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    The medieval Khasa history of the Indian and Pakistani Kashmir

    Though this post is not Nepal related but it's related to the Khasa tribe and its history. Initiated from this thread about the "Rajatarangini" which is the chronicles of the rulers of Kashmir. https://anthrogenica.com/showthread....me-of-Thrones)

    The Lohara chief Simharaja and his family (later the Lohara dynasty of Kashmir) in fact belonged to the Khasa tribe. His daughter Queen Didda of Utpal dynasty killed her own grandsons and established her brother's son Simharaja as the ruler of the Kashmir throne, thus the beginning the rule of Lohara dynasty in Kashmir.

    Since Sir Marc Aurel Stein (1900)'s 1st volume "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 1" in google books is not showing up, so I quoted the same through Thakur, Laxman S. (1990). "The Khaśas: An Early Indian Tribe". In K. K. Kusuman (ed.). "A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume". He states the family of Lohara chiefs were from the Khasa tribe who had marital relations with Hindu Shahi rulers of Kabul (present day Afghanistan capital) as stated by the Stein (1900) Volume 1. He further states the Rajapuri (present day Rajouri, J&K) rulers were from the Khasa tribe who had marital relations with Kshatriya rulers of Kashmir [valley/Srinagar].

    Laxman S. Thakur (1990): "The Khaśas: An Early Indian Tribe". In K. K. Kusuman (ed.). "A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume".

    The Khasa chiefs of Rajapuri intermarried freely with the Kshatriya rulers of Kashmir. Simharaja, the Khasa chief of the Lohara and married the daughter of Sahi Kings of Kabul. The chiefs of the Lohara are distinctly named as belonging to the Khasa tribe.22 Stein, further observes that the Khasas are identical with the modern Khakha tribe, to which most of the petty hill chiefs and gentry in the Vitasta valley below Kashmir belong.23 Babur has also suggested that the name Kashmir may have been derived from 'Kas' a hill tribe living in the neighbourhood of Kashmir.24
    Laxman S. Thakur (1990); the whole Vishalata valley (from Banihal Pass to Chenab) were inhabited by Khasas.
    Laxman S. Thakur (1990): "The Khaśas: An Early Indian Tribe". In K. K. Kusuman (ed.). "A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume".

    In numerous passages of the Rajatarangini20, we find references to the Khasas indicating their north-western affiliations. Aurel Stein's note to his translation of verses 312-7 of Book I gives the following information:21

    ... The rulers of Rajapuri, the modern Rajauri described as 'lords of the Khasas' and their troops as Khasas.... The passages VII, 177, 1074 show that the whole of the valley leading from Banahal to the Chandrabhaga (Chenab)... in the Chronicles bear the name Vishalata, was inhabited by Khasas.
    Laxman S. Thakur (1990) screenshot of the og book;
    Simharaja the Khasa patron of the Lohara dynasty and Khakha tribe.PNG

    This is from the Sir Marc Aurel Stein (1900)'s 2nd volume "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2". His work is a translation of original 12th century CE Kashmiri text "Rajatarangini" written by a native Kashmiri Pandit scholar Kalhana during the rule of Jayasimha - the last Lohara ruler of Kashmir. In the Vol2, Stein quotes that Khasas inhabited the lands between Kastavar (present day Kishtwar, J&K) in the south east to Vitashta valley (present day Jhelum valley https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jhelum_River) in the west forming a semicircle arch. He further states that the Rajapuri (present day Rajouri) and Lohara were ruled by the Khasa families. The Lohara chief's family later succeeded the Kashmir [valley] throne in the 11th century CE. Most of the petty hill chiefs of the Vitashta Jhelum valley south-west of Kashmir valley were from the modern Khakha tribes, who were turbulent like their ancestral Khasa hill tribe.

    M.A. Stein (1900) "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2".

