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Thread: Ancient genomes reveal complex patterns of population movement, interaction, and repl

  1. #11
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    They mentioned it a bit in the article but what i think we will see in DNA terms is the reality of mobile pastorlists. Particularity pure pastoralists. We may see wide ranging contacts and meeting up in certain cultural or ceremonial centers.
    I can think of one publication with cattle i believe from Sudan or maybe it was the Sahara but in any case there was isotope data from the cattle that indicated they were pretty much a diverse bunch with some coming from 1000's of KM away.
    I wouldn't be surprised if future data shows the migrants to be much more varied in North African (Dinka/MENA). I envision there to be 2 or 3 significant pastoral migrations from North Africa to SSA perhaps due to climactic events and then just trickles of mobile pastoralists over the years. I think some of this is reflected in lactose persistence data I also think these differences are based on the White Nile through Sudan VS the Red Sea Coast into the Horn. But thery are still primarily as composite of the same type people. This is why at times when you look at the dates of Cushitic and East African migrations it seems as if Cushitic speakers are migrating south just to meet more Cushitic speakers.

    There are some old remains in Sudan that show phenotype continuity with much later Ancient Northern Sudanese and Egyptians. My (and others) idea is that these could represent some of the core populations of North East African Natufian like ancestors. Wadi Halfa / Jebel Sahaba on the other hand seems to represent and Old North East African Nilotic precursor. I think there is a simplistic view of a clean North / South divide but as I mentioned before The old Nilotic is found as far as North Central Egypt and the More Northern MENA levantine type is found south of the White Nile/Blue Nile Confluence. These remains are contemporary with Natufian meaning Levantine like affinities this far south have the potential to be extremely old.

    EDIT: And to put things in perspective, this is the range of the Fulani. Pastoralists can be extremely mobile.
    Last edited by beyoku; 06-12-2020 at 10:52 PM.

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  3. #12
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    Quote Originally Posted by sum1 View Post
    Seems they also tried to sample some remains from Senegal and Sudan but unfortunately those were not successful.
    Damn it, I really hope that's not the case. I assume you're extrapolating that from the acknowledgements?

    For the Walalde sampling, we thank the students who took part in the project for training and for their Master theses and also the Middle Senegal Valley population for hospitality. We thank J. Reinold as director of fieldwork conducted at Kadruka 1 and Kadruka 21. We also thanks M. Besse and J. Desideri of the Laboratoire d’archéologie préhistorique et anthropologie, University of Geneva for facilitating the sampling of the Kadruka material.
    Maybe they're just waiting to release those as part of a future study? Man, I hope they keep trying if the absence of those samples is due to failure. That's the stuff we really want and need.
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  5. #13
    Have the same mt group as Munsa which is cool in a historical Bantu sample she's from the opposite side of Uganda, Bunyoro, but I believe that the Basoga are said to have been established by Bunyoro migrants , could be wrong though. Would need to see her Dinka affinities if she has any and more importantly to me, see if she's got a Nigerian or even more west-like pull like myself...I been fiending for these types of studies. I wonder if her L3b1a1 is Bantu-like, west-central or west-west in origin - all three types have been exhibited in Uganda from the study I saw and that Phd thesis from a while back, not just for L3b, but for other variable and shared haplotypes in the region. On another note, Mende exhibiting HG ancestry again while Esan & Yoruba don't...this been bugging me for a hot minute....


    Quote Originally Posted by sum1 View Post
    Seems they also tried to sample some remains from Senegal and Sudan but unfortunately those were not successful.
    Damn I woulda loved to see those.
    Last edited by ThaYamamoto; 06-12-2020 at 11:41 PM.

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  7. #14
    This paper is going to be best remembered I think in unveiling just how massive and wide ranging of an impact the early southern Cushitic groups had. In less than 3,000 years, from the Horn to the Cape and apparently even the Ituri province of Congo, the closing act in the 5,000 miles of migration that had its beginnings in the early Erythrean/Cushitic pastoralists fleeing the rapidly deteriorting conditions in the Egyptian borderlands terminated, their descendants undergoing a voyage through millenia to reach the promised lands as contrasting and myraid as the lush forests of the Ituri, the wetlands of the Okavango, and the African shores of the Atlantic. Of the 12 neolithic - iron age putatively non-Cushitic samples presented, 5 of the 12 have known Cushitic ancestry, close to ~41%. We also have the first ancient southern African E-M293, Mr Xaro (XAR002), a putative Bantu Iron Age man. This comes on the heels of a recent yfull upload of a Tswana E-M293 man.

