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Thread: Current thinking regarding ancient movement from Southern China into northern Taiwan

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    Current thinking regarding ancient movement from Southern China into northern Taiwan

    I've been catching up on some reading regarding Austronesian's, specifically Taiwanese indigenous peoples, and their potential genetic relationship with Mainland China. I came across this article that discusses the work by Professor Fu and her team. This article states:

    Archaeological materials dating back to the Middle Neolithic have long hinted at the connection between Austronesian islanders and populations in mainland East Asia. Now, the genetic relationships uncovered by Prof. Fu and her team show unambiguous evidence that Austronesian speakers today originated from a proto-Austronesian population that derived from southern China at least 8,400 year ago.
    This article by Chang et al, titled A holistic picture of Austronesian migrations revealed by phylogeography of Pacific paper mulberry, reports paper mulberries in particular were likely transported between Southern China, possibly Fujian, to Taiwan.

    Sagart et al mention in this article, A northern Chinese origin of Austronesian agriculture: new evidence on traditional Formosan cereals, and state:

    We trace this suite of cereals to northeastern China in the period 6000–5000 BCE and argue, following earlier proposals, that the precursors of the Austronesians, expanded south along the coast from Shandong after c. 5000 BCE to reach northwest Taiwan in the second half of the 4th millennium BCE.
    I've also come across some literature that suggests the Liangzhu culture to be the likely origin of Austronesian's.

    For those here with more knowledge regarding East Asian migration, is the current general consensus in line with a Southern China origin? I can't find any peer reviewed papers, or recent papers for that matter, that support the Liangzhu claim.
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    It is very probable since the site contains high incidence of O-M175. Archaeologically however, I cannot say. Also based on modern results, it would make sense. Generally, populations in maritime south-east Asia/Oceania with the greatest Austronesian genetic impact (e.g. certain Highlanders) are more "northern" than their surrounding counterparts, with this component decreasing as one proceeds southwards/westwards. This component most likely came from more inland areas. I would imagine that the Austronesian uremheit would've started off with a stronger base with the ability to support a greater population like the areas around the Yangtze River rather than the highlands of Taiwan.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kulin View Post
    It is very probable since the site contains high incidence of O-M175. Archaeologically however, I cannot say. Also based on modern results, it would make sense. Generally, populations in maritime south-east Asia/Oceania with the greatest Austronesian genetic impact (e.g. certain Highlanders) are more "northern" than their surrounding counterparts, with this component decreasing as one proceeds southwards/westwards. This component most likely came from more inland areas. I would imagine that the Austronesian uremheit would've started off with a stronger base with the ability to support a greater population like the areas around the Yangtze River rather than the highlands of Taiwan.
    I've had a bit more time to find somewhat more recent related studies. I certainly agree with areas around the Yangtze valley as a whole. Here are a few I've found which point to more evidence of such an origin. I've included abstracts for each.

    Ancient DNA Evidence From China Reveals the Expansion of Pacific Dogs

    The ancestral homeland of Australian dingoes and Pacific dogs is proposed to be in South China. However, the location and timing of their dispersal and relationship to dog domestication is unclear. Here, we sequenced 7,000- to 2,000-year-old complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes of 27 ancient canids (one gray wolf and 26 domestic dogs) from the Yellow River and Yangtze River basins. These are the first complete ancient mtDNA of Chinese dogs from the cradle of early Chinese civilization. We found that most ancient dogs (18/26) belong to the haplogroup A1b lineage that is found in high frequency in present-day Australian dingoes and precolonial Pacific Island dogs but low frequency in present-day China. Particularly, a 7,000-year-old dog from the Tianluoshan site in Zhejiang province possesses a haplotype basal to the entire haplogroup A1b lineage. We propose that A1b lineage dogs were once widely distributed in the YYRB area. Following their dispersal to South China, and then into Southeast Asia, New Guinea and remote Oceania, they were largely replaced by dogs belonging to other lineages in the last 2,000 years in present-day China, especially North China.
    Ancient DNA indicates human population shifts and admixture in northern and southern China

    Human genetic history in East Asia is poorly understood. To clarify population relationships, we obtained genome wide data from 26 ancient individuals from northern and southern East Asia spanning 9,500-300 years ago. Genetic differentiation was higher in the past than the present, reflecting a major episode of admixture involving northern East Asian ancestry spreading across southern East Asia after the Neolithic, transforming the genetic ancestry of southern China. Mainland southern East Asian and Taiwan Strait island samples from the Neolithic show clear connections with modern and ancient samples with Austronesian-related ancestry, supporting a southern China origin for proto-Austronesians. Connections among Neolithic coastal groups from Siberia and Japan to Vietnam indicate that migration and gene flow played an important role in the prehistory of coastal Asia.
    In regards to the above article, I found the paragraph below particularly interesting from the full paper, especially as someone who has conducted some modelling with the ancient Vanuatu and Tongan samples:

    We further investigated connections between the ancient samples and 3,000-year-old Southwest Pacific islanders from Vanuatu (10), who share a close relationship to present-day Austronesians. The Neolithic samples from mainland southern China and the Taiwan Strait islands group with the ancient Vanuatu samples in a maximum-likelihood tree (b.s. = 82.3-100%, Fig. 2A and fig. S5) and share high genetic similarity with the Vanuatu in an outgroup f3-analysis (Fig. 1D). Moreover, a direct f4-comparison demonstrates that Late Neolithic southern East Asians share a close genetic relationship with these Austronesian-related Southwest Pacific islanders (fig. S4A), with no excess connections from either group to Neolithic northern East Asians. These results further support the proposed connection between Neolithic southern East Asians and proto-Austronesians (29).
    Quantifying the Legacy of the Chinese Neolithic on the Maternal Genetic Heritage of Taiwan and Island Southeast Asia

    There has been a long-standing debate concerning the extent to which the spread of Neolithic ceramics and Malay-Polynesian languages in Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) were coupled to an agriculturally driven demic dispersal out of Taiwan 4000 years ago (4 ka). We previously addressed this question using founder analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control-region sequences to identify major lineage clusters most likely to have dispersed from Taiwan into ISEA, proposing that the dispersal had a relatively minor impact on the extant genetic structure of ISEA, and that the role of agriculture in the expansion of the Austronesian languages was therefore likely to have been correspondingly minor. Here we test these conclusions by sequencing whole mtDNAs from across Taiwan and ISEA, using their higher chronological precision to resolve the overall proportion that participated in the "out-of-Taiwan" mid-Holocene dispersal as opposed to earlier, postglacial expansions in the Early Holocene. We show that, in total, about 20% of mtDNA lineages in the modern ISEA pool result from the "out-of-Taiwan" dispersal, with most of the remainder signifying earlier processes, mainly due to sea-level rises after the Last Glacial Maximum. Notably, we show that every one of these founder clusters previously entered Taiwan from China, 6-7 ka, where rice-farming originated, and remained distinct from the indigenous Taiwanese population until after the subsequent dispersal into ISEA.
    I couldn't find any archaeological studies to accompany the genetic studies, however there appears to be strong genetic evidence regardless. There may actually be archaeological studies available and I just haven't found them yet.
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    Quote Originally Posted by BalkanKiwi View Post
    I've had a bit more time to find somewhat more recent related studies. I certainly agree with areas around the Yangtze valley as a whole. Here are a few I've found which point to more evidence of such an origin. I've included abstracts for each.

    Ancient DNA Evidence From China Reveals the Expansion of Pacific Dogs



    Ancient DNA indicates human population shifts and admixture in northern and southern China



    In regards to the above article, I found the paragraph below particularly interesting from the full paper, especially as someone who has conducted some modelling with the ancient Vanuatu and Tongan samples:



    Quantifying the Legacy of the Chinese Neolithic on the Maternal Genetic Heritage of Taiwan and Island Southeast Asia



    I couldn't find any archaeological studies to accompany the genetic studies, however there appears to be strong genetic evidence regardless. There may actually be archaeological studies available and I just haven't found them yet.
    Great studies, thanks for posting! It would make sense uni-parental wise as well, given that most clades of O that are today considered Austronesian are found in minor (with a few being significant) amounts as far north as North East China. Going by historical records, we know that throughout Chinese history, the island of Taiwan was largely left alone. Aside from a few pirates and rebels, the area was off limits to most Han and was only colonized in the Qing period. This would mean that the remaining Austronesian cultures that did not migrate to islands in the Pacific were absorbed/assimilated by groups like the Han. This would thus support the uremheit of the Austronesian peoples being in mainland China.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kulin View Post
    Great studies, thanks for posting! It would make sense uni-parental wise as well, given that most clades of O that are today considered Austronesian are found in minor (with a few being significant) amounts as far north as North East China. Going by historical records, we know that throughout Chinese history, the island of Taiwan was largely left alone. Aside from a few pirates and rebels, the area was off limits to most Han and was only colonized in the Qing period. This would mean that the remaining Austronesian cultures that did not migrate to islands in the Pacific were absorbed/assimilated by groups like the Han. This would thus support the uremheit of the Austronesian peoples being in mainland China.
    You're welcome! I agree with it making sense uni-parental wise as well. Out of interest, here is the maternal haplogroup migration figure from the Brandão et al study:



    I've had a quick attempt at modelling the ancient Vanuatu samples with the inclusion of some of the East Asian samples. It's a bit messy fit wise so I need to work on it. Ideally we would have more ancient DNA instead of the need to mix ancient with modern.

    I went and quickly modeled myself with the inclusion of the Yellow River population. This is unscaled with penalty applied:

    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► BalkanKiwi
    Fit: 0.5374
    Results: Scottish 37
    Irish 29.5
    English 16.5
    Croatian 14
    Nasoi 2
    Yellow River LN 1


    There is probably a better ancient China sample I could use with further research. Yellow River was a quick one to put in geography wise. Interestingly the most my grandmother gets is 0.5%.

    EDIT:

    If I replace Nasoi with Kosipe which is a better fitting Papuan like population from a previous OptimaFit run, and replace Yellow River with Xitoucun, Xitoucun is higher than Kosipe. Its possible the Xitoucun sample has something that's causing it to be inflated.

    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► BalkanKiwi
    Fit: 0.644
    Results: Irish 50
    English 34.5
    Croatian 13
    Xitoucun N 1.5
    Kosipe 1


    If I replace Kosipe with Nasoi then Xitoucun drops a bit. The percentage doesn't matter, but its interesting to see the fluctuation when mixing these populations.

    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► BalkanKiwi
    Fit: 0.6343
    Results: Irish 52
    English 31.5
    Croatian 14
    Nasoi 2
    Xitoucun N 0.5


    EDIT 2:

    I went and ran an OptimaFit running with the following model, based off data from the Yang et al study mentioned in this thread:

    Unscaled with penalty



    The result:

    GenoPlot
    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► BalkanKiwi
    Fit: 1.3279
    Results: England MBA 85.4
    HRV EBA 6
    Xitoucun N 4.4
    Scotland N o 4.2


    The percentage is inflated, but it seems to fit with the PCA findings by Yang et al in regards to Xitoucun's proximity to ancient Vanuatu. If data for the Suogang sample was available, its possible this would be a better fit. My model may not be ideal, which has led to the inflated values.
    Ancestry on paper: English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Croatian, Ashkenazi, Polish and Māori.

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    After some help from ph2ter and further running of models, I've seemed to validate my suspicion that Xitoucun contains some Austronesian, hence why it fits the above models with an inflated percentage. Below is an Admix3 unscaled run that ph2ter kindly performed on the Xitoucun sample:

    Ami + Luzon + Miao 0.013814
    Ami + Ami + Tujia 0.013820
    Ami + Han_Chongqing + Luzon 0.013871
    Ami + Ami + Han_Chongqing 0.013909

    54% Ami + 21% Han_Hubei + 25% Gelao 0.011678
    51% Ami + 32% Zhuang + 17% Han_Hubei 0.011835
    56% Ami + 25% Han_Chongqing + 19% Gelao 0.011855
    34% Ami + 20% Luzon + 46% Dong_Hunan 0.011889

    Taking this information and out of interest, I then ran the other ancient samples from southern China to see roughly how much Austronesian they contains compared to East Asian. These are all unscaled runs with penalty applied.