    Races on Kasmir borders.
    80. The ethnography of the territories immediately adjoining Kasmir can be traced quite clearly from the notices of the Rajatarangini. In the south and west the adjacent hill-regions were occupied by Khasas. Their settlements extended, as shown by numerous passages of the Chronicle, in a wide semicircle from Kastavar in the south-east to the Vitasta Valley in the west.7 The hill-states of Rajapuri and Lohara were held by Khasa families; the dynasty of the latter territory succeeded to the rule of Kasmir in the eleventh century. I have shown elsewhere that the Khasas are identical with the present Khakha tribe to which most of the petty chiefs in the Vitasta Valley below Kasmir and in the neighbouring hills, belong. We have already seen that the Khakhas have until very recent times worthily maintained the reputation which their forefathers enjoyed as marauders and turbulent hillmen.
    Screenshot of above from OG Stein (1900) book:
    Khasa settlements, Lohara dynasty and Khakha tribe.PNG

    Stein (1900) Vol2 states that an independent Khasa lord resided at Banahal/Banihal Pass which falls within Vishalata valley (not to be confused with the Vitasta Jhelum), which is the gateway to the Kashmir valley.
    M.A. Stein (1900) "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2".

    Immediately at the foot of Banahal Pass in the territory of Visalata, we find a castle of a Khasa lord who gave shelter to Bhiksacara and the time was evidently independent.
    Megha Sharma (2019) Vol.9 Issue 6, "The region of Kashmir in Ancient Literature with special mention to Tribes" ISSN NO: 2249-2976 Pramana Research Journal (url:https://www.pramanaresearch.org/gallery/prj-p1082.pdf) quoted that Khasas lived between Vitasta (Jhelum river) to Kastavata (Kishtwar-Chenab river) south and west of Pir Panjal range, as it was mentioned in the Nilamata Purana, a 6th-8th century CE Kashmiri text, compiled by Kashmiri Pandit scholar Ved Kumari Ghai.

    Megha Sharma (2019): "The region of Kashmir in Ancient Literature with special mention to Tribes" Vol.9 Issue 6

    The Khasa tribe occupied the areas to the south and west of the Pir Pantsal range between the middle course of the Vitasta in the west and Kastavata in the east.xxx
    Sharma (2019) then writes that the Rajauri chiefs were the "lord of the Khasas" and these Khasas were a hilly tribe who lived in proximity to the Kashmir region [valley].
    Megha Sharma (2019): "The region of Kashmir in Ancient Literature with special mention to Tribes" Vol.9 Issue 6

    The rulers of Rajauri are also mentioned as lord of Khasas in Rajatatrangini.xxxi The Khasas are mentioned alongside the Kulutas, the Tanganas and the Kashmiras in Brhat Samhita. It can be safely concluded that this tribe is a hilly tribe and was in close proximity to the region of Kashmir which could be make out from the constant references given in Rajatarangini.
    The semi-circle arch where the Khasa inhabited looks as in the below map. The Jhelum river in the west and Chenab river in the east marked by blue, places where Khasa were mentioned marked by red, the overall semi-circle arch between this two rivers; Jhelum and Chenab is marked by yellow; the small principality of Karnah, Kupwara, were the Khasas resided marked by pink.
    Khasa habitation semicircle arch in Kashmir_.jpg

    Stein (1900) Vol2 further continues to state the ruling family of Rajapuri/Rajouri who were presently [at the time of Stein's writing in 1900 CE] Muhammedanized Rajput chiefs [Muslim Rajput rulers] descended from the [medieval] Khasa rulers of Rajapuri/Rajouri.

    M.A. Stein (1900) "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2".

    Rajapuri
    .. Rajapuri took its name from its capital which is repeatedly mentioned by Kalhana, and undoubtedly occupied the position of the present town of Rajauri.17 The ruling family belonged to the Khasa tribe. Its descendants were the Muhammadanized Rajput chiefs who retained this territory down to the present century.
    These chiefs of Lohara hill-state obtained the Kashmir throne on the end of the 10th century and unified both Lohara and Kashmir [valley]. [meaning they displaced the Utpal dynasty of Kashmir through Utpal Queen Didda's installation of her Lohara nephew Sangramaraja as the ruler of the Kashmir throne.] The capital of this hill-state was at Lohara (present day Lohrin, near Poonch, Jammu & Kashmir as verified by Stein before 1900 CE) and their territory included Parnotsa (present day Poonch, J&K).

