Page 1 of 3 123 LastLast
Results 1 to 10 of 29

Thread: aDNA from Nubia

  1. #1

    aDNA from Nubia

    Summary of recent Mtdna results from multiple studies on ancient Nubia Meroitic to Christian periods.

    Paleogenetic Investigation of Medieval Nubian Population from El-Kurru, Sudan ,AbagailBreidenstein

    Medieval Christian site of El-Kurru (dated to 900-1450 CE) in Upper Nubia:
    Sample : Mtdna
    202 : H1b3
    206 : H2a+152
    219 : K1e2
    212 : U2e1a
    216 : H2a+152


    "This analysis classified these Nubians into HV, H, K, U, or R haplogroups utilizing up to three polymorphic sites. Previous work of our collaborators with ancient Egyptian individuals resembles the developing profiles of these Nubians. Furthermore, these results show that ancient Nubians may differ from modern North African individuals. These results require further investigation in order to build more understanding of the genetic variation or homogeneity within the ancient populations of the Nile Valley"
    ______

    New perspectives on Nubian ancestry: Paleogenomic investigation of the ancient Middle Nile Region
    BAGAIL M. BREIDENSTEIN1, JUDITH NEUKAMM1,2

    "Here, we created a time-transect of genetic diversity in this region, using whole mitochondrial genome analysis of ancient DNA of samples obtained from several Middle Nile archaeological sites spanning nearly two thousand years, from the Meroitic period (ca. 350 BCE) to before the Arab expansion (ca. 1450 CE).
    We retrieved whole mitogenomes (MT) for six individuals: two with African ancestry and four with Eurasian ancestry"

    The Mtdna haplogroups are not specified in this study.
    _______
    Evaluation of DNA conservation in Nile-Saharan environment, Missiminia, in Nubia: Tracking maternal lineage of "X-Group". Yahia Mehdi Seddik CHERIFIa,∗, Selma AMRANIb

    "Here, we assessed DNA preservation using a range of archaeological skeletal samples from Sudan (Missiminia
    in Upper Nubia, 350 B.C.E. to 1400 C.E.)
    ."

    From the X-Group, 13 samples were selected and three other samples that occupied the
    Missiminia necropolis were added, one from each of the main groups (Table 1): Meroitic,
    Late Meroitic, and Christian (see ellipse in Figure 3). These served as the reference set to
    evaluate a difference in DNA preservation between these groups and the X-Group.

    Mitochondrial HVS-I sequences were obtained for eleven specimens (73.3%) and
    can be classified into different haplotypes: African: L1, L2 and L3, Eurasian: N, H1,
    H2, N, T1, X and W (Table 1). All are still frequent in current East African, North
    African, Arab, and Near East populations (Supplementary Table S2).

    X-Group: 12 Sample
    MIS-83 : L1b
    MIS-33 :
    MIS-93 : L2
    MIS-3/1 : X
    MIS-122 :
    MIS-219 :
    MIS-C : T1a
    MIS-171 : L3b
    MIS-151 :
    MIS-309B :
    MIS-466 : L3e
    MIS-474 : N

    Meroitic -MIS-TM : H2
    Late Meroitic- MIS-TMT : H2
    Christian -MIS-TC : W1


    By identifying the affiliation of the haplogroups and their comparison with the
    cumulative data from the literature (Supplementary Table 1), we can discuss each
    haplogroup to verify hypotheses on the X-Group origins. We found an influx of subSaharan African ancestry after the Meroitic Period, which corroborates the findings of
    Schuenemann et al. (2017) [50]
    . L1b and L2 haplogroups are mostly present in West Africa,
    respectively at 11.4% and 51.8% [51], and also present in North Africa [52–55]. The
    presence of L1b in the X-Group seems to be due to genetic flow from West to East Africa
    probably via the nomadic tribes
    , Berbers in northern Africa [52, 53] and Tuareg in the
    Sahara [55]. While the presence of L2, in the X-Group, seems to be part of its equivalent
    presence in West and East Africa with shared genetic matches with North Africa [56]