    Chuanyun Historic
    Sample: Chuanyun Historic ► Average
    Fit: 1.3479
    Results: Han Hubei 71
    Upper Yellow River IA 12
    Ami 10.5
    Miao 6.5

    Tanshishan N
    Sample: Tanshishan N ► Average
    Fit: 1.4456
    Results: Ami 68.5
    Gelao 27
    Miao 2.5
    Han Hubei 2

    Xitoucun
    Sample: Xitoucun N ► Average
    Fit: 1.0848
    Results: Ami 55.5
    Gelao 27
    Han Hubei 13
    Miao 4.5

    Qihe (This is the best fit I can get so far with some quick attempts at fitting populations in)
    Sample: Qihe N ► Average
    Fit: 2.6939
    Results: Zhuang 48.5
    Luzon 29.5
    Gelao 22

    Liangdao1
    Sample: Liangdao1 N ► Average
    Fit: 1.5406
    Results: Ami 40
    Miao 26
    Agta 20.5
    Luzon 13.5


    It seems Chuanyun is the only southern Chinese sample that is majority East Asian and does not contain much Austronesian from any backwards migration, so we'll use this as the sample of choice for the below modelling, as it could be assumed any percentage scored is likely represenative of actual East Asian. I recreated the rough ancient and modern models for myself, and this time used Chuanyun instead of Xitoucun.

    Unscaled with penalty with ancient samples
    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► BalkanKiwi
    Fit: 1.3642
    Results: England CA EBA 86
    HRV EBA 9
    Levant Natufian 3.5
    Chuanyun Historic 1
    2900BP all (Vanuatu) 0.5

    Unscaled with penalty with modern samples
    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► BalkanKiwi
    Fit: 0.6126
    Results: Irish 50
    English 35.5
    Croatian 10
    Samaritan 3
    Kosipe 1
    Chuanyun Historic 0.5


    I wanted to validate this with samples that have more Oceanian ancestry than myself. This is where some of the ghost samples I created for my family come in handy.

    Grandmother ancient (real data, Vanuatu sample included but no percentage assigned)

    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► BKGrandmother
    Fit: 1.3528
    Results: England CA EBA 89
    IRL BA 9
    Chuanyun Historic 2

    Grandmother modern (real data)
    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► BKGrandmother
    Fit: 0.6896
    Results: Irish 65.5
    English 32
    Nasoi 1.5
    Chuanyun Historic 1

    Great grandfather ghost sample ancient
    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► BKGreatgrandfatherMaori
    Fit: 0.9133
    Results: England CA EBA 64.5
    IRL BA 32
    Chuanyun Historic 2
    2900BP all 1.5

    Great grandfather ghost sample modern
    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► BKGreatgrandfatherMaori
    Fit: 0.1521
    Results: English 50.5
    Welsh 45.5
    Maori 3.5
    Chuanyun Historic 0.5

    2nd great grandmother ghost sample ancient
    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► BK2ndGreatgrandmotherMaori
    Fit: 0.897
    Results: England CA EBA 62.5
    IRL BA 32
    2900BP all 3
    Chuanyun Historic 2.5

    2nd great grandmother ghost sample modern
    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► BK2ndGreatgrandmotherMaori
    Fit: 0.3118
    Results: English 53
    Welsh 42.5
    Maori 2.5
    Chuanyun Historic 2

    3rd great grandmother ghost sample ancient
    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► Eleanortest
    Fit: 0.9191
    Results: England CA EBA 65
    IRL BA 24
    2900BP all 7
    Chuanyun Historic 4

    3rd great grandmother ghost sample modern
    Sample: Balkan Kiwi ► Eleanortest
    Fit: 0.3197
    Results: Welsh 46.5
    English 36
    Maori 14
    Chuanyun Historic 3.5


    I might need to do more work, but the above findings may help to validate some of the research that suggests a southern China origin. It seems quite a few of the ancient samples contain Austronesian, which is why these may plot close to Oceanian peoples. This is also a good example of how OptimaFit can be misleading if not interpreted correctly in the context of the samples selected.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Kulin View Post
    It is very probable since the site contains high incidence of O-M175. Archaeologically however, I cannot say. Also based on modern results, it would make sense. Generally, populations in maritime south-east Asia/Oceania with the greatest Austronesian genetic impact (e.g. certain Highlanders) are more "northern" than their surrounding counterparts, with this component decreasing as one proceeds southwards/westwards. This component most likely came from more inland areas. I would imagine that the Austronesian uremheit would've started off with a stronger base with the ability to support a greater population like the areas around the Yangtze River rather than the highlands of Taiwan.
    Much agreed. Autosomal data from Liangzhu culture individuals and others from the lower Yangtze like Hemudu is long overdue. I am convinced they will cluster along with the Neolithic Fujian samples and ancient Taiwanese as well.
    There is substantial linguistic evidence that Tai-Kadai and Austronesian are related clades, or that they were in very close contact in their early stages. Some argue that Tai-Kadai followed the inland route whereas Austronesians left via Taiwan. Lower Yangtze cultures may provide the missing link.

    I tried running East Asian populations through Vahaduo using a selection of ancient (almost exclusively Neolithic) samples. I tried to classify the ancient samples the least arbitrarily possible, I put the Lao and Vietnam neolithic together as "Indochina_N", the Southern East Asian samples from the Melinda Yang studies together as "Fujian_N", the Northern East Asian samples from her study as "Shandong_N", Taiwan_Hanben and Taiwan_Gongguan together as "Taiwan_N", etc... I put the Yellow River valley samples that clustered together into "Yellow_River_N", etc... You can see the whole list below.

