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Thread: A Paleogenomic Reconstruction of the Deep Population History of the Andes

  1. #1
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    A Paleogenomic Reconstruction of the Deep Population History of the Andes

    A Paleogenomic Reconstruction of the Deep Population History of the Andes

    Nathan Nakatsuka, Iosif Lazaridis, Chiara Barbieri, Pontis Skoglund, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Cosimo Posth..., Bastien Llamas, David Reich, Lars Fehren-Schmitz

    SUMMARY

    There are many unanswered questions about the population history of the Central and South Central Andes, particularly regarding the impact of large-scale societies, such as the Moche, Wari, Tiwanaku, and Inca. We assembled genome-wide data on 89 individuals dating from 9,000-500 years ago (BP), with a particular focus on the period of the rise and fall of state societies. Today’s genetic structure began to develop by 5,800 BP, followed by bi-directional gene flow between the North and South Highlands, and between the Highlands and Coast. We detect minimal admixture among neighboring groups between 2,000–500 BP, although we do detect cosmopolitanism (people of diverse ancestries living side-by-side) in the heartlands of the Tiwanaku and Inca polities. We also highlight cases of long-range mobility connecting the Andes to Argentina and the Northwest Andes to the Amazon Basin.

    The whole paper, along with supplementary material, can be found at Reich's lab website:

    2020_Nakatsuka_Cell_Andes.pdf

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    Very interesting. When our ancestors arrived here they realized the natives from the Amazon and the River Plate basin had some ideas about the distant people from the Western High Mountains and now we know they used to share some DNA too.
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    Quote Originally Posted by RCO View Post
    Very interesting. When our ancestors arrived here they realized the natives from the Amazon and the River Plate basin had some ideas about the distant people from the Western High Mountains and now we know they used to share some DNA too.
    Thanks. I'm not familiar with the history of the area. What ideas did they have about the western groups?
    Paternal: R1b-U152 >> L2 >> FGC10543 >> PR5365, Pietro Rocca, b. 1559, Agira, Sicily, Italy
    Maternal: H4a1-T152C!, Maria Coto, b. ~1864, Galicia, Spain
    Mother's Paternal: J1+ FGC4745/FGC4766+ PF5019+, Gerardo Caprio, b. 1879, Caposele, Avellino, Campania, Italy
    Father's Maternal: T2b-C150T, Francisca Santa Cruz, b.1916, Garganchon, Burgos, Spain
    Paternal Great (x3) Grandfather: R1b-U106 >> L48 >> CTS2509, Filippo Ensabella, b.~1836, Agira, Sicily, Italy

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    Aleixo Garcia was the first Iberian (Portuguese) to reach the Inca Empire from the Atlantic Coast, eight years before Pizarro. An impressive adventure because he traveled inland via Amerindian trails from Southern Brazil to Paraguay and modern Bolivia in the 1520's.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleixo_Garcia

    You can read the letter from Luis Ramirez to his father from Southern Brazil in 1528. He described the land of the "White King" in the hilly mountains of the West.
    http://parnaseo.uv.es/Lemir/Textos/Ramirez.pdf

    Francisco de Orellana was the fist European (Spanish- Castilian) to travel the Amazon River from the Andes to the Atlantic in 1542.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_de_Orellana
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    Quote Originally Posted by RCO View Post
    Aleixo Garcia was the first Iberian (Portuguese) to reach the Inca Empire from the Atlantic Coast, eight years before Pizarro. An impressive adventure because he traveled inland via Amerindian trails from Southern Brazil to Paraguay and modern Bolivia in the 1520's.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aleixo_Garcia

    You can read the letter from Luis Ramirez to his father from Southern Brazil in 1528. He described the land of the "White King" in the hilly mountains of the West.
    http://parnaseo.uv.es/Lemir/Textos/Ramirez.pdf

    Francisco de Orellana was the fist European (Spanish- Castilian) to travel the Amazon River from the Andes to the Atlantic in 1542.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francisco_de_Orellana
    Thank you, but I wasn't asking about the Europeans. I was asking is what were the ideas you mentioned that the Amazon and River Plate basin natives had about the people from the Andes?
    Last edited by R.Rocca; 05-08-2020 at 07:38 PM.
    Paternal: R1b-U152 >> L2 >> FGC10543 >> PR5365, Pietro Rocca, b. 1559, Agira, Sicily, Italy
    Maternal: H4a1-T152C!, Maria Coto, b. ~1864, Galicia, Spain
    Mother's Paternal: J1+ FGC4745/FGC4766+ PF5019+, Gerardo Caprio, b. 1879, Caposele, Avellino, Campania, Italy
    Father's Maternal: T2b-C150T, Francisca Santa Cruz, b.1916, Garganchon, Burgos, Spain
    Paternal Great (x3) Grandfather: R1b-U106 >> L48 >> CTS2509, Filippo Ensabella, b.~1836, Agira, Sicily, Italy

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    In the video the Nazca were mentioned, are the Paracas people in the study? Supposedly Nazca conquered Paracas violently, am curious if this is reflected genetically

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    Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA analyses:

    For Y chromosome haplogroup calling, we used the original BAM files and performed an independent processing procedure. We filtered out reads with mapping quality < 30 and bases with base quality < 30, and for UDGhalf treated libraries we trimmed the first and last 2 bp of each sequence to remove potential damage induced substitutions. We determined the most derived mutation for each sample using the tree of the International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) version 11.110 (accessed 21 April 2016) and confirmed the presence of upstream mutations consistent with the assigned Y chromosome haplogroup, manually checking each of the haplogroups.
    Did anyone see the Y chromosome results in the study?

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    Quote Originally Posted by R.Rocca View Post
    Thank you, but I wasn't asking about the Europeans. I was asking is what were the ideas you mentioned that the Amazon and River Plate basin natives had about the people from the Andes?
    Yes, we only know what the natives knew via the Conquistadores' documents, letters and chronicles and only now we have genetic data about their previous movements. The tribes from the Atlantic, the Tupi-Guarani did know something about the Andes, something about the structure of power and they knew they had metals, silver, gold (not necessarily valuable for them) and other riches but no precision. The Incas had no direct contact with either the Aztecs or the Mayans before otherwise they would know how the Aztecs were first hit in 1519.
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    Y-DNA - Milhazes, Barcelos, Minho, Portugal.
    mtDNA - Ilha Terceira, Azores, Portugal
    North_Swedish + PT + PT + PT @ 3.96 EUtest 4

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    Quote Originally Posted by manesh View Post
    Did anyone see the Y chromosome results in the study?
    In supplemental information file 1: samples info

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    Quote Originally Posted by Bernard View Post
    In supplemental information file 1: samples info
    Could you post a link to the supp material, the paper gives a link but it just sends you back to the abstract ?

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