    N, T1a and X haplogroups are mostly present in Arabia and the Near East, respectively
    at 25.5%, 11.5%, and 10.0%, and still present in North Africa at less than 1.8% [63]. Without
    minimizing the question of probable unrecognized contamination (Researcher AMIS-R03 —
    Supplementary Table 1), the presence of this haplogroup X, like T1a and N haplogroups in the X-Group, suggests the possible exchange with North Africa and the Levant region (Near
    East).
    The maternal part of the X-Group origins history suggested a more diverse model
    society than expected, based on Sub-Saharan with Eurasiatic admixture, from Levant
    and North Africa (to be confirmed by a further study including more samples and a
    different experimental design).

    ______
    Last edited by Nebro; 05-04-2020 at 03:59 PM.

  2. The Following 16 Users Say Thank You to Nebro For This Useful Post:

     Angoliga (05-17-2020),  Awale (05-11-2020),  beyoku (05-06-2020),  drobbah (05-15-2020),  etrusco (05-15-2020),  grumpydaddybear (05-04-2020),  Helen (05-04-2020),  Jatt1 (05-05-2020),  Lenny Nero (10-11-2020),  Nebuchadnezzar II (05-04-2020),  Onur Dincer (05-06-2020),  palamede (05-06-2020),  parasar (05-04-2020),  pgbk87 (05-04-2020),  Philjames (05-05-2020),  Psynome (05-04-2020)

  3. #2
    Quote Originally Posted by Nebro View Post
    By identifying the affiliation of the haplogroups and their comparison with the
    cumulative data from the literature (Supplementary Table 1), we can discuss each
    haplogroup to verify hypotheses on the X-Group origins. We found an influx of subSaharan African ancestry after the Meroitic Period, which corroborates the findings of Schuenemann et al. (2017) [50]
    .
    How can that be accurate, when we have "Sub Saharan" Nilotic African "dominance" in the earliest state formations of Nile Valley civilization?

    Genetic Patterns of Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation By Hisham Yousif Hassan Mohamed 2009.