     
    Indochina_N:VNM_LN,0.0163143,-0.3875937,-0.0568197,-0.0402673,0.1348967,0.0703733,-0.0036033,-0.0036923,-0.0100217,-0.0145787,0.0582973,0.002947,-0.006442,-0.012386,0.0081887,-0.0002653,0.0080403,-0.0089527,0.000838,0.004419,-0.0024957,0.007337,-0.0058747,-0.0076713,0.028181
    Indochina_N:VNM_N,0,-0.386917,-0.064865,-0.031008,0.134333,0.06038,0.0036425,-0.010961,-0.0138055,-0.014579,0.0695835,-0.001499,-0.002007,0.001376,0.0169655,-0.0031155,-0.0011085,0.00076,-0.0020115,0.01532,-0.0034935,0.0084085,0.0030195,-0.0063865,0.034009
    Indochina_N:LAO_LN_BA,0.005691,-0.40215,-0.083721,-0.034561,0.15049,0.078089,-0.002585,-0.012692,-0.006136,-0.018588,0.089801,0.004346,-0.012785,0.010184,0.003393,-0.005701,-0.002477,0.0019,-0.00088,0.026388,-0.016845,0.02201,-0.011955,0.001325,0.039038
    Indochina_P:LAO_Hoabinhian,-0.025041,-0.224432,-0.11917,0.087856,0.022466,-0.001952,-0.003055,0.01223,0.060539,0.018406,0.012829,0.0011 99,-0.000446,0.006055,-0.007872,-0.006364,-0.00352,-0.00076,-0.005531,0.023386,0.006988,0.013107,-0.017131,-0.001325,0.003712
    Andaman_P:IND_Great_Andamanese_100BP,-0.018212,-0.235603,-0.128598,0.098838,0.023389,-0.003904,-0.016686,-0.003231,0.059721,0.02041,0.023222,0.004646,-0.0055,0.001239,-0.016151,-0.008884,0.009518,0.001014,-0.004902,0.026888,-0.00549,0.011994,-0.013311,-0.001205,0.000958
    Papuan,-0.045985,-0.241087,-0.263758,0.309242,0.206931,-0.509589,-0.001974,0.007015,-0.041273,-0.011955,-0.018902,0.000869,0.001397,-0.00311,0.000163,-0.000318,-0.00219,-0.00185,-0.001081,-0.001526,0.002346,0.001805,0.001232,0.001832,0.001 605
    Heilongjiang_N:CHN_Amur_River_EN,0.025041,-0.4595275,0.097674,-0.036822,-0.0809385,-0.060101,0.0200935,0.0271145,0.0140095,0.014579,-0.023059,0.0062945,0.00498,-0.0052295,-0.003868,0.0059665,-0.0020865,0.001267,0.0098045,0.024762,-0.011043,-0.0200315,-0.020028,-0.009158,-0.0088015
    Shandong_N:CHN_Bianbian_N,0.015935,-0.443786,0.028284,-0.052003,0.024312,-0.005299,-0.002585,0.000231,-0.00225,0.011663,-0.073887,-0.006744,0.004906,-0.007844,-0.011943,0.001724,0.004303,0.004687,0.002011,0.004 127,0.022086,-0.001731,-0.003451,-0.005181,-0.008981
    Shandong_N:CHN_Boshan_N,0.01935,-0.444802,0.032432,-0.062339,0.012618,0.002789,0.009635,0.003,-0.007772,0.008201,-0.074861,-0.009891,0.009812,-0.008533,-0.010315,-0.005701,-0.004042,0.003801,-0.000377,-0.002126,0.013726,0.003215,0.005793,-0.005543,-0.005628
    Fujian_N:CHN_Liangdao1_N,0.002276,-0.409258,-0.052043,-0.038114,0.107405,0.046575,-0.006345,-0.01523,-0.020657,-0.013485,0.021922,0.009292,-0.003122,0.000138,0.015879,0.001326,0.004824,0,-0.008045,-0.006378,0.005116,-0.011005,-0.002588,-0.009278,-0.03341
    Fujian_N:CHN_Liangdao2_N,0.006829,-0.407227,-0.052043,-0.040052,0.112944,0.045459,0.00141,-0.004384,-0.005931,-0.008565,0.034589,0.003747,-0.010406,0.001927,0.007736,0.012066,0.00352,0.0048 14,0.005028,-0.00988,0.007237,-0.011005,0.013188,-0.01687,-0.02874
    Fujian_N:CHN_Qihe_N,0.005691,-0.372699,-0.057322,-0.01615,0.096018,0.035698,-0.005875,-0.007615,-0.003477,-0.002916,0.013641,-0.004646,-0.000743,-0.01445,-0.002036,-0.004773,0.004433,0.000507,0.008422,0.007128,0.009 982,-0.00371,0.005053,-0.013134,-0.017483
    Yellow_River_N:CHN_Shimao_LN,0.018781,-0.451403,0.023004,-0.062662,0.028159,0.0079485,0.006815,0.0012695,-0.00859,0.009567,-0.0937795,-0.008093,0.007582,-0.008257,-0.0110615,-0.0024525,-0.0029985,0.002217,-0.006599,-6.25e-05,0.0090465,0.0097685,0.0071485,0.0025905,0.01706 45
    Fujian_N:CHN_Tanshishan_N,0.005691,-0.427538,-0.04186,-0.058463,0.123408,0.055778,-0.00846,-0.01823,-0.020043,-0.024055,0.035076,3e-04,-0.004906,0.003578,-0.000271,0.014585,0.001825,0.001267,0.003017,-0.012256,0.005865,-0.009398,0.002958,-0.007832,-0.03341
    China_P:CHN_Tianyuan,-0.027318,-0.260991,-0.075424,0.071383,0.033545,-0.018407,-0.00799,-0.003,0.040291,0.021322,-0.006333,-0.005995,-0.003568,-0.00523,-0.000407,-0.000663,0.008084,0.002407,-0.001131,0.027263,-0.001747,0.008037,-0.008874,-0.010845,0.011256
    Yellow_River_N:CHN_Upper_Yellow_River_LN,0.0170734 ,-0.4421616,0.022778,-0.0515508,0.0196344,-0.0039602,0.0089774,0.0057692,-0.0035588,0.0106792,-0.0916846,-0.0111202,0.0117144,-0.0013762,-0.0077904,-0.0013258,-0.0005476,-0.0033952,-0.0051536,0.0010756,0.0009234,0.0163468,0.0057188, 0.0008918,0.025794
    CHN_Western_Liao_River_MN,0.0199195,-0.444294,0.0503455,-0.051034,-0.007386,-0.0182675,0.0050525,0.0064615,0.003375,0.011663,-0.0765665,-0.008992,0.0086965,-0.00406,-0.007804,-0.003381,-0.0013695,0.005384,0.002577,0.009317,0.0033065,-0.0043275,-0.0094285,-0.001386,-0.0020955
    Shandong_N:CHN_Xiaogao_N,0.005691,-0.437693,0.025644,-0.048773,0.011694,-0.008925,-0.003995,0.003692,-0.000205,0.011481,-0.075835,-0.007493,0.00669,-0.002202,-0.004207,0.004641,0.002477,0.001774,-0.00088,-0.007754,0.014474,-0.002473,-0.002711,0.001687,-0.011256
    Shandong_N:CHN_Xiaojingshan_N,0.012141,-0.4383703,0.0250157,-0.052003,0.0229783,-0.0105053,-0.0044653,0.0010767,-0.007363,0.010205,-0.0803823,-0.0115397,0.0122397,-0.0031193,-0.0077813,-0.0079553,-0.00013,0.0016047,0.004106,-0.0042103,0.0137257,-0.0002883,0.0098187,-0.006145,-0.005788
    Fujian_N:CHN_Xitoucun_N,0.0085365,-0.431092,-0.037335,-0.058786,0.125562,0.0496425,0.0001175,-0.011538,-0.0223955,-0.013759,0.015995,0.004421,0.003865,-0.001514,0.0068535,0.0021215,-0.000326,0.0041805,0.0024515,-0.0123805,0.018842,-0.017435,0.0094285,-0.0102425,-0.024369
    Yellow_River_N:CHN_Yellow_River_LN,0.0166466,-0.4503874,0.0109365,-0.0657709,0.0545101,0.0217886,0.0037894,0.0012404,-0.0097149,0.0040092,-0.0851524,-0.0100032,0.0123945,-0.0059179,-0.0088896,-0.000895,0.001483,-0.0003801,-0.0048392,-0.0075191,0.0172975,0.007543,0.0128639,-0.0006476,0.0073496
    Yellow_River_N:CHN_Yellow_River_MN,0.0166182,-0.4441924,0.0136518,-0.0588506,0.0390226,0.0112114,0.0082252,0.0014306,-0.0015546,0.0055034,-0.092269,-0.01106,0.0142414,-0.0075692,-0.0129476,-0.0003978,0.0051112,-0.0020522,-0.0057318,-0.0019008,0.0136762,0.015704,0.0105996,-0.002458,0.0122624
    CHN_Yumin_N,0.018212,-0.427538,0.066373,-0.032946,-0.049548,-0.04016,0.00705,0.012461,0.010022,0.021504,-0.063656,-0.006894,0.002825,0.001101,-0.008143,-0.002387,0.004172,0.002534,0.003017,0.019509,-0.012728,0.000989,-0.017131,-0.002651,0.007305
    RUS_Sintashta_MLBA,0.125389,0.1158031,0.0572615,0. 0789266,0.011327,0.0284468,0.005678,0.0041909,-0.0174834,-0.0282348,-0.0024254,0.0012473,-0.0030739,-0.0212915,0.0226566,0.0124762,-0.0050555,0.0004086,-6.9e-05,-0.0007423,-0.0059089,0.0020542,0.0026159,0.0066506,-0.0039363
    RUS_Shamanka_N,0.0309599,-0.4147422,0.0950344,-0.0157947,-0.0868469,-0.0482203,0.0053815,0.010061,0.0147054,0.0125196,-0.0160603,-0.0018134,0.0035828,-0.0078032,-0.0046552,-0.0032088,-0.0025164,0.0005827,0.0064608,0.0178333,-0.0170449,-0.0059478,-0.0165151,-0.0032051,0.0046943
    Eurasia_P:RUS_Ust_Ishim,-0.050082,-0.11577,-0.090886,0.073644,0.027082,-0.018128,-0.00376,-0.004384,0.0452,0.010387,0.006008,-0.001798,0.000149,-0.003991,0.004614,-0.001724,-0.004955,0.004687,-0.005154,0.015382,0.006613,0.008532,-0.007641,-0.014942,0.007784
    Taiwan_N:TWN_Gongguan,0.009106,-0.455973,-0.032432,-0.075905,0.142796,0.070559,-0.008695,-0.011999,-0.030065,-0.024602,0.052614,-0.003147,0.008474,-0.003303,0.009908,0.008618,-0.012778,0.006714,0.012821,-0.013256,0.00549,-0.032397,-0.001109,-0.008194,-0.061192
    Taiwan_N:TWN_Hanben,0.0155393,-0.4419318,-0.0435985,-0.0634906,0.1387417,0.064642,-0.0045365,-0.0134342,-0.0232624,-0.0208937,0.0412537,0.0034991,-0.002999,-0.0035123,0.0102085,0.0065775,-0.0008786,0.0056239,0.0068097,-0.0128105,0.0079044,-0.0258488,0.0022506,-0.0087176,-0.0486288
    RUS_Devils_Gate_Cave_N,0.0162197,-0.4440402,0.0722185,-0.0511148,-0.0373912,-0.0395328,0.0034075,0.0084802,0.0064935,0.019408,-0.048595,-0.004833,-0.0030848,0.0086702,-0.0096025,-0.0133915,-0.0007825,0.0089,0.0174408,0.0100362,0.008828,-0.027729,-0.0174702,-0.00244,-0.0145795
    RUS_Baikal_N,0.0430252,-0.343452,0.0849276,0.0036176,-0.0836464,-0.041722,-0.000282,-0.0036,0.0105126,0.0064146,0.003475,-0.0038366,0.0046976,-0.013267,-0.006786,-0.003262,-0.0056584,0.0033192,0.0057068,0.017033,-0.0176192,-0.0064548,-0.0078632,-0.0056874,0.0050056
    RUS_Boisman_MN,0.0211091,-0.4479409,0.0741897,-0.0434875,-0.0510025,-0.0405914,0.0098064,0.0122512,0.0104122,0.0256788,-0.0416157,-0.001771,-0.0011488,0.0091707,-0.0088958,-0.0082809,-0.0038997,0.0051713,0.0127068,0.0145636,0.0032444,-0.0328355,-0.0255795,0.0015227,-0.0190509
    Nepal_N:NPL_Chokhopani_2700BP,0.012521,-0.410274,-0.011691,-0.031331,0.017542,0.011435,0.00658,0.011999,0.0100 22,0.021139,-0.081194,-0.006444,0.010109,-0.004679,-0.011401,0,0.011213,-0.001267,-0.009302,0.009379,0.004991,0.029306,0.004314,0.003 615,0.031734
    MNG_North_N,0.0237403,-0.4314549,0.0890541,-0.0247326,-0.0815536,-0.0521129,0.0134964,0.0145379,0.0179981,0.020098,-0.029346,-0.0013703,0.0013593,-0.0051314,-0.0056033,-0.0039967,0.0038743,0.0006154,0.0038967,0.020331,-0.0196439,-0.0037801,-0.0166207,-0.0061969,0.0076981
    MNG_East_N,0.025041,-0.4427705,0.0788185,-0.0347225,-0.074937,-0.056336,0.0172735,0.015461,0.0166685,0.0266065,-0.0353195,-0.0038215,0.001264,0.0030965,-0.008279,-0.006696,0.002347,0.002027,0.004211,0.019009,-0.0150985,-0.006801,-0.0272995,-0.008736,0.0049695
    Japan_P:JPN_Jomon,0.011003,-0.3440953,-0.0537398,0.0124893,0.038161,0.0139448,-0.0020758,-0.0015383,0.024577,0.0205622,-0.049718,-0.0068938,0.0096878,-0.0069958,-0.023819,-0.0154467,0.006454,0.0099242,0.0024722,-0.0060655,0.0639705,-0.0456895,0.0091615,0.0112062,-0.0994323
    Sakhalin_P:RUS_Sakhalin_HG,0.011382,-0.380824,-0.011314,-0.00646,-0.007386,-0.008367,-0.004935,0.009923,0.019839,0.023508,-0.038161,-0.005245,0.002825,0.007707,-0.044381,-0.007425,0.009779,0.010642,0.01257,-0.001501,0.049288,-0.037838,-0.001849,0.004338,-0.055444
    Yemenite_Al_Bayda,0.0387,0.13862,-0.062665,-0.107398,-0.010156,-0.04848,-0.013161,-0.010153,0.054131,-0.005983,0.010961,-0.028799,0.050916,0.004106,0.006379,0.024198,-0.018471,0.007158,0.000838,0.017925,0.009774,0.016 178,-0.007436,0.001125,-0.003752
    Yemenite_Al_Jawf,0.049228,0.141412,-0.063073,-0.115554,-0.010694,-0.047342,-0.0094,-0.007154,0.058136,-0.002597,0.012869,-0.031435,0.057309,0.003888,0.0038,0.01959,-0.02047,0.003991,0.003174,0.022136,0.0107,0.014715 ,-0.013064,0.008555,-0.008562
    Yemenite_Amran,0.045855,0.135428,-0.061525,-0.101445,-0.01486,-0.042152,-0.008729,-0.007763,0.04501,-0.004256,0.01175,-0.022962,0.04651,0.005259,0.003994,0.017256,-0.014137,0.004253,0.001832,0.015704,0.006925,0.009 521,-0.00633,0.004174,-0.004781
    Yemenite_Dhamar,0.035538,0.141159,-0.058537,-0.110574,-0.009574,-0.047225,-0.013735,-0.008025,0.049245,-0.007856,0.013785,-0.026393,0.049273,0.005948,0.003484,0.015248,-0.016211,0.004575,0.000656,0.017036,0.010107,0.011 417,-0.006957,0.004231,-0.00306
    Yemenite_Jew,0.051383,0.144785,-0.063248,-0.114066,-0.011827,-0.046694,-0.013496,-0.008868,0.048969,-0.006274,0.011321,-0.026612,0.053985,0.003244,0.003529,0.017161,-0.024549,0.003475,0.006411,0.024958,0.012888,0.015 987,-0.007095,0.004648,-0.006894
    Yemenite_Ma'rib,0.044846,0.143799,-0.061244,-0.117056,-0.009232,-0.047913,-0.011045,-0.004569,0.053626,-0.007581,0.014712,-0.027126,0.051437,0.005587,0.000489,0.020154,-0.021383,0.00451,0.002589,0.018309,0.01143,0.01313 2,-0.006729,0.004651,-0.005485
    Yemenite_Mahra,0.054256,0.136081,-0.068259,-0.121197,-0.003727,-0.056305,-0.01303,-0.00882,0.06288,-0.002045,0.016798,-0.032571,0.065741,0.005841,0.008053,0.027078,-0.021064,0.002872,-0.001913,0.024831,0.013726,0.016089,-0.008737,0.002785,-0.005229
    Balochi,0.068863,0.051876,-0.100628,0.030739,-0.072603,0.031491,0.005582,0.001577,-0.022736,-0.020805,-0.003884,-0.002148,0.003927,-0.008017,0.015958,0.030098,-0.010137,0.002924,0.007269,-0.026513,-0.001071,-0.015209,0.00037,-0.016097,0.013761


    Doing this some interesting things emerge :
    Island Southeast Asian Austronesian speakers rarely have any Fujian_N, while they have plenty of Taiwan_N. (Indochina_N seems associated with Austroasiatic speakers who brought agriculture to SEA first).
    Examples :
    Target: Vizayan
    Distance: 2.0229% / 0.02022883
    79.6 Taiwan_N
    12.4 Andaman_P
    3.8 Papuan
    2.4 Indochina_N
    1.4 Balochi
    0.4 RUS_Sintashta_MLBA

    Target: Murut
    Distance: 3.2876% / 0.03287562
    75.6 Taiwan_N
    23.6 Indochina_N
    0.8 Papuan

    Target: Malay
    Distance: 1.2098% / 0.01209770
    47.6 Indochina_N
    37.8 Taiwan_N
    5.4 Andaman_P
    5.0 Balochi
    2.0 Heilongjiang_N
    1.8 Papuan
    0.4 Fujian_N

    Target: Luzon
    Distance: 1.5305% / 0.01530544
    92.8 Taiwan_N
    5.8 Andaman_P
    0.8 Papuan
    0.6 Indochina_N

    Target: Indonesian_Java
    Distance: 1.6886% / 0.01688639
    76.2 Indochina_N
    20.6 Taiwan_N
    1.8 Balochi
    1.4 Papuan

    Target: Indonesian_Bali
    Distance: 1.7210% / 0.01721027
    68.4 Indochina_N
    24.6 Taiwan_N
    3.4 Balochi
    2.8 Papuan
    0.8 Andaman_P

    Target: Igorot
    Distance: 2.5493% / 0.02549250
    99.2 Taiwan_N
    0.8 Papuan

    Target: Hawaiian
    Distance: 2.3967% / 0.02396728
    87.2 Taiwan_N
    5.6 Papuan
    4.8 Eurasia_P
    1.6 Fujian_N
    0.8 Yemenite_Dhamar

    Target: Dusun
    Distance: 3.4344% / 0.03434402
    74.4 Taiwan_N
    22.2 Indochina_N
    1.6 Andaman_P
    1.4 Papuan
    0.4 Balochi

    Interestingly enough, this is also the case with Hans from China. They are overwhelmingly Yellow_River_N (core area of Han ethnogenesis), but also have notable Taiwan_N and very little Fujian_N.