    M.A. Stein (1900) "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2".

    Lohara
    On the north-west Rajapuri was adjoined by the territory of LOHARA.18 The chief valley belonging to this hill-state was the present Loh*rin which we have already visited when examining the Tos*maidan route. Lohara became important for Kasmir from the end of the tenth century onwards when a branch of its ruling family obtained the Kasmir throne. Subsequently this branch succeeded also to Lohara which thus became united with Kasmir under the same ruler. As the ancestral home and stronghold of the dynasty, the castle of Lohara has played a great part during the last reigns related by Kalhana. The chiefs of Lohara are distinctly named as belonging to the Khasa tribe.

    Lohara seems to have included in those times also the town and district of PARNOTSA, corresponding to the present Punch or Prunts (the Kasmiri form), in the lower valley of the Tohi (Tausi).19
    Screenshot of 2 above quotes from OG Stein (1900) book:
    Rajauri and Lohara royal families were Khasas.PNG

    The ruling Bomba (modern day Bhamba) clans of Karnaha/Karnav/Karnau (present day Karnah, Kupwara, J&K) who were the allies of the Khakha chiefs of Vitasta valley (present day Jhelum valley) were also from the Khasa tribe. They were petty chiefs under the Kashmir rulers but independently ran their kingdom till they were conquered by Sikhs [under Jammu Dogra Maharaja Gulab Singh] after 1846.

    M.A. Stein (1900) "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2".

    Karnaha
    This tract which is now known as Karnav or Karnau, bore the old name of KARNAHA. It seems to have been held by small chiefs nominally tributary to Kasmir even in later Hindu times.26 It is but rarely mentioned in the Chronicle. The inhabitants were Khasas,27 who are representated by the modern Bomba clans still holding Karnav. Their Rajas were practically independent till the Sikh conquest and often harried the north-western parts of Kasmir.28 The last irruption of the Karnav Bombas and their allies, the Khakha chiefs of the Vitasta Valley, occurred as late as 1846.
    Screenshot of above from OG Stein (1900) book:
    Karnav Bomba clans were Khasas.PNG

    Chamba Rajputs of present day Himachal Pradesh also married with the Lohara rulers of the Kashmir. So, there is at least some medieval Khasa ancestry among these hill Rajputs who intermarry with other hill Rajputs.

    M.A. Stein (1900) "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2".

    Campa
    The Rajas of Camba, the ancient CAMPA, on the other hand, figure often in the Kashmir Chronicle.3 Their territory has since early times comprised the valleys of the sources of the Ravi between Kangra, the ancient Trigarta, and Kasthavata. The ancient Rajput family which rules this hill-state to the present day, often intermarried with the Lohara dynasty which reigned in Kasmir.
    Conclusion:
    Medieval rulers of Rajauri, Banahal, Karnaha and the Lohara dynasty of Kashmir (originally from Lohrin near Poonch), were Khasas and they had blood relations with Hindu Shahi rulers from Kabul and other Kashmiri rulers.

    The majority of Khasas of Kashmir in the medieval time lived between modern Jhelum valley to the west and Kishtwar valley in the east at the hill regions south and west of Pir Panjal range.

    Modern Khakha Muslim Rajputs of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, Bomba/Bhamba clans of Karnah, Kupwara, Jammu & Kashmir as well as Rajput rulers of Rajouri, J&K = descended from Khasas

    Many other royal clans such as Himachal Pradesh Chamba Rajputs, and local families in these Jhelum - Kishtwar regions which now is divided between India and Pakistan have completely absorbed these 6th to 10th century CE Khasas since no one refers themselves as "Khas" in the modern time.