    "The area known today as Sudan may have been the scene of pivotal human evolutionary events, both as a corridor for ancient and modern migrations, as well as the venue of crucial past cultural evolution. Several questions pertaining to the pattern of succession of the different groups in early Sudan have been raised. To shed light on these aspects, ancient DNA (aDNA) and present DNA collection were made and studied using Y-chromosome markers for aDNA, and Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers for present DNA. Bone samples from different skeletal elements of burial sites from Neolithic, Meroitic, Post-Meroitic and Christian periods in Sudan were collected from Sudan National Museum. aDNA extraction was successful in 35 out of 76 samples, PCR was performed for sex determination using Amelogenin marker. Fourteen samples were females and 19 were males. To generate Y-chromosome specific haplogroups A-M13, B-M60, F-M89 and Y Alu Polymorphism (YAP) markers, which define the deep ancestral haplotypes in the phylogenetic tree of Y-chromosome were used. Haplogroups A-M13 was found at high frequencies among Neolithic samples. Haplogroup F-M89 and YAP appeared to be more frequent among Meroitic, Post-Meroitic and Christian periods. Haplogroup B-M60 was not observed in the sample analyzed. For extant DNA, Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup variations were studied in 15 Sudanese populations representing the three linguistic families in Sudan by typing the major Y haplogroups in 445 unrelated males, and 404 unrelated individuals were sequenced for the mitochondrial hypervariable region. Y-chromosome analysis shows Sudanese populations falling into haplogroups A, B, E, F, I, J, K, and R in frequencies of 16.9, 8.1, 34.2, 3.1, 1.3, 22.5, 0.9, and 13% respectively. Haplogroups A, B, and E occur mainly in Nilo-Saharan speaking groups including Nilotics, Fur, Borgu, and Masalit; whereas haplogroups F, I, J, K, and R are more frequent among Afro-Asiatic speaking groups including Arabs, Beja, Copts, and Hausa, and Niger-Congo speakers from the Fulani ethnic group. Mantel test reveal a strong correlation between genetic and linguistic structures (r= 0.30, p= 0.007), and a similar correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r= 0.29, p= 0.025) that appears after removing nomadic pastoralists of no known geographic locality from the analysis. For mtDNA analysis, a total of 56 haplotypes were observed, all belonging to the major sub-Saharan African and Eurasian mitochondrial macrohapolgroups L0, L1, L2, L4, L5, L3A, M and N in frequencies of 12.1, 11.9, 22, 4.2, 6.2, 29.5, 2, and 12.2% respectively. Haplogroups L6 was not observed in the sample analyzed. The considerable frequencies of macrohaplogroup L0 in Sudan is interesting given the fact that this macrohaplogroup occurs near the root of the mitochondrial DNA tree. Afro-Asiatic speaking groups appear to have sustained high gene flow form Nilo-Saharan speaking groups. Mantel test reveal no correlations between genetic, linguistic (r = 0.12, p = 0.14), and geographic distances (r = -0.07, p = 0.67). Accordingly, through limited on number of aDNA samples, there is enough data to suggest and to tally with the historical evidence of the dominance by Nilotic elements during the early state formation in the Nile Valley, and as the states thrived there was a dominance by other elements particularly Nuba/Nubians. In Y-chromosome terms this mean in simplest terms introgression of the YAP insertion (haplogroups E and D), and Eurasian Haplogroups which are defined by F-M89 against a background of haplogroup A-M13. The data analysis of the extant Y-chromosomes suggests that the bulk of genetic diversity appears to be a consequence of recent migrations and demographic events mainly from Asia and Europe, evident in a higher migration rate for speakers of Afro-Asiatic as compared to the Nilo-Saharan family of languages, and a generally higher effective population size for the former. While the mtDNA data suggests that regional variation and diversity in mtDNA sequences in Sudan is likely to have been shaped by a longer history of in-situ evolution and then by human migrations form East, west-central and North Africa and to a lesser extent from Eurasia to the Nile Valley."

    If anyone has ever actually studied ancient Egyptian archaeology, then we know that the "A-group Nubians" are the group that scholars credit as directly responsible for the earliest formation of Egyptian civilization.

    Last edited by Ramond; 05-16-2020 at 06:02 PM.

  4. The Following User Says Thank You to Ramond For This Useful Post:

     deku27 (05-20-2020)

  5. #3
    Gold Class Member
    Posts
    266
    Sex
    Nationality
    Finnish
    Y-DNA (P)
    R1b-Z142
    mtDNA (M)
    H10g

    Is the paper out yet?

  6. #4
    Registered Users
    Posts
    671
    Sex
    Location
    lombardy
    Nationality
    italian

    Italy Portugal Order of Christ Russia Imperial Canada Quebec Spanish Empire (1506-1701) Vatican
    Quote Originally Posted by Ramond View Post
    How can that be accurate, when we have "Sub Saharan" Nilotic Africans "dominating" the early state formations of Nile Valley civilization?

    Genetic Patterns of Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation By Hisham Yousif Hassan Mohamed 2009.