    Target: Han_Zhejiang
    Distance: 1.4022% / 0.01402175
    82.0 Yellow_River_N
    18.0 Taiwan_N

    Target: Han_Sichuan
    Distance: 1.1237% / 0.01123679
    77.8 Yellow_River_N
    13.6 Taiwan_N
    8.6 Indochina_N

    Target: Han_Shanxi
    Distance: 1.1660% / 0.01166024
    81.2 Yellow_River_N
    8.6 Taiwan_N
    8.4 Shandong_N
    1.8 RUS_Sintashta_MLBA

    Target: Han_Shanghai
    Distance: 2.6239% / 0.02623907
    88.4 Yellow_River_N
    10.2 Taiwan_N
    1.4 Balochi

    Target: Han_Shandong
    Distance: 1.0208% / 0.01020753
    82.0 Yellow_River_N
    11.6 Taiwan_N
    4.8 Shandong_N
    1.6 Japan_P

    Target: Han_Jiangsu
    Distance: 1.3404% / 0.01340370
    86.4 Yellow_River_N
    13.6 Taiwan_N

    Target: Han_Hubei
    Distance: 1.4266% / 0.01426600
    75.4 Yellow_River_N
    24.6 Taiwan_N

    Target: Han_Henan
    Distance: 1.3143% / 0.01314317
    77.2 Yellow_River_N
    13.8 Shandong_N
    8.0 Taiwan_N
    0.8 RUS_Sintashta_MLBA
    0.2 Balochi

    Target: Han_Guangdong
    Distance: 2.5838% / 0.02583799
    57.8 Yellow_River_N
    32.0 Taiwan_N
    10.2 Indochina_N

    Target: Han_Fujian
    Distance: 2.0583% / 0.02058327
    69.2 Yellow_River_N
    26.6 Taiwan_N
    2.6 Fujian_N

    1.6 Indochina_N

    Target: Han_Chongqing
    Distance: 2.0372% / 0.02037211
    71.8 Yellow_River_N
    13.8 Taiwan_N
    9.8 Indochina_N
    4.6 Fujian_N

    As you can see, even contemporary Fujian has very little Fujian_N. This seems to indicate that Taiwan_N may have been an outpost of a larger population which must have lived further North (Yangtze river?). This population would have mixed in with incoming Hans from the Yellow River and spread South with them, displacing Fujian_N and Indochina_N populations.

    Now, what is interesting is that Fujian_N does show up in sizeable amounts (alongside Taiwan_N) in Tai-Kadai speaking populations!
    Target: Dong_Guizhou
    Distance: 2.7921% / 0.02792090
    44.8 Yellow_River_N
    20.0 Taiwan_N
    19.8 Fujian_N

    15.4 Indochina_N

    Target: Dong_Hunan
    Distance: 2.8814% / 0.02881357
    49.0 Yellow_River_N
    24.6 Taiwan_N
    14.0 Indochina_N
    12.4 Fujian_N

    Target: Dai
    Distance: 3.2025% / 0.03202547
    30.8 Indochina_N
    27.8 Fujian_N
    27.0 Yellow_River_N
    14.4 Taiwan_N

    Target: Gelao
    Distance: 2.8998% / 0.02899804
    36.0 Yellow_River_N
    29.6 Indochina_N
    18.2 Fujian_N
    16.2 Taiwan_N


    Target: Li
    Distance: 3.7371% / 0.03737077
    34.6 Taiwan_N
    25.2 Fujian_N

    24.8 Yellow_River_N
    15.4 Indochina_N

    Target: Maonan
    Distance: 3.4506% / 0.03450643
    33.4 Yellow_River_N
    32.6 Taiwan_N
    21.8 Indochina_N
    12.2 Fujian_N

    Target: Thai
    Distance: 1.6800% / 0.01679960
    49.8 Indochina_N
    12.6 Yellow_River_N
    9.8 Nepal_N
    7.4 Fujian_N
    6.8 Balochi
    6.8 Japan_P
    5.0 Taiwan_N
    1.8 Andaman_P

    Target: Zhuang
    Distance: 3.0162% / 0.03016189
    35.6 Yellow_River_N
    23.8 Taiwan_N
    20.4 Fujian_N

    20.2 Indochina_N

    Interestingly enough, Hmong-Mien speakers as well as Kinhs from Vietnam (Austroasiatic) also have inflated Fujian_N, whereas other Austroasiatic speakers don't.

    In light of this, I think Taiwan_Hanben and Taiwan_Gongguan are better proxies for the spread of Austronesian languages for now, whereas the host of Fujian samples probably represent an early off-shoot from the Tai-Kadai branch.
    Last edited by loxias; 08-30-2020 at 06:22 PM.

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  15. #8
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    Quote Originally Posted by loxias View Post
    Much agreed. Autosomal data from Liangzhu culture individuals and others from the lower Yangtze like Hemudu is long overdue. I am convinced they will cluster along with the Neolithic Fujian samples and ancient Taiwanese as well.
    There is substantial linguistic evidence that Tai-Kadai and Austronesian are related clades, or that they were in very close contact in their early stages. Some argue that Tai-Kadai followed the inland route whereas Austronesians left via Taiwan. Lower Yangtze cultures may provide the missing link.

    I tried running East Asian populations through Vahaduo using a selection of ancient (almost exclusively Neolithic) samples. I tried to classify the ancient samples the least arbitrarily possible, I put the Lao and Vietnam neolithic together as "Indochina_N", the Southern East Asian samples from the Melinda Yang studies together as "Fujian_N", the Northern East Asian samples from her study as "Shandong_N", Taiwan_Hanben and Taiwan_Gongguan together as "Taiwan_N", etc... I put the Yellow River valley samples that clustered together into "Yellow_River_N", etc... You can see the whole list below.

    Doing this some interesting things emerge :
    Island Southeast Asian Austronesian speakers rarely have any Fujian_N, while they have plenty of Taiwan_N. (Indochina_N seems associated with Austroasiatic speakers who brought agriculture to SEA first).
    Examples :
    Target: Vizayan
    Distance: 2.0229% / 0.02022883
    79.6 Taiwan_N
    12.4 Andaman_P
    3.8 Papuan
    2.4 Indochina_N
    1.4 Balochi
    0.4 RUS_Sintashta_MLBA

    ...

    Interestingly enough, this is also the case with Hans from China. They are overwhelmingly Yellow_River_N (core area of Han ethnogenesis), but also have notable Taiwan_N and very little Fujian_N.

    Target: Han_Zhejiang
    Distance: 1.4022% / 0.01402175
    82.0 Yellow_River_N
    18.0 Taiwan_N

    ...

    As you can see, even contemporary Fujian has very little Fujian_N. This seems to indicate that Taiwan_N may have been an outpost of a larger population which must have lived further North (Yangtze river?). This population would have mixed in with incoming Hans from the Yellow River and spread South with them, displacing Fujian_N and Indochina_N populations.

    Now, what is interesting is that Fujian_N does show up in sizeable amounts (alongside Taiwan_N) in Tai-Kadai speaking populations!
    Target: Dong_Guizhou
    Distance: 2.7921% / 0.02792090
    44.8 Yellow_River_N
    20.0 Taiwan_N
    19.8 Fujian_N

    15.4 Indochina_N

    Target: Dong_Hunan
    Distance: 2.8814% / 0.02881357
    49.0 Yellow_River_N
    24.6 Taiwan_N
    14.0 Indochina_N
    12.4 Fujian_N

    ...

    Interestingly enough, Hmong-Mien speakers as well as Kinhs from Vietnam (Austroasiatic) also have inflated Fujian_N, whereas other Austroasiatic speakers don't.

    In light of this, I think Taiwan_Hanben and Taiwan_Gongguan are better proxies for the spread of Austronesian languages for now, whereas the host of Fujian samples probably represent an early off-shoot from the Tai-Kadai branch.
    According to kolgeh, a specimen from the Xitoucun site belongs to O2a1-F573 (a parent clade of O2a1c-JST002611, which currently has a pan-East Asian distribution), and a specimen from the Tanshishan site belongs to O1b1a1a1a-F1252 (a parent clade of O1b1a1a1a1a-M111/M88, which has been observed mainly in Daic people and Vietnamese, and of O1b1a1a1a2-SK1630, which has been observed mainly in Hmongic-speaking people in Hunan). Neither O2a1-F573 nor O1b1a1a1a-F1252 is generally found among present-day speakers of Austronesian languages (although Trejaut et al. 2014 have observed O2a1c-JST002611 in 6/24 = 25% of a sample of Ivatan from the northernmost isles of the Philippines and O1b1a1a1a1a-M111/M88 in 21/56 = 37.5% of a sample of Bunun from Taiwan).

    Quote Originally Posted by kolgeh View Post
    Y chr Haplogroup Assignments:

    XJS1309_M4 Xiaojingshan N1b1:F4201 (~N-F2905)
    BS Boshan N1b1:F4201 (~N-F2905)
    L5696_d Tanshishan O1b1a1a1a:F1252 (~O-F1252)
    L5701_d Xitoucun O2a1:F573 (~O-L465) LowCoverage
    L7415 Tanshishan O1a2:M50 (~O-M110)
    LD1 Liangdao1 O1a (~O-M119)
    I3612 Taiwan_Hanben O2a2b2a2b (~O-F706)
    I3733 Taiwan_Hanben O1a1a1a1 (~O-F78)
    I3736 Taiwan_Hanben O1a1a1a1 (~O-F78)
    I3614 Taiwan_Hanben O2a2b2b1 (~O-Y125645)
    I3618 Taiwan_Hanben O2a2b2a2b (~O-F706)
    I3731 Taiwan_Hanben O1a1a1a1 (~O-F78)
    I3734 Taiwan_Hanben O2a2a1a2a2 (~O-Y26395)
    I14934 Taiwan_Hanben O1a1a1a1 (~O-F78)
    I8080 Taiwan_Hanben O1a1a1a (~O-F140)
    I8081 Taiwan_Hanben O1a1a1a (~O-F140)
    I13695 Taiwan_Hanben O1a1a1a (~O-F140)

    I used published genotype files to make these assignments.
    List of positive and negative calls for each sample.

  16. The Following 4 Users Say Thank You to Ebizur For This Useful Post:

     BalkanKiwi (09-01-2020),  loxias (08-31-2020),  okarinaofsteiner (01-30-2021),  Ryukendo (09-01-2020)

  17. #9
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    Quote Originally Posted by loxias View Post
    Much agreed. Autosomal data from Liangzhu culture individuals and others from the lower Yangtze like Hemudu is long overdue. I am convinced they will cluster along with the Neolithic Fujian samples and ancient Taiwanese as well.
    There is substantial linguistic evidence that Tai-Kadai and Austronesian are related clades, or that they were in very close contact in their early stages. Some argue that Tai-Kadai followed the inland route whereas Austronesians left via Taiwan. Lower Yangtze cultures may provide the missing link.

    I tried running East Asian populations through Vahaduo using a selection of ancient (almost exclusively Neolithic) samples. I tried to classify the ancient samples the least arbitrarily possible, I put the Lao and Vietnam neolithic together as "Indochina_N", the Southern East Asian samples from the Melinda Yang studies together as "Fujian_N", the Northern East Asian samples from her study as "Shandong_N", Taiwan_Hanben and Taiwan_Gongguan together as "Taiwan_N", etc... I put the Yellow River valley samples that clustered together into "Yellow_River_N", etc... You can see the whole list below.