    It is close to paradigm shifting the possibility now that Cushitic groups had migrated not only into Chad (as evinced by E-V5933), but just south of the central African republic, other Cushitic and Cushitic-admixed groups were also grazing in the general central African region. I'd like it we can christen this paper "Into Central Africa". It stands out most in this regard.

    On a second item; from western Kenya, to Botswana, to Congo we witness a chronology which iconically showcases how serial admixture from incoming Nilotes and Bantus progressively reduced high levels of Cushitic ancestry in earlier Cushitic admixed groups to the much reduced levels present today. The Xaro Okavango presumptively Bantu duo were up to a quarter Cushitic in ancestry, whereas the present day Tswana are far from anywhere similar. We see this play out in everywhere with the entrance of the Iron age, and occuring as it did across the lakes in Uganda with Munsa 500bp as Matangai Turu-like folks were sheltered deep within Congo. As it stands, known Cushitic ancestry in NE Congo is represented in the region today only by the Hema, through their connection with the Ituri Cushitic admixed population is unclear. The Xaro duo, South Africa 1200bp, Kakapela 300bp, Nqoma, and even Matangai Turu all carried significantly higher Cushitic ancestry than any Bantu and Khoe-San populations in their immediate areas today. This is very striking conclusion to come about.

    Most interestingly the 1400 Xaro duo show us that a group like South Africa 1200 deriving close to around of their ancestry from Cushitic groups once ranged in southern African upland plataeu. This can give us hints as to where the collision between early Cushitic groups and aboriginal Southern African populations occured. The almost absolute lack of linguistic influence as ever still remains as mystifying as it were. Some useful information is expected from a Bantu Tswana E-M293 uploaded on yfull recently, and he shares a ~4kya mrca with Luhyas and Tutsis, and he may share an even more recent ancestor with a lone Masai. the time window will be greatly informative in efforts to find canidate sites of early contact between Cushitic immigrants and southern African populations. It is telling they do not have to be modelled with the Chenchere ancients, and the sequence of admixture events favoring one between a Pastoral Neolithic group, and aboroginal souther African populations.

    We see more evidence of the heavy assimilation of hunter gatherer females into pastoral Cushitic communities in quite a large scale fashion. Here it is possibly not just the Eburrans, but the prescence of L4b2a in one Kansyore, despite previously being recorded amongst other LSA foragers, opens up the possiblity Kansyore matrilineal ancestry in the Cushitic populations due to interaction between late Kansyore and Cushitic groups. Some lineages in southern Africa today, such as L4b2a2c may be evidence of assimilated Eburran/Kansyore-related mtdna embedded within the Cushitic groups that went into southern Africa.

    While not occuring on a similar scale, amidst Somalis, only putative hunter-gatherer mtdna exists in significance, where there is but a single recorded Somali male with possible hunter gather ydna, a singleton E-V16. I'd take a wager and say that almost all Somali likely Bardaale-related hunter gatherer ancestry was matrilineally mediated. This is unlike the more gender balanced assimilation that occured amongst ancestral Bantu groups with early rainforest populations.

    It is a welcome find that the one of Kansyore males are assinged as E with another likely E put down as what I believe is just CT - not that I expect an actual CT*. Mota being E-V38, and with the genetic similarity between the two, what distinguishes Eburrans in their distinctive lack of E? what outstanding relationship is there that Mota and Kansyore share barring Eburrans? their E subclade assignment would explain so much, in which either way, will further the already impressive case for the origin of E-P2 and E-M215 in the greater Horn of Africa, and boost the possibility of an exotic E or E-P2 population elsewhere in the unsampled Horn as we may have uncovered with the Pretty Prettejohn's Gully E2 early pastoralist. With the autosomals, can we expect the Kansyore - Sudanic connection to be upheld by looking at presented models? Or is this going to go the route of the Elmenteitans? The possibility of the Kanysore duo (Nyarindi & Kakapel 3900ybp) having any ancestral link to the Sudan and Sahel doesn't stand out in their models if does exist, but it will obviously seen about later. Perhaps they will. Kansyore E, early pastoral E2, and Mota's E-M329. A soon to be quatret with the arrival of its final member, a pre-neolithic Horn African E-V16, with all its deep splitting glory. E-M215 as anything but Horn African in origin will be laid to rest, all such miserable and abortive efforts worthy only of our mockery.

    The Ituri forest female Matangai Turu sample was heavily Cushitic. The Congolese is modelled once as overwhelmingly Cushitic, and in another with significantly more Mbuti/Mota. She was located well past the Rwenzori mountians deep into northeastern Congo, an area which I predicted a Cushitic population may have once existed. And here I pleasently see that we have evidence of that. Didn't expect to wake up to such a decent W, but I'll sure take it. They mention her having associations with central Sudanics, and I remember bringing up the possibility of early Tutsi-like populations within Congo due to contact with central Sudanics in NE Congo. I'll wait with the rest for further evidence of this.

