonyScaletta View Post
    This ibiza_phoenician sample was almost fully north african ? and the last sicilian sample was almost half north african ?
    maybe it's modern Sicilian (horrible model btw)

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    Well, let's all wait for the G25 coordinates!

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  19. #10
    Quote Originally Posted by Ajeje Brazorf View Post
    Well, let's all wait for the G25 coordinates!
    25 samples, that's right? or?

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