     
    Indochina_N:VNM_LN,0.0163143,-0.3875937,-0.0568197,-0.0402673,0.1348967,0.0703733,-0.0036033,-0.0036923,-0.0100217,-0.0145787,0.0582973,0.002947,-0.006442,-0.012386,0.0081887,-0.0002653,0.0080403,-0.0089527,0.000838,0.004419,-0.0024957,0.007337,-0.0058747,-0.0076713,0.028181
    Indochina_N:VNM_N,0,-0.386917,-0.064865,-0.031008,0.134333,0.06038,0.0036425,-0.010961,-0.0138055,-0.014579,0.0695835,-0.001499,-0.002007,0.001376,0.0169655,-0.0031155,-0.0011085,0.00076,-0.0020115,0.01532,-0.0034935,0.0084085,0.0030195,-0.0063865,0.034009
    Indochina_N:LAO_LN_BA,0.005691,-0.40215,-0.083721,-0.034561,0.15049,0.078089,-0.002585,-0.012692,-0.006136,-0.018588,0.089801,0.004346,-0.012785,0.010184,0.003393,-0.005701,-0.002477,0.0019,-0.00088,0.026388,-0.016845,0.02201,-0.011955,0.001325,0.039038
    Indochina_P:LAO_Hoabinhian,-0.025041,-0.224432,-0.11917,0.087856,0.022466,-0.001952,-0.003055,0.01223,0.060539,0.018406,0.012829,0.0011 99,-0.000446,0.006055,-0.007872,-0.006364,-0.00352,-0.00076,-0.005531,0.023386,0.006988,0.013107,-0.017131,-0.001325,0.003712
    Andaman_P:IND_Great_Andamanese_100BP,-0.018212,-0.235603,-0.128598,0.098838,0.023389,-0.003904,-0.016686,-0.003231,0.059721,0.02041,0.023222,0.004646,-0.0055,0.001239,-0.016151,-0.008884,0.009518,0.001014,-0.004902,0.026888,-0.00549,0.011994,-0.013311,-0.001205,0.000958
    Papuan,-0.045985,-0.241087,-0.263758,0.309242,0.206931,-0.509589,-0.001974,0.007015,-0.041273,-0.011955,-0.018902,0.000869,0.001397,-0.00311,0.000163,-0.000318,-0.00219,-0.00185,-0.001081,-0.001526,0.002346,0.001805,0.001232,0.001832,0.001 605
    Heilongjiang_N:CHN_Amur_River_EN,0.025041,-0.4595275,0.097674,-0.036822,-0.0809385,-0.060101,0.0200935,0.0271145,0.0140095,0.014579,-0.023059,0.0062945,0.00498,-0.0052295,-0.003868,0.0059665,-0.0020865,0.001267,0.0098045,0.024762,-0.011043,-0.0200315,-0.020028,-0.009158,-0.0088015
    Shandong_N:CHN_Bianbian_N,0.015935,-0.443786,0.028284,-0.052003,0.024312,-0.005299,-0.002585,0.000231,-0.00225,0.011663,-0.073887,-0.006744,0.004906,-0.007844,-0.011943,0.001724,0.004303,0.004687,0.002011,0.004 127,0.022086,-0.001731,-0.003451,-0.005181,-0.008981
    Shandong_N:CHN_Boshan_N,0.01935,-0.444802,0.032432,-0.062339,0.012618,0.002789,0.009635,0.003,-0.007772,0.008201,-0.074861,-0.009891,0.009812,-0.008533,-0.010315,-0.005701,-0.004042,0.003801,-0.000377,-0.002126,0.013726,0.003215,0.005793,-0.005543,-0.005628
    Fujian_N:CHN_Liangdao1_N,0.002276,-0.409258,-0.052043,-0.038114,0.107405,0.046575,-0.006345,-0.01523,-0.020657,-0.013485,0.021922,0.009292,-0.003122,0.000138,0.015879,0.001326,0.004824,0,-0.008045,-0.006378,0.005116,-0.011005,-0.002588,-0.009278,-0.03341
    Fujian_N:CHN_Liangdao2_N,0.006829,-0.407227,-0.052043,-0.040052,0.112944,0.045459,0.00141,-0.004384,-0.005931,-0.008565,0.034589,0.003747,-0.010406,0.001927,0.007736,0.012066,0.00352,0.0048 14,0.005028,-0.00988,0.007237,-0.011005,0.013188,-0.01687,-0.02874
    Fujian_N:CHN_Qihe_N,0.005691,-0.372699,-0.057322,-0.01615,0.096018,0.035698,-0.005875,-0.007615,-0.003477,-0.002916,0.013641,-0.004646,-0.000743,-0.01445,-0.002036,-0.004773,0.004433,0.000507,0.008422,0.007128,0.009 982,-0.00371,0.005053,-0.013134,-0.017483
    Yellow_River_N:CHN_Shimao_LN,0.018781,-0.451403,0.023004,-0.062662,0.028159,0.0079485,0.006815,0.0012695,-0.00859,0.009567,-0.0937795,-0.008093,0.007582,-0.008257,-0.0110615,-0.0024525,-0.0029985,0.002217,-0.006599,-6.25e-05,0.0090465,0.0097685,0.0071485,0.0025905,0.01706 45
    Fujian_N:CHN_Tanshishan_N,0.005691,-0.427538,-0.04186,-0.058463,0.123408,0.055778,-0.00846,-0.01823,-0.020043,-0.024055,0.035076,3e-04,-0.004906,0.003578,-0.000271,0.014585,0.001825,0.001267,0.003017,-0.012256,0.005865,-0.009398,0.002958,-0.007832,-0.03341
    China_P:CHN_Tianyuan,-0.027318,-0.260991,-0.075424,0.071383,0.033545,-0.018407,-0.00799,-0.003,0.040291,0.021322,-0.006333,-0.005995,-0.003568,-0.00523,-0.000407,-0.000663,0.008084,0.002407,-0.001131,0.027263,-0.001747,0.008037,-0.008874,-0.010845,0.011256
    Yellow_River_N:CHN_Upper_Yellow_River_LN,0.0170734 ,-0.4421616,0.022778,-0.0515508,0.0196344,-0.0039602,0.0089774,0.0057692,-0.0035588,0.0106792,-0.0916846,-0.0111202,0.0117144,-0.0013762,-0.0077904,-0.0013258,-0.0005476,-0.0033952,-0.0051536,0.0010756,0.0009234,0.0163468,0.0057188, 0.0008918,0.025794
    CHN_Western_Liao_River_MN,0.0199195,-0.444294,0.0503455,-0.051034,-0.007386,-0.0182675,0.0050525,0.0064615,0.003375,0.011663,-0.0765665,-0.008992,0.0086965,-0.00406,-0.007804,-0.003381,-0.0013695,0.005384,0.002577,0.009317,0.0033065,-0.0043275,-0.0094285,-0.001386,-0.0020955
    Shandong_N:CHN_Xiaogao_N,0.005691,-0.437693,0.025644,-0.048773,0.011694,-0.008925,-0.003995,0.003692,-0.000205,0.011481,-0.075835,-0.007493,0.00669,-0.002202,-0.004207,0.004641,0.002477,0.001774,-0.00088,-0.007754,0.014474,-0.002473,-0.002711,0.001687,-0.011256
    Shandong_N:CHN_Xiaojingshan_N,0.012141,-0.4383703,0.0250157,-0.052003,0.0229783,-0.0105053,-0.0044653,0.0010767,-0.007363,0.010205,-0.0803823,-0.0115397,0.0122397,-0.0031193,-0.0077813,-0.0079553,-0.00013,0.0016047,0.004106,-0.0042103,0.0137257,-0.0002883,0.0098187,-0.006145,-0.005788
    Fujian_N:CHN_Xitoucun_N,0.0085365,-0.431092,-0.037335,-0.058786,0.125562,0.0496425,0.0001175,-0.011538,-0.0223955,-0.013759,0.015995,0.004421,0.003865,-0.001514,0.0068535,0.0021215,-0.000326,0.0041805,0.0024515,-0.0123805,0.018842,-0.017435,0.0094285,-0.0102425,-0.024369
    Yellow_River_N:CHN_Yellow_River_LN,0.0166466,-0.4503874,0.0109365,-0.0657709,0.0545101,0.0217886,0.0037894,0.0012404,-0.0097149,0.0040092,-0.0851524,-0.0100032,0.0123945,-0.0059179,-0.0088896,-0.000895,0.001483,-0.0003801,-0.0048392,-0.0075191,0.0172975,0.007543,0.0128639,-0.0006476,0.0073496
    Yellow_River_N:CHN_Yellow_River_MN,0.0166182,-0.4441924,0.0136518,-0.0588506,0.0390226,0.0112114,0.0082252,0.0014306,-0.0015546,0.0055034,-0.092269,-0.01106,0.0142414,-0.0075692,-0.0129476,-0.0003978,0.0051112,-0.0020522,-0.0057318,-0.0019008,0.0136762,0.015704,0.0105996,-0.002458,0.0122624
    CHN_Yumin_N,0.018212,-0.427538,0.066373,-0.032946,-0.049548,-0.04016,0.00705,0.012461,0.010022,0.021504,-0.063656,-0.006894,0.002825,0.001101,-0.008143,-0.002387,0.004172,0.002534,0.003017,0.019509,-0.012728,0.000989,-0.017131,-0.002651,0.007305
    RUS_Sintashta_MLBA,0.125389,0.1158031,0.0572615,0. 0789266,0.011327,0.0284468,0.005678,0.0041909,-0.0174834,-0.0282348,-0.0024254,0.0012473,-0.0030739,-0.0212915,0.0226566,0.0124762,-0.0050555,0.0004086,-6.9e-05,-0.0007423,-0.0059089,0.0020542,0.0026159,0.0066506,-0.0039363
    RUS_Shamanka_N,0.0309599,-0.4147422,0.0950344,-0.0157947,-0.0868469,-0.0482203,0.0053815,0.010061,0.0147054,0.0125196,-0.0160603,-0.0018134,0.0035828,-0.0078032,-0.0046552,-0.0032088,-0.0025164,0.0005827,0.0064608,0.0178333,-0.0170449,-0.0059478,-0.0165151,-0.0032051,0.0046943
    Eurasia_P:RUS_Ust_Ishim,-0.050082,-0.11577,-0.090886,0.073644,0.027082,-0.018128,-0.00376,-0.004384,0.0452,0.010387,0.006008,-0.001798,0.000149,-0.003991,0.004614,-0.001724,-0.004955,0.004687,-0.005154,0.015382,0.006613,0.008532,-0.007641,-0.014942,0.007784
    Taiwan_N:TWN_Gongguan,0.009106,-0.455973,-0.032432,-0.075905,0.142796,0.070559,-0.008695,-0.011999,-0.030065,-0.024602,0.052614,-0.003147,0.008474,-0.003303,0.009908,0.008618,-0.012778,0.006714,0.012821,-0.013256,0.00549,-0.032397,-0.001109,-0.008194,-0.061192
    Taiwan_N:TWN_Hanben,0.0155393,-0.4419318,-0.0435985,-0.0634906,0.1387417,0.064642,-0.0045365,-0.0134342,-0.0232624,-0.0208937,0.0412537,0.0034991,-0.002999,-0.0035123,0.0102085,0.0065775,-0.0008786,0.0056239,0.0068097,-0.0128105,0.0079044,-0.0258488,0.0022506,-0.0087176,-0.0486288
    RUS_Devils_Gate_Cave_N,0.0162197,-0.4440402,0.0722185,-0.0511148,-0.0373912,-0.0395328,0.0034075,0.0084802,0.0064935,0.019408,-0.048595,-0.004833,-0.0030848,0.0086702,-0.0096025,-0.0133915,-0.0007825,0.0089,0.0174408,0.0100362,0.008828,-0.027729,-0.0174702,-0.00244,-0.0145795
    RUS_Baikal_N,0.0430252,-0.343452,0.0849276,0.0036176,-0.0836464,-0.041722,-0.000282,-0.0036,0.0105126,0.0064146,0.003475,-0.0038366,0.0046976,-0.013267,-0.006786,-0.003262,-0.0056584,0.0033192,0.0057068,0.017033,-0.0176192,-0.0064548,-0.0078632,-0.0056874,0.0050056
    RUS_Boisman_MN,0.0211091,-0.4479409,0.0741897,-0.0434875,-0.0510025,-0.0405914,0.0098064,0.0122512,0.0104122,0.0256788,-0.0416157,-0.001771,-0.0011488,0.0091707,-0.0088958,-0.0082809,-0.0038997,0.0051713,0.0127068,0.0145636,0.0032444,-0.0328355,-0.0255795,0.0015227,-0.0190509
    Nepal_N:NPL_Chokhopani_2700BP,0.012521,-0.410274,-0.011691,-0.031331,0.017542,0.011435,0.00658,0.011999,0.0100 22,0.021139,-0.081194,-0.006444,0.010109,-0.004679,-0.011401,0,0.011213,-0.001267,-0.009302,0.009379,0.004991,0.029306,0.004314,0.003 615,0.031734
    MNG_North_N,0.0237403,-0.4314549,0.0890541,-0.0247326,-0.0815536,-0.0521129,0.0134964,0.0145379,0.0179981,0.020098,-0.029346,-0.0013703,0.0013593,-0.0051314,-0.0056033,-0.0039967,0.0038743,0.0006154,0.0038967,0.020331,-0.0196439,-0.0037801,-0.0166207,-0.0061969,0.0076981
    MNG_East_N,0.025041,-0.4427705,0.0788185,-0.0347225,-0.074937,-0.056336,0.0172735,0.015461,0.0166685,0.0266065,-0.0353195,-0.0038215,0.001264,0.0030965,-0.008279,-0.006696,0.002347,0.002027,0.004211,0.019009,-0.0150985,-0.006801,-0.0272995,-0.008736,0.0049695
    Japan_P:JPN_Jomon,0.011003,-0.3440953,-0.0537398,0.0124893,0.038161,0.0139448,-0.0020758,-0.0015383,0.024577,0.0205622,-0.049718,-0.0068938,0.0096878,-0.0069958,-0.023819,-0.0154467,0.006454,0.0099242,0.0024722,-0.0060655,0.0639705,-0.0456895,0.0091615,0.0112062,-0.0994323
    Sakhalin_P:RUS_Sakhalin_HG,0.011382,-0.380824,-0.011314,-0.00646,-0.007386,-0.008367,-0.004935,0.009923,0.019839,0.023508,-0.038161,-0.005245,0.002825,0.007707,-0.044381,-0.007425,0.009779,0.010642,0.01257,-0.001501,0.049288,-0.037838,-0.001849,0.004338,-0.055444
    Yemenite_Al_Bayda,0.0387,0.13862,-0.062665,-0.107398,-0.010156,-0.04848,-0.013161,-0.010153,0.054131,-0.005983,0.010961,-0.028799,0.050916,0.004106,0.006379,0.024198,-0.018471,0.007158,0.000838,0.017925,0.009774,0.016 178,-0.007436,0.001125,-0.003752
    Yemenite_Al_Jawf,0.049228,0.141412,-0.063073,-0.115554,-0.010694,-0.047342,-0.0094,-0.007154,0.058136,-0.002597,0.012869,-0.031435,0.057309,0.003888,0.0038,0.01959,-0.02047,0.003991,0.003174,0.022136,0.0107,0.014715 ,-0.013064,0.008555,-0.008562
    Yemenite_Amran,0.045855,0.135428,-0.061525,-0.101445,-0.01486,-0.042152,-0.008729,-0.007763,0.04501,-0.004256,0.01175,-0.022962,0.04651,0.005259,0.003994,0.017256,-0.014137,0.004253,0.001832,0.015704,0.006925,0.009 521,-0.00633,0.004174,-0.004781
    Yemenite_Dhamar,0.035538,0.141159,-0.058537,-0.110574,-0.009574,-0.047225,-0.013735,-0.008025,0.049245,-0.007856,0.013785,-0.026393,0.049273,0.005948,0.003484,0.015248,-0.016211,0.004575,0.000656,0.017036,0.010107,0.011 417,-0.006957,0.004231,-0.00306
    Yemenite_Jew,0.051383,0.144785,-0.063248,-0.114066,-0.011827,-0.046694,-0.013496,-0.008868,0.048969,-0.006274,0.011321,-0.026612,0.053985,0.003244,0.003529,0.017161,-0.024549,0.003475,0.006411,0.024958,0.012888,0.015 987,-0.007095,0.004648,-0.006894
    Yemenite_Ma'rib,0.044846,0.143799,-0.061244,-0.117056,-0.009232,-0.047913,-0.011045,-0.004569,0.053626,-0.007581,0.014712,-0.027126,0.051437,0.005587,0.000489,0.020154,-0.021383,0.00451,0.002589,0.018309,0.01143,0.01313 2,-0.006729,0.004651,-0.005485
    Yemenite_Mahra,0.054256,0.136081,-0.068259,-0.121197,-0.003727,-0.056305,-0.01303,-0.00882,0.06288,-0.002045,0.016798,-0.032571,0.065741,0.005841,0.008053,0.027078,-0.021064,0.002872,-0.001913,0.024831,0.013726,0.016089,-0.008737,0.002785,-0.005229
    Balochi,0.068863,0.051876,-0.100628,0.030739,-0.072603,0.031491,0.005582,0.001577,-0.022736,-0.020805,-0.003884,-0.002148,0.003927,-0.008017,0.015958,0.030098,-0.010137,0.002924,0.007269,-0.026513,-0.001071,-0.015209,0.00037,-0.016097,0.013761