    "The area known today as Sudan may have been the scene of pivotal human evolutionary events, both as a corridor for ancient and modern migrations, as well as the venue of crucial past cultural evolution. Several questions pertaining to the pattern of succession of the different groups in early Sudan have been raised. To shed light on these aspects, ancient DNA (aDNA) and present DNA collection were made and studied using Y-chromosome markers for aDNA, and Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers for present DNA. Bone samples from different skeletal elements of burial sites from Neolithic, Meroitic, Post-Meroitic and Christian periods in Sudan were collected from Sudan National Museum. aDNA extraction was successful in 35 out of 76 samples, PCR was performed for sex determination using Amelogenin marker. Fourteen samples were females and 19 were males. To generate Y-chromosome specific haplogroups A-M13, B-M60, F-M89 and Y Alu Polymorphism (YAP) markers, which define the deep ancestral haplotypes in the phylogenetic tree of Y-chromosome were used. Haplogroups A-M13 was found at high frequencies among Neolithic samples. Haplogroup F-M89 and YAP appeared to be more frequent among Meroitic, Post-Meroitic and Christian periods. Haplogroup B-M60 was not observed in the sample analyzed. For extant DNA, Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup variations were studied in 15 Sudanese populations representing the three linguistic families in Sudan by typing the major Y haplogroups in 445 unrelated males, and 404 unrelated individuals were sequenced for the mitochondrial hypervariable region. Y-chromosome analysis shows Sudanese populations falling into haplogroups A, B, E, F, I, J, K, and R in frequencies of 16.9, 8.1, 34.2, 3.1, 1.3, 22.5, 0.9, and 13% respectively. Haplogroups A, B, and E occur mainly in Nilo-Saharan speaking groups including Nilotics, Fur, Borgu, and Masalit; whereas haplogroups F, I, J, K, and R are more frequent among Afro-Asiatic speaking groups including Arabs, Beja, Copts, and Hausa, and Niger-Congo speakers from the Fulani ethnic group. Mantel test reveal a strong correlation between genetic and linguistic structures (r= 0.30, p= 0.007), and a similar correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r= 0.29, p= 0.025) that appears after removing nomadic pastoralists of no known geographic locality from the analysis. For mtDNA analysis, a total of 56 haplotypes were observed, all belonging to the major sub-Saharan African and Eurasian mitochondrial macrohapolgroups L0, L1, L2, L4, L5, L3A, M and N in frequencies of 12.1, 11.9, 22, 4.2, 6.2, 29.5, 2, and 12.2% respectively. Haplogroups L6 was not observed in the sample analyzed. The considerable frequencies of macrohaplogroup L0 in Sudan is interesting given the fact that this macrohaplogroup occurs near the root of the mitochondrial DNA tree. Afro-Asiatic speaking groups appear to have sustained high gene flow form Nilo-Saharan speaking groups. Mantel test reveal no correlations between genetic, linguistic (r = 0.12, p = 0.14), and geographic distances (r = -0.07, p = 0.67). Accordingly, through limited on number of aDNA samples, there is enough data to suggest and to tally with the historical evidence of the dominance by Nilotic elements during the early state formation in the Nile Valley, and as the states thrived there was a dominance by other elements particularly Nuba/Nubians. In Y-chromosome terms this mean in simplest terms introgression of the YAP insertion (haplogroups E and D), and Eurasian Haplogroups which are defined by F-M89 against a background of haplogroup A-M13. The data analysis of the extant Y-chromosomes suggests that the bulk of genetic diversity appears to be a consequence of recent migrations and demographic events mainly from Asia and Europe, evident in a higher migration rate for speakers of Afro-Asiatic as compared to the Nilo-Saharan family of languages, and a generally higher effective population size for the former. While the mtDNA data suggests that regional variation and diversity in mtDNA sequences in Sudan is likely to have been shaped by a longer history of in-situ evolution and then by human migrations form East, west-central and North Africa and to a lesser extent from Eurasia to the Nile Valley."

    If anyone has ever actually studied ancient Egyptian archaeology, then we know that the "A-group Nubians" are the group that scholars credit as directly responsible for the earliest formation of Egyptian civilization.

    Attachment 37616
    I just want to have a clarification. By the tenure of the words of this study they seem to consider afroasiatic speakers in Egypt as intruders stemming from an eurasian population. Is that correct?

  7. The Following User Says Thank You to etrusco For This Useful Post:

     Nebro (05-15-2020)

  8. #5
    Quote Originally Posted by Ramond View Post
    How can that be accurate, when we have "Sub Saharan" Nilotic Africans "dominating" the early state formations of Nile Valley civilization?

