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Thread: A dynamic 6,000-year genetic history of Eurasia’s Eastern Steppe

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    A dynamic 6,000-year genetic history of Eurasia’s Eastern Steppe

    A dynamic 6,000-year genetic history of Eurasia's Eastern Steppe
    by Jeong, C.

    The Eastern Eurasian Steppe was home to historic empires of nomadic pastoralists, including the Xiongnu and the Mongols. However, little is known about the region's population history. Here we reveal its dynamic genetic history by analyzing new genome-wide data for 214 ancient individuals spanning 6,000 years. We identify a pastoralist expansion into Mongolia ca. 3000 BCE, and by the Late Bronze Age, Mongolian populations were biogeographically structured into three distinct groups, all practicing dairy pastoralism regardless of ancestry. The Xiongnu emerged from the mixing of these populations and those from surrounding regions. By comparison, the Mongols exhibit much higher Eastern Eurasian ancestry, resembling present-day Mongolic-speaking populations. Our results illuminate the complex interplay between genetic, sociopolitical, and cultural changes on the Eastern Steppe.


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    Quote Originally Posted by PQRS View Post
    Comparison with modern Mongols:

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    Quote Originally Posted by PQRS View Post
    Comparison with modern Mongols:
    Quite interesting, it demonstrates that R1b/R1a made up a non-negligible portion of ancient Mongols, yet are hardly represented among moderns. Could it be that local lines became the majority, or that further incursions came from the east?
    YDNA: R1b-BY50830 Stepney, London, UK George Wood b. 1782 English <-> Bavarian cluster
    maternal-gf YDNA: ?? Gurr, James ~1740, Smarden, Kent, England.
    maternal-gm YDNA: R1b-P311+ Beech, John Richard b. 1780, Lewes, England
    maternal-ggf YDNA R1b-U106 Thomas, Edward b 1854, Sittingbourne, Kent
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-Z17901. Gould, John Somerset England 1800s.
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-L48. Scott, William Hamilton Ireland(?) 1800s

    other:
    Welch: early 1800s E-M84 Kent, England.

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    Quote Originally Posted by ADW_1981 View Post
    Quite interesting, it demonstrates that R1b/R1a made up a non-negligible portion of ancient Mongols, yet are hardly represented among moderns. Could it be that local lines became the majority, or that further incursions came from the east?
    Probably second. The paper says:
    Following the collapse of the Uyghur empire, we documented a final major genetic shift during the late medieval period towards greater eastern Eurasian ancestry, which is consistent with historically documented expansions of Tungusic-(Jurchen) and Mongolic-(Khitan and Mongol) speaking groups from the northeast into the Eastern Steppe (Biran, 2012).

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    Quote Originally Posted by ADW_1981 View Post
    Quite interesting, it demonstrates that R1b/R1a made up a non-negligible portion of ancient Mongols, yet are hardly represented among moderns. Could it be that local lines became the majority, or that further incursions came from the east?
    The second scenario is the likely one, because most pre-Mongol era eastern Steppe nomads had moved south or west in the form of Turks, IMO.

    Also,
    Although we find that Mongol-era individuals were diverse, they exhibit a much lower genetic heterogeneity compared to Xiongnu-era individuals (Fig. 2), and they almost entirely lack the residual ANE-related ancestry (in the form of Chandman_IA and Khövsgöl_LBA) that had been present among the Xiongnu and earlier northern/western MLBA cultures. On average, Mongol period individuals have a much higher eastern Eurasian affinity than previous empires, and this period marks the beginning of the formation of the modern Mongolian gene pool.

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    Quote Originally Posted by ADW_1981 View Post
    Quite interesting, it demonstrates that R1b/R1a made up a non-negligible portion of ancient Mongols, yet are hardly represented among moderns. Could it be that local lines became the majority, or that further incursions came from the east?
    Mongols may be descended primarily from those that remained as pastoralists in the heartland rather than the horde.

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    Quote Originally Posted by LTG View Post
    Mongols may be descended primarily from those that remained as pastoralists in the heartland rather than the horde.
    The Hazara of central Asian would be a better representation of the military, although they are now more south Asian shifted than they used to be of course.

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    Quote Originally Posted by ADW_1981 View Post
    Quite interesting, it demonstrates that R1b/R1a made up a non-negligible portion of ancient Mongols, yet are hardly represented among moderns. Could it be that local lines became the majority, or that further incursions came from the east?
    They aren't ancient Mongols. The language spoken by the predominant element of Xiongnu is still a matter of debate. The Early Medieval samples (n=13) on the other hand are exclusively Turkic, namely Türk/Göktürk and Old Uyghur.
    Turkish DNA Project

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    Quote Originally Posted by Alkaevli View Post
    They aren't ancient Mongols. The language spoken by the predominant element of Xiongnu is still a matter of debate. The Early Medieval samples (n=13) on the other hand are exclusively Turkic, namely Türk/Göktürk and Old Uyghur.
    They are ancient Mongols because they inhabit the territory we know today as Mongolia. I remember you stated this before, and now a paper demonstrates that you were wrong. Eastern people repopulated the region during the Imperial period.
    YDNA: R1b-BY50830 Stepney, London, UK George Wood b. 1782 English <-> Bavarian cluster
    maternal-gf YDNA: ?? Gurr, James ~1740, Smarden, Kent, England.
    maternal-gm YDNA: R1b-P311+ Beech, John Richard b. 1780, Lewes, England
    maternal-ggf YDNA R1b-U106 Thomas, Edward b 1854, Sittingbourne, Kent
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-Z17901. Gould, John Somerset England 1800s.
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-L48. Scott, William Hamilton Ireland(?) 1800s

    other:
    Welch: early 1800s E-M84 Kent, England.

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