    Doing this some interesting things emerge :
    Island Southeast Asian Austronesian speakers rarely have any Fujian_N, while they have plenty of Taiwan_N. (Indochina_N seems associated with Austroasiatic speakers who brought agriculture to SEA first).
    Examples :
    Target: Vizayan
    Distance: 2.0229% / 0.02022883
    79.6 Taiwan_N
    12.4 Andaman_P
    3.8 Papuan
    2.4 Indochina_N
    1.4 Balochi
    0.4 RUS_Sintashta_MLBA

    Target: Murut
    Distance: 3.2876% / 0.03287562
    75.6 Taiwan_N
    23.6 Indochina_N
    0.8 Papuan

    Target: Malay
    Distance: 1.2098% / 0.01209770
    47.6 Indochina_N
    37.8 Taiwan_N
    5.4 Andaman_P
    5.0 Balochi
    2.0 Heilongjiang_N
    1.8 Papuan
    0.4 Fujian_N

    Target: Luzon
    Distance: 1.5305% / 0.01530544
    92.8 Taiwan_N
    5.8 Andaman_P
    0.8 Papuan
    0.6 Indochina_N

    Target: Indonesian_Java
    Distance: 1.6886% / 0.01688639
    76.2 Indochina_N
    20.6 Taiwan_N
    1.8 Balochi
    1.4 Papuan

    Target: Indonesian_Bali
    Distance: 1.7210% / 0.01721027
    68.4 Indochina_N
    24.6 Taiwan_N
    3.4 Balochi
    2.8 Papuan
    0.8 Andaman_P

    Target: Igorot
    Distance: 2.5493% / 0.02549250
    99.2 Taiwan_N
    0.8 Papuan

    Target: Hawaiian
    Distance: 2.3967% / 0.02396728
    87.2 Taiwan_N
    5.6 Papuan
    4.8 Eurasia_P
    1.6 Fujian_N
    0.8 Yemenite_Dhamar

    Target: Dusun
    Distance: 3.4344% / 0.03434402
    74.4 Taiwan_N
    22.2 Indochina_N
    1.6 Andaman_P
    1.4 Papuan
    0.4 Balochi

    Interestingly enough, this is also the case with Hans from China. They are overwhelmingly Yellow_River_N (core area of Han ethnogenesis), but also have notable Taiwan_N and very little Fujian_N.

    Target: Han_Zhejiang
    Distance: 1.4022% / 0.01402175
    82.0 Yellow_River_N
    18.0 Taiwan_N

    Target: Han_Sichuan
    Distance: 1.1237% / 0.01123679
    77.8 Yellow_River_N
    13.6 Taiwan_N
    8.6 Indochina_N

    Target: Han_Shanxi
    Distance: 1.1660% / 0.01166024
    81.2 Yellow_River_N
    8.6 Taiwan_N
    8.4 Shandong_N
    1.8 RUS_Sintashta_MLBA

    Target: Han_Shanghai
    Distance: 2.6239% / 0.02623907
    88.4 Yellow_River_N
    10.2 Taiwan_N
    1.4 Balochi

    Target: Han_Shandong
    Distance: 1.0208% / 0.01020753
    82.0 Yellow_River_N
    11.6 Taiwan_N
    4.8 Shandong_N
    1.6 Japan_P

    Target: Han_Jiangsu
    Distance: 1.3404% / 0.01340370
    86.4 Yellow_River_N
    13.6 Taiwan_N

    Target: Han_Hubei
    Distance: 1.4266% / 0.01426600
    75.4 Yellow_River_N
    24.6 Taiwan_N

    Target: Han_Henan
    Distance: 1.3143% / 0.01314317
    77.2 Yellow_River_N
    13.8 Shandong_N
    8.0 Taiwan_N
    0.8 RUS_Sintashta_MLBA
    0.2 Balochi

    Target: Han_Guangdong
    Distance: 2.5838% / 0.02583799
    57.8 Yellow_River_N
    32.0 Taiwan_N
    10.2 Indochina_N

    Target: Han_Fujian
    Distance: 2.0583% / 0.02058327
    69.2 Yellow_River_N
    26.6 Taiwan_N
    2.6 Fujian_N

    1.6 Indochina_N

    Target: Han_Chongqing
    Distance: 2.0372% / 0.02037211
    71.8 Yellow_River_N
    13.8 Taiwan_N
    9.8 Indochina_N
    4.6 Fujian_N

    As you can see, even contemporary Fujian has very little Fujian_N. This seems to indicate that Taiwan_N may have been an outpost of a larger population which must have lived further North (Yangtze river?). This population would have mixed in with incoming Hans from the Yellow River and spread South with them, displacing Fujian_N and Indochina_N populations.

    Now, what is interesting is that Fujian_N does show up in sizeable amounts (alongside Taiwan_N) in Tai-Kadai speaking populations!
    Target: Dong_Guizhou
    Distance: 2.7921% / 0.02792090
    44.8 Yellow_River_N
    20.0 Taiwan_N
    19.8 Fujian_N

    15.4 Indochina_N

    Target: Dong_Hunan
    Distance: 2.8814% / 0.02881357
    49.0 Yellow_River_N
    24.6 Taiwan_N
    14.0 Indochina_N
    12.4 Fujian_N

    Target: Dai
    Distance: 3.2025% / 0.03202547
    30.8 Indochina_N
    27.8 Fujian_N
    27.0 Yellow_River_N
    14.4 Taiwan_N

    Target: Gelao
    Distance: 2.8998% / 0.02899804
    36.0 Yellow_River_N
    29.6 Indochina_N
    18.2 Fujian_N
    16.2 Taiwan_N


    Target: Li
    Distance: 3.7371% / 0.03737077
    34.6 Taiwan_N
    25.2 Fujian_N

    24.8 Yellow_River_N
    15.4 Indochina_N

    Target: Maonan
    Distance: 3.4506% / 0.03450643
    33.4 Yellow_River_N
    32.6 Taiwan_N
    21.8 Indochina_N
    12.2 Fujian_N

    Target: Thai
    Distance: 1.6800% / 0.01679960
    49.8 Indochina_N
    12.6 Yellow_River_N
    9.8 Nepal_N
    7.4 Fujian_N
    6.8 Balochi
    6.8 Japan_P
    5.0 Taiwan_N
    1.8 Andaman_P

    Target: Zhuang
    Distance: 3.0162% / 0.03016189
    35.6 Yellow_River_N
    23.8 Taiwan_N
    20.4 Fujian_N

    20.2 Indochina_N

    Interestingly enough, Hmong-Mien speakers as well as Kinhs from Vietnam (Austroasiatic) also have inflated Fujian_N, whereas other Austroasiatic speakers don't.

    In light of this, I think Taiwan_Hanben and Taiwan_Gongguan are better proxies for the spread of Austronesian languages for now, whereas the host of Fujian samples probably represent an early off-shoot from the Tai-Kadai branch.
    Amazing work Loxias.
    Quoted from this Forum:

    "Which superman haplogroup is the toughest - R1a or R1b? And which SNP mutation spoke Indo-European first? There's only one way for us to find out ... fight!"

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    " A Basal Eurasian and an Aurignacian walk into a bar... "

  18. The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Ryukendo For This Useful Post:

     BalkanKiwi (09-01-2020),  loxias (09-01-2020)

  19. #10
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    Quote Originally Posted by loxias View Post
    Much agreed. Autosomal data from Liangzhu culture individuals and others from the lower Yangtze like Hemudu is long overdue. I am convinced they will cluster along with the Neolithic Fujian samples and ancient Taiwanese as well.
    There is substantial linguistic evidence that Tai-Kadai and Austronesian are related clades, or that they were in very close contact in their early stages. Some argue that Tai-Kadai followed the inland route whereas Austronesians left via Taiwan. Lower Yangtze cultures may provide the missing link.

    I tried running East Asian populations through Vahaduo using a selection of ancient (almost exclusively Neolithic) samples. I tried to classify the ancient samples the least arbitrarily possible, I put the Lao and Vietnam neolithic together as "Indochina_N", the Southern East Asian samples from the Melinda Yang studies together as "Fujian_N", the Northern East Asian samples from her study as "Shandong_N", Taiwan_Hanben and Taiwan_Gongguan together as "Taiwan_N", etc... I put the Yellow River valley samples that clustered together into "Yellow_River_N", etc... You can see the whole list below.