    IBM and the almost identical Morrocan EN plot basically on top of the early Cushitic samples on their PCA. While not a clear-cut and somewhat dubious evidence to base on, I have predicted where this discourse is headed, and one need not their glasses to see it. For this amongst other things, I seriously doubt their Eurasian ancestry is so drastically different from Cushitic groups. Related, but at K5, the Dinka are showing significant IBM related ancestry. This agrees with alot discussed here by @Angoliga

    The later Kakapel duo - I assume these western Kakapel supposedly archeologically unassociated presumtive Nilotes are southern Nilotes, and they were located close to the border with Uganda, a stone throws away from Mt Elgon. The Kalenjin and the Sirikwa and other groups of vague southern Nilotic association all lived in the region and have a deep legendary connection to this area. Could these individuals be the near-mythical Sirikwa, as these people lived not far from their stomping grounds.

    Being all so certian most people here are lacking on the ethnography of Cushitic-Nilotic interactions, and the pathways to extensive admixture between these two peoples, as we see here and in the earlier SPN paper with the entrance of the Iron Age ushuring waves of southern Nilotic and eastern Maa and Ateker migrations into Cushitic occupied areas, I'd love to give a synopsis on the factors that facitilatated these processes. There's something to be said of the quick assimilation of Cushitic individuals Nilotic communities as a phenomenon that is witnessed even today. I've heard of Somali and Rendille descended groups amongst the Turkana, with some individivuals in their lifetimes going from being born to a Cushitic group to later being moving in with and accepted apart of a Nilotic community. There was a recorded case of a born Rendille who become Turkana and rose to become the cheiftain Akal of a lineage or clan of the northern Turkana at Todenyang. The Nuer have assimilated Oromos in a similar manner. In many cases, assimilation was of Cushitic young men of fighting and herding age, who as second or third sons, had less rights to their fathers inheritance. Others were more attracted at the prospect of cattle wealth to be had. Manpower, so dire a resource in the disastrous and depleting intra-Nilotic conflicts, famous amongst them the Kwavi wars, and the Nuer wars of expansion, were alot of time replenished by the recruitment of young men from neighboring Cushitic communities. The costly bridewealth was limiting, and many young men found it easier to secure wives in return for assimilating into the Nilotic age-groups. I expect the broadly similar processes can be said of these putative early southern Nilotes in Kakapel. The Ariaal former Rendille are another famous case of how quick Cushitic -> Nilotic assimilation occurs. It was likely no different in the past.

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    Quote Originally Posted by sum1 View Post
    Dang. On the bright side, they only attempted to get material from 4 samples from Kadruka and there's no shortage of neolithic burial sites in Sudan to obtain new samples from in the future. At this point, due to latitude and elevation it looks like Sub-Saharan aDNA will be biased towards the southern portions of the Rift Valley and Southern Africa.

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  13. #17
    Too bad they couldn't get any DNA from the 7 Lothagam samples and the 1 Jarigole sample. As I understand, these are two of the oldest (ending well before 2000 BC) and most northern Pastoral Neolithic sites known. Would be interesting how they would've compared to the PN outliers from the last big East Africa paper.

    In case anyone wanted more information on the Senegalese sites unsuccessfully sampled (which I personally knew nothing about), here are some papers:

    Excavations at Walaldé: New light on the settlement of the Middle Senegal Valley by iron-using peoples
    The Diallowali Site Complex: A Late Stone Age Occupation along the Middle Senegal Valley

    At Walaldé, there was "an occupation by iron-using agropastoralists that began [800-550] cal BC, and continued until [400-200] cal BC." For the Diallowali site, "the populations that arrived between 3000 to 2500 BP were iron-using, agro-pastoralists growing millet, raising cattle, hunting, and fishing."

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    I know; it would really suck if that lack of success is going to be the status quo for these samples in the future. There already isn't much to work with from West Africa in the first place. Maybe Reichlab will have more luck? We're missing a big piece of the puzzle without material from the Sudan, Sahel, or Sahara. Asselar will probably not yield anything useful if they couldn't get anything from those younger samples.
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    The two leading authors are both affiliated with Max Planck so hopefully the genotype data will be here pretty soon?
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    So it looks like the oldest West Eurasian-admixed samples we have from south of the Sahara continue to be those two early PN samples from Kenya (~2000 BCE).

    Is the Horn itself lacking in material or something?
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