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  3. #92
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    Quote Originally Posted by poi View Post
    YFull just increased my paternal line's TMRCA by 1000 years. So, instead of 1900ybp, as it was earlier, it is now 2900ybp.

    https://www.yfull.com/tree/R-BY160158/
    Any update on where YF17019 is from?
    As of now we have you (Nepal), Reza (Bangladesh), and the Lankan Tamil on this branch that split ~4000 ybp under Y920.

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    Quote Originally Posted by pnb123 View Post
    There are Nepalis that are both Y7 and Y6. I havenít really seen anyone that got Y9. Idk the particular mutation in him will probably related to other Nepalis since we are isolated for quite some time, but ofc similar type of lineage could be found in other regions of South Asia as well.
    All Y7 are Y9 too. My line is very early parallel line to Y7. There is no additional SNP at the Y9 level (except for Y9 of course) that is common. So my ancestor and the first Y7 were possibly sons in the same family ~2000BC. https://yfull.com/branch-info/R-Y9/

    The reason I am interested to find if there is Y9xY7 in Nepal is that would indicate both Y9 lines are also present in Nepal. There is a theory that one of my ancestors or a brother of that ancestor, when they fled from Hastgame (thought to be Hastika, or perhaps Hastinapur, but more likely Hathgaon* in east UP) also had a tenure in Nepal.

    My paternal line ancestor (Jagarnath Dixit) may have been in Nepal circa 1530 (after defeat by Babar they left Hastika* or Hathgaon* as one mul is called Hastagame, folk scattered all over and were provided refuge in Nepal and by the Pathans of Bihar and Bangal).

    *Pargana Hathgam, Hathgaon, Hastika: "A stone elephant called Jagannath lying about 2 miles from Hathgaon in Fatehpur near the spot where the Sasur Khaderi river crosses the road to Husaingunj It is represented as sitting down, with its trunk stretched out on the ground, and an ornamental square pad bound on to its back. The stone elephant is a mile further on the Husainganj road. On the site of the old fort, a mound occupying the centre of the town and now popularly known as the Hathi-khana, or Jaychandi, is a ruinous mosque apparently constructed from the wreck of four small Hindu temples."

    "The story says the elephant walked over the lands of Hathgaon till it came to the village of Iradatpur Dhami. It there lay down to rest and was at once turned to stone. The land covered, together with 300 villages, was given to Parasara Dixit."

    The folk who stayed back in Hathgaon:
    "Among the many clans which were not separately enumerated are the Raizadas, who formerly owned a large property in Hathgaon. They claim to be descended from a daughter of the king of Kanauj, who was given in marriage to a devotee, named Parasar Rishi, who had received many tokens of the monarch's favour. Among other presents was an elephant, bestowed with the promise that the Raja would give to the saint as much land as it could walk round without lying down to rest; the-story goes on to say that the animal traversed the lands of Hathgaon till it came to the village of Iradatpur Dhami. There it lay down and at once turned into stone. The stone elephant still remains and a fair is held annually in honour of the saint ... "
    http://dspace.gipe.ac.in/xmlui/bitst...IPE-017948.pdf

    I would like to test one of the Raizadas too to see if there any truth to the story. Another story says that this daughter - Hayakumari - of the ruler of Kanauj was given in marriage to a Vakr Sahi (or Bajr Sahi, Badhambar Sahi).
    https://books.google.com/books?id=vGjpDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA58

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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    All Y7 are Y9 too. My line is very early parallel line to Y7. There is no additional SNP at the Y9 level (except for Y9 of course) that is common. So my ancestor and the first Y7 were possibly sons in the same family ~2000BC. https://yfull.com/branch-info/R-Y9/

    The reason I am interested to find if there is Y9xY7 in Nepal is that would indicate both Y9 lines are also present in Nepal. There is a theory that one of my ancestors or a brother of that ancestor, when they fled from Hastgame (thought to be Hastika, or perhaps Hastinapur, but more likely Hathgaon* in east UP) also had a tenure in Nepal.

    My paternal line ancestor (Jagarnath Dixit) may have been in Nepal circa 1530 (after defeat by Babar they left Hastika* or Hathgaon* as one mul is called Hastagame, folk scattered all over and were provided refuge in Nepal and by the Pathans of Bihar and Bangal).