     
    Indochina_N:VNM_LN,0.0163143,-0.3875937,-0.0568197,-0.0402673,0.1348967,0.0703733,-0.0036033,-0.0036923,-0.0100217,-0.0145787,0.0582973,0.002947,-0.006442,-0.012386,0.0081887,-0.0002653,0.0080403,-0.0089527,0.000838,0.004419,-0.0024957,0.007337,-0.0058747,-0.0076713,0.028181
    Indochina_N:VNM_N,0,-0.386917,-0.064865,-0.031008,0.134333,0.06038,0.0036425,-0.010961,-0.0138055,-0.014579,0.0695835,-0.001499,-0.002007,0.001376,0.0169655,-0.0031155,-0.0011085,0.00076,-0.0020115,0.01532,-0.0034935,0.0084085,0.0030195,-0.0063865,0.034009
    Indochina_N:LAO_LN_BA,0.005691,-0.40215,-0.083721,-0.034561,0.15049,0.078089,-0.002585,-0.012692,-0.006136,-0.018588,0.089801,0.004346,-0.012785,0.010184,0.003393,-0.005701,-0.002477,0.0019,-0.00088,0.026388,-0.016845,0.02201,-0.011955,0.001325,0.039038
    Indochina_P:LAO_Hoabinhian,-0.025041,-0.224432,-0.11917,0.087856,0.022466,-0.001952,-0.003055,0.01223,0.060539,0.018406,0.012829,0.0011 99,-0.000446,0.006055,-0.007872,-0.006364,-0.00352,-0.00076,-0.005531,0.023386,0.006988,0.013107,-0.017131,-0.001325,0.003712
    Andaman_P:IND_Great_Andamanese_100BP,-0.018212,-0.235603,-0.128598,0.098838,0.023389,-0.003904,-0.016686,-0.003231,0.059721,0.02041,0.023222,0.004646,-0.0055,0.001239,-0.016151,-0.008884,0.009518,0.001014,-0.004902,0.026888,-0.00549,0.011994,-0.013311,-0.001205,0.000958
    Papuan,-0.045985,-0.241087,-0.263758,0.309242,0.206931,-0.509589,-0.001974,0.007015,-0.041273,-0.011955,-0.018902,0.000869,0.001397,-0.00311,0.000163,-0.000318,-0.00219,-0.00185,-0.001081,-0.001526,0.002346,0.001805,0.001232,0.001832,0.001 605
    Heilongjiang_N:CHN_Amur_River_EN,0.025041,-0.4595275,0.097674,-0.036822,-0.0809385,-0.060101,0.0200935,0.0271145,0.0140095,0.014579,-0.023059,0.0062945,0.00498,-0.0052295,-0.003868,0.0059665,-0.0020865,0.001267,0.0098045,0.024762,-0.011043,-0.0200315,-0.020028,-0.009158,-0.0088015
    Shandong_N:CHN_Bianbian_N,0.015935,-0.443786,0.028284,-0.052003,0.024312,-0.005299,-0.002585,0.000231,-0.00225,0.011663,-0.073887,-0.006744,0.004906,-0.007844,-0.011943,0.001724,0.004303,0.004687,0.002011,0.004 127,0.022086,-0.001731,-0.003451,-0.005181,-0.008981
    Shandong_N:CHN_Boshan_N,0.01935,-0.444802,0.032432,-0.062339,0.012618,0.002789,0.009635,0.003,-0.007772,0.008201,-0.074861,-0.009891,0.009812,-0.008533,-0.010315,-0.005701,-0.004042,0.003801,-0.000377,-0.002126,0.013726,0.003215,0.005793,-0.005543,-0.005628
    Fujian_N:CHN_Liangdao1_N,0.002276,-0.409258,-0.052043,-0.038114,0.107405,0.046575,-0.006345,-0.01523,-0.020657,-0.013485,0.021922,0.009292,-0.003122,0.000138,0.015879,0.001326,0.004824,0,-0.008045,-0.006378,0.005116,-0.011005,-0.002588,-0.009278,-0.03341
    Fujian_N:CHN_Liangdao2_N,0.006829,-0.407227,-0.052043,-0.040052,0.112944,0.045459,0.00141,-0.004384,-0.005931,-0.008565,0.034589,0.003747,-0.010406,0.001927,0.007736,0.012066,0.00352,0.0048 14,0.005028,-0.00988,0.007237,-0.011005,0.013188,-0.01687,-0.02874
    Fujian_N:CHN_Qihe_N,0.005691,-0.372699,-0.057322,-0.01615,0.096018,0.035698,-0.005875,-0.007615,-0.003477,-0.002916,0.013641,-0.004646,-0.000743,-0.01445,-0.002036,-0.004773,0.004433,0.000507,0.008422,0.007128,0.009 982,-0.00371,0.005053,-0.013134,-0.017483
    Yellow_River_N:CHN_Shimao_LN,0.018781,-0.451403,0.023004,-0.062662,0.028159,0.0079485,0.006815,0.0012695,-0.00859,0.009567,-0.0937795,-0.008093,0.007582,-0.008257,-0.0110615,-0.0024525,-0.0029985,0.002217,-0.006599,-6.25e-05,0.0090465,0.0097685,0.0071485,0.0025905,0.01706 45
    Fujian_N:CHN_Tanshishan_N,0.005691,-0.427538,-0.04186,-0.058463,0.123408,0.055778,-0.00846,-0.01823,-0.020043,-0.024055,0.035076,3e-04,-0.004906,0.003578,-0.000271,0.014585,0.001825,0.001267,0.003017,-0.012256,0.005865,-0.009398,0.002958,-0.007832,-0.03341
    China_P:CHN_Tianyuan,-0.027318,-0.260991,-0.075424,0.071383,0.033545,-0.018407,-0.00799,-0.003,0.040291,0.021322,-0.006333,-0.005995,-0.003568,-0.00523,-0.000407,-0.000663,0.008084,0.002407,-0.001131,0.027263,-0.001747,0.008037,-0.008874,-0.010845,0.011256
    Yellow_River_N:CHN_Upper_Yellow_River_LN,0.0170734 ,-0.4421616,0.022778,-0.0515508,0.0196344,-0.0039602,0.0089774,0.0057692,-0.0035588,0.0106792,-0.0916846,-0.0111202,0.0117144,-0.0013762,-0.0077904,-0.0013258,-0.0005476,-0.0033952,-0.0051536,0.0010756,0.0009234,0.0163468,0.0057188, 0.0008918,0.025794
    CHN_Western_Liao_River_MN,0.0199195,-0.444294,0.0503455,-0.051034,-0.007386,-0.0182675,0.0050525,0.0064615,0.003375,0.011663,-0.0765665,-0.008992,0.0086965,-0.00406,-0.007804,-0.003381,-0.0013695,0.005384,0.002577,0.009317,0.0033065,-0.0043275,-0.0094285,-0.001386,-0.0020955
    Shandong_N:CHN_Xiaogao_N,0.005691,-0.437693,0.025644,-0.048773,0.011694,-0.008925,-0.003995,0.003692,-0.000205,0.011481,-0.075835,-0.007493,0.00669,-0.002202,-0.004207,0.004641,0.002477,0.001774,-0.00088,-0.007754,0.014474,-0.002473,-0.002711,0.001687,-0.011256
    Shandong_N:CHN_Xiaojingshan_N,0.012141,-0.4383703,0.0250157,-0.052003,0.0229783,-0.0105053,-0.0044653,0.0010767,-0.007363,0.010205,-0.0803823,-0.0115397,0.0122397,-0.0031193,-0.0077813,-0.0079553,-0.00013,0.0016047,0.004106,-0.0042103,0.0137257,-0.0002883,0.0098187,-0.006145,-0.005788
    Fujian_N:CHN_Xitoucun_N,0.0085365,-0.431092,-0.037335,-0.058786,0.125562,0.0496425,0.0001175,-0.011538,-0.0223955,-0.013759,0.015995,0.004421,0.003865,-0.001514,0.0068535,0.0021215,-0.000326,0.0041805,0.0024515,-0.0123805,0.018842,-0.017435,0.0094285,-0.0102425,-0.024369
    Yellow_River_N:CHN_Yellow_River_LN,0.0166466,-0.4503874,0.0109365,-0.0657709,0.0545101,0.0217886,0.0037894,0.0012404,-0.0097149,0.0040092,-0.0851524,-0.0100032,0.0123945,-0.0059179,-0.0088896,-0.000895,0.001483,-0.0003801,-0.0048392,-0.0075191,0.0172975,0.007543,0.0128639,-0.0006476,0.0073496
    Yellow_River_N:CHN_Yellow_River_MN,0.0166182,-0.4441924,0.0136518,-0.0588506,0.0390226,0.0112114,0.0082252,0.0014306,-0.0015546,0.0055034,-0.092269,-0.01106,0.0142414,-0.0075692,-0.0129476,-0.0003978,0.0051112,-0.0020522,-0.0057318,-0.0019008,0.0136762,0.015704,0.0105996,-0.002458,0.0122624
    CHN_Yumin_N,0.018212,-0.427538,0.066373,-0.032946,-0.049548,-0.04016,0.00705,0.012461,0.010022,0.021504,-0.063656,-0.006894,0.002825,0.001101,-0.008143,-0.002387,0.004172,0.002534,0.003017,0.019509,-0.012728,0.000989,-0.017131,-0.002651,0.007305
    RUS_Sintashta_MLBA,0.125389,0.1158031,0.0572615,0. 0789266,0.011327,0.0284468,0.005678,0.0041909,-0.0174834,-0.0282348,-0.0024254,0.0012473,-0.0030739,-0.0212915,0.0226566,0.0124762,-0.0050555,0.0004086,-6.9e-05,-0.0007423,-0.0059089,0.0020542,0.0026159,0.0066506,-0.0039363
    RUS_Shamanka_N,0.0309599,-0.4147422,0.0950344,-0.0157947,-0.0868469,-0.0482203,0.0053815,0.010061,0.0147054,0.0125196,-0.0160603,-0.0018134,0.0035828,-0.0078032,-0.0046552,-0.0032088,-0.0025164,0.0005827,0.0064608,0.0178333,-0.0170449,-0.0059478,-0.0165151,-0.0032051,0.0046943
    Eurasia_P:RUS_Ust_Ishim,-0.050082,-0.11577,-0.090886,0.073644,0.027082,-0.018128,-0.00376,-0.004384,0.0452,0.010387,0.006008,-0.001798,0.000149,-0.003991,0.004614,-0.001724,-0.004955,0.004687,-0.005154,0.015382,0.006613,0.008532,-0.007641,-0.014942,0.007784
    Taiwan_N:TWN_Gongguan,0.009106,-0.455973,-0.032432,-0.075905,0.142796,0.070559,-0.008695,-0.011999,-0.030065,-0.024602,0.052614,-0.003147,0.008474,-0.003303,0.009908,0.008618,-0.012778,0.006714,0.012821,-0.013256,0.00549,-0.032397,-0.001109,-0.008194,-0.061192
    Taiwan_N:TWN_Hanben,0.0155393,-0.4419318,-0.0435985,-0.0634906,0.1387417,0.064642,-0.0045365,-0.0134342,-0.0232624,-0.0208937,0.0412537,0.0034991,-0.002999,-0.0035123,0.0102085,0.0065775,-0.0008786,0.0056239,0.0068097,-0.0128105,0.0079044,-0.0258488,0.0022506,-0.0087176,-0.0486288
    RUS_Devils_Gate_Cave_N,0.0162197,-0.4440402,0.0722185,-0.0511148,-0.0373912,-0.0395328,0.0034075,0.0084802,0.0064935,0.019408,-0.048595,-0.004833,-0.0030848,0.0086702,-0.0096025,-0.0133915,-0.0007825,0.0089,0.0174408,0.0100362,0.008828,-0.027729,-0.0174702,-0.00244,-0.0145795
    RUS_Baikal_N,0.0430252,-0.343452,0.0849276,0.0036176,-0.0836464,-0.041722,-0.000282,-0.0036,0.0105126,0.0064146,0.003475,-0.0038366,0.0046976,-0.013267,-0.006786,-0.003262,-0.0056584,0.0033192,0.0057068,0.017033,-0.0176192,-0.0064548,-0.0078632,-0.0056874,0.0050056
    RUS_Boisman_MN,0.0211091,-0.4479409,0.0741897,-0.0434875,-0.0510025,-0.0405914,0.0098064,0.0122512,0.0104122,0.0256788,-0.0416157,-0.001771,-0.0011488,0.0091707,-0.0088958,-0.0082809,-0.0038997,0.0051713,0.0127068,0.0145636,0.0032444,-0.0328355,-0.0255795,0.0015227,-0.0190509
    Nepal_N:NPL_Chokhopani_2700BP,0.012521,-0.410274,-0.011691,-0.031331,0.017542,0.011435,0.00658,0.011999,0.0100 22,0.021139,-0.081194,-0.006444,0.010109,-0.004679,-0.011401,0,0.011213,-0.001267,-0.009302,0.009379,0.004991,0.029306,0.004314,0.003 615,0.031734
    MNG_North_N,0.0237403,-0.4314549,0.0890541,-0.0247326,-0.0815536,-0.0521129,0.0134964,0.0145379,0.0179981,0.020098,-0.029346,-0.0013703,0.0013593,-0.0051314,-0.0056033,-0.0039967,0.0038743,0.0006154,0.0038967,0.020331,-0.0196439,-0.0037801,-0.0166207,-0.0061969,0.0076981
    MNG_East_N,0.025041,-0.4427705,0.0788185,-0.0347225,-0.074937,-0.056336,0.0172735,0.015461,0.0166685,0.0266065,-0.0353195,-0.0038215,0.001264,0.0030965,-0.008279,-0.006696,0.002347,0.002027,0.004211,0.019009,-0.0150985,-0.006801,-0.0272995,-0.008736,0.0049695
    Japan_P:JPN_Jomon,0.011003,-0.3440953,-0.0537398,0.0124893,0.038161,0.0139448,-0.0020758,-0.0015383,0.024577,0.0205622,-0.049718,-0.0068938,0.0096878,-0.0069958,-0.023819,-0.0154467,0.006454,0.0099242,0.0024722,-0.0060655,0.0639705,-0.0456895,0.0091615,0.0112062,-0.0994323
    Sakhalin_P:RUS_Sakhalin_HG,0.011382,-0.380824,-0.011314,-0.00646,-0.007386,-0.008367,-0.004935,0.009923,0.019839,0.023508,-0.038161,-0.005245,0.002825,0.007707,-0.044381,-0.007425,0.009779,0.010642,0.01257,-0.001501,0.049288,-0.037838,-0.001849,0.004338,-0.055444
    Yemenite_Al_Bayda,0.0387,0.13862,-0.062665,-0.107398,-0.010156,-0.04848,-0.013161,-0.010153,0.054131,-0.005983,0.010961,-0.028799,0.050916,0.004106,0.006379,0.024198,-0.018471,0.007158,0.000838,0.017925,0.009774,0.016 178,-0.007436,0.001125,-0.003752
    Yemenite_Al_Jawf,0.049228,0.141412,-0.063073,-0.115554,-0.010694,-0.047342,-0.0094,-0.007154,0.058136,-0.002597,0.012869,-0.031435,0.057309,0.003888,0.0038,0.01959,-0.02047,0.003991,0.003174,0.022136,0.0107,0.014715 ,-0.013064,0.008555,-0.008562
    Yemenite_Amran,0.045855,0.135428,-0.061525,-0.101445,-0.01486,-0.042152,-0.008729,-0.007763,0.04501,-0.004256,0.01175,-0.022962,0.04651,0.005259,0.003994,0.017256,-0.014137,0.004253,0.001832,0.015704,0.006925,0.009 521,-0.00633,0.004174,-0.004781
    Yemenite_Dhamar,0.035538,0.141159,-0.058537,-0.110574,-0.009574,-0.047225,-0.013735,-0.008025,0.049245,-0.007856,0.013785,-0.026393,0.049273,0.005948,0.003484,0.015248,-0.016211,0.004575,0.000656,0.017036,0.010107,0.011 417,-0.006957,0.004231,-0.00306
    Yemenite_Jew,0.051383,0.144785,-0.063248,-0.114066,-0.011827,-0.046694,-0.013496,-0.008868,0.048969,-0.006274,0.011321,-0.026612,0.053985,0.003244,0.003529,0.017161,-0.024549,0.003475,0.006411,0.024958,0.012888,0.015 987,-0.007095,0.004648,-0.006894
    Yemenite_Ma'rib,0.044846,0.143799,-0.061244,-0.117056,-0.009232,-0.047913,-0.011045,-0.004569,0.053626,-0.007581,0.014712,-0.027126,0.051437,0.005587,0.000489,0.020154,-0.021383,0.00451,0.002589,0.018309,0.01143,0.01313 2,-0.006729,0.004651,-0.005485
    Yemenite_Mahra,0.054256,0.136081,-0.068259,-0.121197,-0.003727,-0.056305,-0.01303,-0.00882,0.06288,-0.002045,0.016798,-0.032571,0.065741,0.005841,0.008053,0.027078,-0.021064,0.002872,-0.001913,0.024831,0.013726,0.016089,-0.008737,0.002785,-0.005229
    Balochi,0.068863,0.051876,-0.100628,0.030739,-0.072603,0.031491,0.005582,0.001577,-0.022736,-0.020805,-0.003884,-0.002148,0.003927,-0.008017,0.015958,0.030098,-0.010137,0.002924,0.007269,-0.026513,-0.001071,-0.015209,0.00037,-0.016097,0.013761


    Doing this some interesting things emerge :
    Island Southeast Asian Austronesian speakers rarely have any Fujian_N, while they have plenty of Taiwan_N. (Indochina_N seems associated with Austroasiatic speakers who brought agriculture to SEA first).
    Examples :
    Target: Vizayan
    Distance: 2.0229% / 0.02022883
    79.6 Taiwan_N
    12.4 Andaman_P
    3.8 Papuan
    2.4 Indochina_N
    1.4 Balochi
    0.4 RUS_Sintashta_MLBA

    Target: Murut
    Distance: 3.2876% / 0.03287562
    75.6 Taiwan_N
    23.6 Indochina_N
    0.8 Papuan

    Target: Malay
    Distance: 1.2098% / 0.01209770
    47.6 Indochina_N
    37.8 Taiwan_N
    5.4 Andaman_P
    5.0 Balochi
    2.0 Heilongjiang_N
    1.8 Papuan
    0.4 Fujian_N

    Target: Luzon
    Distance: 1.5305% / 0.01530544
    92.8 Taiwan_N
    5.8 Andaman_P
    0.8 Papuan
    0.6 Indochina_N

    Target: Indonesian_Java
    Distance: 1.6886% / 0.01688639
    76.2 Indochina_N
    20.6 Taiwan_N
    1.8 Balochi
    1.4 Papuan

    Target: Indonesian_Bali
    Distance: 1.7210% / 0.01721027
    68.4 Indochina_N
    24.6 Taiwan_N
    3.4 Balochi
    2.8 Papuan
    0.8 Andaman_P

    Target: Igorot
    Distance: 2.5493% / 0.02549250
    99.2 Taiwan_N
    0.8 Papuan

    Target: Hawaiian
    Distance: 2.3967% / 0.02396728
    87.2 Taiwan_N
    5.6 Papuan
    4.8 Eurasia_P
    1.6 Fujian_N
    0.8 Yemenite_Dhamar

    Target: Dusun
    Distance: 3.4344% / 0.03434402
    74.4 Taiwan_N
    22.2 Indochina_N
    1.6 Andaman_P
    1.4 Papuan
    0.4 Balochi

    Interestingly enough, this is also the case with Hans from China. They are overwhelmingly Yellow_River_N (core area of Han ethnogenesis), but also have notable Taiwan_N and very little Fujian_N.

    Target: Han_Zhejiang
    Distance: 1.4022% / 0.01402175
    82.0 Yellow_River_N
    18.0 Taiwan_N

    Target: Han_Sichuan
    Distance: 1.1237% / 0.01123679
    77.8 Yellow_River_N
    13.6 Taiwan_N
    8.6 Indochina_N

    Target: Han_Shanxi
    Distance: 1.1660% / 0.01166024
    81.2 Yellow_River_N
    8.6 Taiwan_N
    8.4 Shandong_N
    1.8 RUS_Sintashta_MLBA

    Target: Han_Shanghai
    Distance: 2.6239% / 0.02623907
    88.4 Yellow_River_N
    10.2 Taiwan_N
    1.4 Balochi

    Target: Han_Shandong
    Distance: 1.0208% / 0.01020753
    82.0 Yellow_River_N
    11.6 Taiwan_N
    4.8 Shandong_N
    1.6 Japan_P

    Target: Han_Jiangsu
    Distance: 1.3404% / 0.01340370
    86.4 Yellow_River_N
    13.6 Taiwan_N

    Target: Han_Hubei
    Distance: 1.4266% / 0.01426600
    75.4 Yellow_River_N
    24.6 Taiwan_N

    Target: Han_Henan
    Distance: 1.3143% / 0.01314317
    77.2 Yellow_River_N
    13.8 Shandong_N
    8.0 Taiwan_N
    0.8 RUS_Sintashta_MLBA
    0.2 Balochi

    Target: Han_Guangdong
    Distance: 2.5838% / 0.02583799
    57.8 Yellow_River_N
    32.0 Taiwan_N
    10.2 Indochina_N

    Target: Han_Fujian
    Distance: 2.0583% / 0.02058327
    69.2 Yellow_River_N
    26.6 Taiwan_N
    2.6 Fujian_N

    1.6 Indochina_N

    Target: Han_Chongqing
    Distance: 2.0372% / 0.02037211
    71.8 Yellow_River_N
    13.8 Taiwan_N
    9.8 Indochina_N
    4.6 Fujian_N

    As you can see, even contemporary Fujian has very little Fujian_N. This seems to indicate that Taiwan_N may have been an outpost of a larger population which must have lived further North (Yangtze river?). This population would have mixed in with incoming Hans from the Yellow River and spread South with them, displacing Fujian_N and Indochina_N populations.

    Now, what is interesting is that Fujian_N does show up in sizeable amounts (alongside Taiwan_N) in Tai-Kadai speaking populations!
    Target: Dong_Guizhou
    Distance: 2.7921% / 0.02792090
    44.8 Yellow_River_N
    20.0 Taiwan_N
    19.8 Fujian_N

    15.4 Indochina_N

    Target: Dong_Hunan
    Distance: 2.8814% / 0.02881357
    49.0 Yellow_River_N
    24.6 Taiwan_N
    14.0 Indochina_N
    12.4 Fujian_N

    Target: Dai
    Distance: 3.2025% / 0.03202547
    30.8 Indochina_N
    27.8 Fujian_N
    27.0 Yellow_River_N
    14.4 Taiwan_N

    Target: Gelao
    Distance: 2.8998% / 0.02899804
    36.0 Yellow_River_N
    29.6 Indochina_N
    18.2 Fujian_N
    16.2 Taiwan_N


    Target: Li
    Distance: 3.7371% / 0.03737077
    34.6 Taiwan_N
    25.2 Fujian_N

    24.8 Yellow_River_N
    15.4 Indochina_N

    Target: Maonan
    Distance: 3.4506% / 0.03450643
    33.4 Yellow_River_N
    32.6 Taiwan_N
    21.8 Indochina_N
    12.2 Fujian_N

    Target: Thai
    Distance: 1.6800% / 0.01679960
    49.8 Indochina_N
    12.6 Yellow_River_N
    9.8 Nepal_N
    7.4 Fujian_N
    6.8 Balochi
    6.8 Japan_P
    5.0 Taiwan_N
    1.8 Andaman_P

    Target: Zhuang
    Distance: 3.0162% / 0.03016189
    35.6 Yellow_River_N
    23.8 Taiwan_N
    20.4 Fujian_N

    20.2 Indochina_N

    Interestingly enough, Hmong-Mien speakers as well as Kinhs from Vietnam (Austroasiatic) also have inflated Fujian_N, whereas other Austroasiatic speakers don't.

    In light of this, I think Taiwan_Hanben and Taiwan_Gongguan are better proxies for the spread of Austronesian languages for now, whereas the host of Fujian samples probably represent an early off-shoot from the Tai-Kadai branch.
    I took your sample list and did a run using Maori, knowing that the Maori sample has a large amount of European ancestry. For this reason, Hawaiian is likely a better Polynesian population to use.

    Target: Maori:S_Maori-1
    Distance: 2.7934% / 0.02793414
    45.0 RUS_Sintashta_MLBA
    25.6 Taiwan_N
    9.4 Fujian_N

    9.2 Papuan
    7.0 Yemenite_Dhamar
    3.8 Eurasia_P
    Ancestry on paper: English, Scottish, Irish, Welsh, Croatian, Ashkenazi, Polish and Māori.

  20. The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to BalkanKiwi For This Useful Post:

     loxias (09-01-2020),  timberwolf (09-01-2020)

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