    Genetic Patterns of Y-chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation By Hisham Yousif Hassan Mohamed 2009.

    "The area known today as Sudan may have been the scene of pivotal human evolutionary events, both as a corridor for ancient and modern migrations, as well as the venue of crucial past cultural evolution. Several questions pertaining to the pattern of succession of the different groups in early Sudan have been raised. To shed light on these aspects, ancient DNA (aDNA) and present DNA collection were made and studied using Y-chromosome markers for aDNA, and Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers for present DNA. Bone samples from different skeletal elements of burial sites from Neolithic, Meroitic, Post-Meroitic and Christian periods in Sudan were collected from Sudan National Museum. aDNA extraction was successful in 35 out of 76 samples, PCR was performed for sex determination using Amelogenin marker. Fourteen samples were females and 19 were males. To generate Y-chromosome specific haplogroups A-M13, B-M60, F-M89 and Y Alu Polymorphism (YAP) markers, which define the deep ancestral haplotypes in the phylogenetic tree of Y-chromosome were used. Haplogroups A-M13 was found at high frequencies among Neolithic samples. Haplogroup F-M89 and YAP appeared to be more frequent among Meroitic, Post-Meroitic and Christian periods. Haplogroup B-M60 was not observed in the sample analyzed. For extant DNA, Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup variations were studied in 15 Sudanese populations representing the three linguistic families in Sudan by typing the major Y haplogroups in 445 unrelated males, and 404 unrelated individuals were sequenced for the mitochondrial hypervariable region. Y-chromosome analysis shows Sudanese populations falling into haplogroups A, B, E, F, I, J, K, and R in frequencies of 16.9, 8.1, 34.2, 3.1, 1.3, 22.5, 0.9, and 13% respectively. Haplogroups A, B, and E occur mainly in Nilo-Saharan speaking groups including Nilotics, Fur, Borgu, and Masalit; whereas haplogroups F, I, J, K, and R are more frequent among Afro-Asiatic speaking groups including Arabs, Beja, Copts, and Hausa, and Niger-Congo speakers from the Fulani ethnic group. Mantel test reveal a strong correlation between genetic and linguistic structures (r= 0.30, p= 0.007), and a similar correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r= 0.29, p= 0.025) that appears after removing nomadic pastoralists of no known geographic locality from the analysis. For mtDNA analysis, a total of 56 haplotypes were observed, all belonging to the major sub-Saharan African and Eurasian mitochondrial macrohapolgroups L0, L1, L2, L4, L5, L3A, M and N in frequencies of 12.1, 11.9, 22, 4.2, 6.2, 29.5, 2, and 12.2% respectively. Haplogroups L6 was not observed in the sample analyzed. The considerable frequencies of macrohaplogroup L0 in Sudan is interesting given the fact that this macrohaplogroup occurs near the root of the mitochondrial DNA tree. Afro-Asiatic speaking groups appear to have sustained high gene flow form Nilo-Saharan speaking groups. Mantel test reveal no correlations between genetic, linguistic (r = 0.12, p = 0.14), and geographic distances (r = -0.07, p = 0.67). Accordingly, through limited on number of aDNA samples, there is enough data to suggest and to tally with the historical evidence of the dominance by Nilotic elements during the early state formation in the Nile Valley, and as the states thrived there was a dominance by other elements particularly Nuba/Nubians. In Y-chromosome terms this mean in simplest terms introgression of the YAP insertion (haplogroups E and D), and Eurasian Haplogroups which are defined by F-M89 against a background of haplogroup A-M13. The data analysis of the extant Y-chromosomes suggests that the bulk of genetic diversity appears to be a consequence of recent migrations and demographic events mainly from Asia and Europe, evident in a higher migration rate for speakers of Afro-Asiatic as compared to the Nilo-Saharan family of languages, and a generally higher effective population size for the former. While the mtDNA data suggests that regional variation and diversity in mtDNA sequences in Sudan is likely to have been shaped by a longer history of in-situ evolution and then by human migrations form East, west-central and North Africa and to a lesser extent from Eurasia to the Nile Valley."