    *Pargana Hathgam, Hathgaon, Hastika: "A stone elephant called Jagannath lying about 2 miles from Hathgaon in Fatehpur near the spot where the Sasur Khaderi river crosses the road to Husaingunj It is represented as sitting down, with its trunk stretched out on the ground, and an ornamental square pad bound on to its back. The stone elephant is a mile further on the Husainganj road. On the site of the old fort, a mound occupying the centre of the town and now popularly known as the Hathi-khana, or Jaychandi, is a ruinous mosque apparently constructed from the wreck of four small Hindu temples."

    "The story says the elephant walked over the lands of Hathgaon till it came to the village of Iradatpur Dhami. It there lay down to rest and was at once turned to stone. The land covered, together with 300 villages, was given to Parasara Dixit."

    The folk who stayed back in Hathgaon:
    "Among the many clans which were not separately enumerated are the Raizadas, who formerly owned a large property in Hathgaon. They claim to be descended from a daughter of the king of Kanauj, who was given in marriage to a devotee, named Parasar Rishi, who had received many tokens of the monarch's favour. Among other presents was an elephant, bestowed with the promise that the Raja would give to the saint as much land as it could walk round without lying down to rest; the-story goes on to say that the animal traversed the lands of Hathgaon till it came to the village of Iradatpur Dhami. There it lay down and at once turned into stone. The stone elephant still remains and a fair is held annually in honour of the saint ... "
    http://dspace.gipe.ac.in/xmlui/bitst...IPE-017948.pdf

    I would like to test one of the Raizadas too to see if there any truth to the story. Another story says that this daughter - Hayakumari - of the ruler of Kanauj was given in marriage to a Vakr Sahi (or Bajr Sahi, Badhambar Sahi).
    https://books.google.com/books?id=vGjpDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA58
    I haven’t seen anyone with y9 yet, unless poi bro has relatives with that lineage. Most likely they didn’t mix with other Brahmins of Nepal after they migrated there. It’s possible that you’ll find Y9 in Bhumihar Brahmins of Nepal though (especially if it’s common among Bhumihars of UP/Bihar). But you never know, since most of R1a in S Asia is Indo Aryan expansion related, it could be present in other Brahmin groups of Nepal as well.

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    Quote Originally Posted by kaazi View Post
    Well, lots of Chhetris don't know about Ekthariya clan including some Ekthariyas themselves. Only some well informed Ekthariyas know about it and they compiled a book about their small group and have a "Ekthariya Research Centre". I don't have read that book though.
    https://www.amazon.com/Ekthariya-Chh.../dp/B0000CP9S3
    Ekthariya = "Ek" (one) and "Thar" (clan) meaning one from the single clan.

    Imo, since Ekthariyas had minimal population, this might have caused modern day lapse in their sub-culture. I don't know how this clan was formed, probably they had their differences with other Chhetris (such as family deities, subculture) or it was sth with their place of origin. We have to read their book. One of the Ekthariya "Dangi" was different Y-haplo "L" compared to other non-Ekthariyas having "R1a" haplo as pnb informed me before.

    The surnames of Ekthariyas are Katwal/Katuwal, Budhathoki, Dangi, Mahat, Raya, Rayamajhi, Chauhan, Rawat/Raut, Bohra/Bohara, Bogati, etc. I don't know if they came from your clan or nearby regions, since Ekthariyas were small in population and were not noticed much. One of their claim is some of them had Tagadhari male warrior/Rajput ancestors from the Rajasthan-West UP plain who showed their "Janai" ('sacred thread') as a mark of good birth to enter the caste. Idk how true it is, I just put it forward.

    Well, I only know that Ekthariyas are part of the "Jharra" ('pure-bred') Chhetri subcaste and some Ekthariyas worked as sub-ordinates to the 4 Chhetri noble families of Gorkha. Ekthariyas didn't gain significant power like other Jharra Chhetri noble families.

    One Ekthariya (Rayamajhi) military noble - (Commanding Colonel Gambhir Singh) mid 19th century.
    Thanks. I will try to get that book.

    Interesting that from some accounts they were not initially Khas but merged into them.
    Per the British recruiting manual:
    "Brian Hodgson also mentions a tribe called Ekthariyas, the
    descendants of more or less pure Rajputs and other Ksatriyas of the
    plains. They claimed a vague superiority to the Khas, but the great
    tide of events around them has now thoroughly confounded the two races
    in all essentials, and therefore they will not be shown as a separate
    tribe, but be included with Khas.
    "

    "Despite acknowledging the martial status of the Khas; Hodgson does not regard them as best suited for recruitment owing to their caste prejudice, and their devotion to the house of the Gorkhas. He classifies the Khas group into twelve major clans each containing host of sub-clans. The problem of in-determinability of group boundaries in multiethnic and caste society is evident in the classification. In such classifications the Ekthariyas are singled out from the Khas sub-division and a separate list of twenty five
    sub-divisions within it is provided. Similar is the case of Thakuris, who are singled out like the Ekthariyas with eleven named sub-divisions within it ... For Vansittart the Thakurs share great cultural affinity with the Khas groups which he links to the Rajput lineage. Especially the Ekthariariah clan within the Khas is presented as pure descendants of Rajputs and thus superior to all other clans of Khas."

    Also saw them entitled as Newar:
    "According to Hodgson (n.d.), all these thars (with the exception of Cala[n], which he does not list) were "a class of Newars called Ekthureea [Ekthariya] or outcaste, or 'single body,' distinguished by their profession or trade."
    "The Ektharia groups of castes which rank below the Jyapoo do not have such numerous ritual functions . These parallel castes come into relationship with the other castes mostly in their secular capacities." "Hodgson had termed these parallel castes as Ektharia and had included 17 caste - groups under it."

    "The descendants of Rajput and other Kshatriya of the plains, who either sought refuge in Nepal or voluntarily served thereas military advisors are known as Ektharia. They have since become completely fused with the Khas."

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    Quote Originally Posted by vishankar View Post
    i did remember reading about the khas rajputs ..that they migrated from the plains in the wake of the mughal invasion..is it true....they are probably full blooded Rajput paternally..and mixed with other populations of the himalayas-newars, bhutiyas etec..?
    Well, Newars and Khasas do not have genetic relationship for the most part since they were present in different realms. The one-tenth to quarter of Tibeto-Burmese mix among Chhetris and Uttarakhand Rajputs is currently unknown but it could have been way before medieval ages, as the caste endogamy was/is strong till today.

    West Himalayan origin discussion
    Well, the large tracts of Khas settlements from Kashmir to Nepal indicates towards an eastward migration propelled from around Kashmir. Also, I've already mentioned about the Khas people and rulers in Kashmir through 1st millennium CE Kashmiri local text Nilmata Purana and 12th century text Rajatarangini. https://anthrogenica.com/showthread....l=1#post706124 So, it could be that some of the Khas people came from the Kashmir region and settled in Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and West Nepal, while others remained in Kashmir and islamized themselves.

    The majority of Chhetris with its Khas groups like Bahuns/Brahmins and including low occupational castes like Kaami, Damai, etc. crossed the modern day Uttarakhand before entering Western Nepal; this is true for the largest section. There was a continuous eastward migration from these Himalayan parts of India to Nepal. Many of them mentions of coming through the Himalayan pathway leading from Kashmir, Kangra, Jalandhar etc through Champawat, or even Tibetan paths like Kailash Manasarovar (Purang, Kharipradesha - modern Burang County, Ngari Prefecture, Tibet). There are lots of variation in this since the Khasas didn't enter Nepal at the same time; some as early as the 5th century CE as we can find the evidences like some petty Khas chiefs of Tara, Humla levying taxes to vassals of Bhot (Tibet) while some as late with the 10th or 11th century Khas emperor Nagaraja who came from 'Kharipradesha'. Prominent Nepalese historians like Satyamohan Joshi, Baburam Acharya put the realistic origin of Khasas at Kashmir. There's a bardic legend that lord Chandannath of Kashmir valley brought rice farming into Sinja valley of Jumla - the cradle of Nepali civilization and the civilization began to flourish. This shows that the Sinja valley had some push from the people of the Kashmir valley.

    Lord Chandannath of Kashmir introduced rice farming (http://himalaya.socanth.cam.ac.uk/co...epal_12_05.pdf)
    Lord Chandannath.JPG

    Plain origin discussion
    Well, regarding plain origin, there are mentions of Muslim invasions in Rajasthan states like Chittor, from where some princes with their small bards entered Himalayas and adopted to it. This theory has been manipulated by many ruling families for their socio-political benefit. But it may hold some truth as well, as we can see the clear Hinduization of the religiously tolerant Buddhist Khasa emperors into Hindu Brahminical fold which might have not been possible without the Brahmins and Rajputs from plain, possibly of nearby Kannauj vicinity with Vaishnavite leaning tradition. We know Terai regions of Nepal as well as nearby Kannauj region already came under the sway of the Khasa Maharajadhiraja Ashoka Challa who had influences till Bodh Gaya, Bihar (a copper plate inscription in Bodh Gaya states Ashoka Challa as "Khasarajadhiraja").
    https://www.britannica.com/topic/Nepali-language
    Ashoka Challa-BodhGaya and Nepali, a part of NW languages.JPG

    Dr. Jagman Gurung shows the plain origin among Brahmins through cultural aspect. He says there were two types of Bahuns/Brahmins- one who have a 'Masto' (Khas deity) and are clearly descendants of medieval Khas Brahmin royal priests of the Sapadalaksha Khasadesha tradition such as Vidhyakar Pandit, Jayakar Pandit, (Prithvi) Gohilu Joshi while others without 'Masto' are clearly a plain immigrant Bahuns/Brahmins who climbed up hill due to Muslim invasions in the plain (Kanyakubja being mentioned mostly). Dor Bahadur Bista stated sth like this in his book. Here again, we can say those Brahmins could have some Rajputs and low caste groups in their legion which could have fused with the existing 3 layered Khas community. There were many medieval records that show the presence and stronghold of Khas priests with last names - Sharma, Joshi, Pandit and Bhatta who were Masto worshippers. It looks likely that immigrant Brahmins slowly pushed their agenda through these Khas Brahmin priests.

    Imo, those latter immigrant Brahmins could be 'Vaishnavite leaning plain Brahmins' because we can clearly see that the successor dynasty of the main Jumla throne called "Ram", a Vaishnavite deity as their favourite one, who was mostly not worshipped before (Shiva being primary deities of all the Himalayas and still).http://himalaya.socanth.cam.ac.uk/co...epal_12_05.pdf

    KL Pradhan writes that plain Rajputs had centrifugal effect on the Khasa kingdom which could indicate towards absorption of some minimal plain Rajputs into Karnali which led to its disintegration.
    https://books.google.com.np/books?id...page&q&f=false
    Pradhan on presence of Rajputs for the fall of the Mallas.JPG

    I take the plain origin with pretty much strong cautions as it was used for socio-political positioning and Hinduization agenda. Imo, the plain origin had very small population if any since most of the Bahun-Chhetris, point towards their Khas ancestral worship called "Masto Puja" which unites them as mono-ethnic entity. There are very few who don't have this worship and they could be the descendants of plain immigrant families. So, I don't expect much genetic effect from plain origin miscegenation if any. Well, let's see what y haplos and mutations, we find regarding the Ekthariyas vs non-Ekthariyas.
    Last edited by kaazi; 11-14-2020 at 08:51 AM.

  11. #97
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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    Thanks. I will try to get that book.

    Interesting that from some accounts they were not initially Khas but merged into them.
    Per the British recruiting manual:
    "Brian Hodgson also mentions a tribe called Ekthariyas, the
    descendants of more or less pure Rajputs and other Ksatriyas of the
    plains. They claimed a vague superiority to the Khas, but the great
    tide of events around them has now thoroughly confounded the two races
    in all essentials, and therefore they will not be shown as a separate
    tribe, but be included with Khas.
    "

    "Despite acknowledging the martial status of the Khas; Hodgson does not regard them as best suited for recruitment owing to their caste prejudice, and their devotion to the house of the Gorkhas. He classifies the Khas group into twelve major clans each containing host of sub-clans. The problem of in-determinability of group boundaries in multiethnic and caste society is evident in the classification. In such classifications the Ekthariyas are singled out from the Khas sub-division and a separate list of twenty five
    sub-divisions within it is provided. Similar is the case of Thakuris, who are singled out like the Ekthariyas with eleven named sub-divisions within it ... For Vansittart the Thakurs share great cultural affinity with the Khas groups which he links to the Rajput lineage. Especially the Ekthariariah clan within the Khas is presented as pure descendants of Rajputs and thus superior to all other clans of Khas."

    Also saw them entitled as Newar:
    "According to Hodgson (n.d.), all these thars (with the exception of Cala[n], which he does not list) were "a class of Newars called Ekthureea [Ekthariya] or outcaste, or 'single body,' distinguished by their profession or trade."
    "The Ektharia groups of castes which rank below the Jyapoo do not have such numerous ritual functions . These parallel castes come into relationship with the other castes mostly in their secular capacities." "Hodgson had termed these parallel castes as Ektharia and had included 17 caste - groups under it."

    "The descendants of Rajput and other Kshatriya of the plains, who either sought refuge in Nepal or voluntarily served thereas military advisors are known as Ektharia. They have since become completely fused with the Khas."
    Well, there have been no genetic relationship between Newars and Khasas as many people project. Newars are strongly Gangetic communities fusing with local Tibeto-Burmese (Kirantas ruled Kathmandu valley before Gangetic Lichhavis, Suryavanshis and Somvanshis) and lived in separate realm with almost no connection with Khasas. Though the language of the Tibeto-Burmese side got dominant eventually, the Malla rulers of Kathmandu as late as in the times of Pratapamalla, used their native Maithili tongue in a great manner in his court. The Ekthariyas of Newars certainly must have been different than of Khasas; it could have been an adaptation as in the case of Newars using Gorkhali term "Tharghar" for their Thakoo/Bharo/Rajput noble courtiers which doesn't mean the noble Newari Thakoo(r)s are one of the Gorkhali Tharghars.

    It would be interesting to know which Ekthariya clans were singled out from the Chhetri list. Yeah, Hodgson mentioned about them way before the mainstream 'Jharra' Chhetris totally dominated all other sub clans of Chhetris. The 4 political/noble Gorkha Kingdom based Chhetri families (Kaaji families), belonged to 3 Jharra Chhetri and 1 Khatri Chhetri subcaste, none of them being Ekthariyas. The Jharra political/noble families were - Basnyat/Basnet ('Shreepaali' sub clan- Bharadwaja Gotra), Kunwar (Vatsa gotra; a sub clan of Khadka), Thapa (Bagale sub clan, Atreya Gotra) and the only Khatri political/noble family was Pande/Pandey ('Upamanyu' gotra). Other Chhetri families like Bista/Bisht, Bhandari, Karki and other Ekthariya clans were sub-ordinates to these 4 families and worked around them. So, they possibly came under the dominance of non-Ekthariyas and lost their possibly different sub culture. Obviously, Thakuris are not taken kinly by most Jharra families except some political families who took this for socio-political advantage. Regarding Vansittart, he's bit unreliable in his writings about Nepal giving support to unrealistic claims.

    Ekthariya clans are all 'Jharra' Chhetris today. Many people won't even call them Ekthariya. Some of these Ekthariya also worship "Masto" (Khas deity) which is unrealistic for plain origin but some of them do not have any Khas deities as well. So, it looks to me that the Ekthariya themselves may have been a mix between plain origin and Khas origin Kshatriya, at max.

  12. The Following User Says Thank You to kaazi For This Useful Post:

     parasar (11-14-2020)

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