    If anyone has ever actually studied ancient Egyptian archaeology, then we know that the "A-group Nubians" are the group that scholars credit as directly responsible for the earliest formation of Egyptian civilization.

    Attachment 37616
    This study you mentioned speaks on Neolithic Nubian Kadruka site ,
    The studies in the op speaks about differences between X-Group and earlier nubians , such as Merotic
    The X-Group is more sub-saharan group , while Merotic was more Eurasian ,

    The A-Group were not studied yet but i think they represented the earliest phase of the Pastorlists ancestry from North africa they have probably had Predominate Levantinese ancestry..more than X-Group which was sub-saharan influenced.

    The Neolithic Kadruka samples differed from the later nubians in having higher ratio of Haplogroup A , which means they were not yet fully influenced by the Levantinese Pastoralists who carried E1b1b haplogroup.

  9. The Following User Says Thank You to Nebro For This Useful Post:

     Ramond (05-15-2020)

  10. #6
    Registered Users
    Posts
    170

    ^ What do you hypothesize YAP+ to be in Kadruka?

  11. #7
    Quote Originally Posted by Nebro View Post
    This study you mentioned speaks on Neolithic Nubian Kadruka site, The studies in the op speaks about differences between X-Group and earlier nubians , such as Merotic
    With Neolithic emphasized the point that I was attacking with this study, was the reference to Schuenemann et al. (2017) in the claim that "Sub Saharan" ancestry came post Meroetic, and or attributed to the "slave trade" (the former). The author of the OP's study must have been ignorant of the findings from 2009, or does not know how to properly define "Sub Saharan African".

    The A-Group were not studied yet
    While not A group proper, Kadruka was a contemporary of A-group culture. They were in close proximity to one another, and with obvious cultural overlapping.

    The Neolithic Kadruka samples differed from the later nubians in having higher ratio of Haplogroup A , which means they were not yet fully influenced by the Levantinese Pastoralists who carried E1b1b haplogroup.
    Perhaps..

  12. #8
    Quote Originally Posted by beyoku View Post
    ^ What do you hypothesize YAP+ to be in Kadruka?
    Well with no E found in those Neolithic Nilotes, what does that say..

  13. #9
    Quote Originally Posted by etrusco View Post
    I just want to have a clarification. By the tenure of the words of this study they seem to consider afroasiatic speakers in Egypt as intruders stemming from an eurasian population. Is that correct?
    You must be speaking about this statement;

    "the data analysis of the extant Y-chromosomes suggests that the bulk of genetic diversity appears to be a consequence of recent migrations and demographic events mainly from Asia and Europe, evident in a higher migration rate for speakers of Afro-Asiatic as compared to the Nilo-Saharan family of languages, and a generally higher effective population size for the former."

    When we see the words "recent migrations" these;



    are more than likely your "Afro-Asiatic" "intruders". Semitic speaking Arabs.
    Last edited by Ramond; 05-16-2020 at 03:17 AM.

  14. #10
    Registered Users
    Posts
    118
    Sex

    ....del
    Last edited by Philjames; 05-17-2020 at 01:06 AM.

Page 1 of 3 123 LastLast

Similar Threads

  1. When did Nubia become Nubian?
    By Awale in forum Eastern
    Replies: 47
    Last Post: 10-28-2020, 11:02 PM
  2. Replies: 3
    Last Post: 11-26-2017, 11:57 AM
  3. More aDNA - J2a
    By Gravetto-Danubian in forum J
    Replies: 68
    Last Post: 12-28-2015, 11:59 PM
  4. aDNA from Nubia
    By Passa in forum Ancient (aDNA)
    Replies: 4
    Last Post: 06-04-2015, 08:01 PM
  5. NatGeno ADna
    By vettor in forum Autosomal (auDNA)
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: 04-27-2014, 09:35 PM

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •