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Thread: New Archeology Papers (Titles and Abstracts Only, Please)

  1. #41
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    the spread of the Neolithic in the Balkans

    Dispersals as demographic processes: testing and describing the spread of the Neolithic in the Balkans
    Marc Vander Linden and Fabio Silva

    Abstract
    Although population history and dispersal are back at the forefront of the archaeological agenda, they are often studied in relative isolation. This contribution aims at combining both dimensions, as population dispersal is, by definition, a demographic process. Using a case study drawn from the Early Neolithic of South-Eastern Europe, we use radiocarbon dates to jointly investigate changes in speed and population size linked to the new food production economy and demonstrate that the spread of farming in this region corresponds to a density-dependent dispersal process. The implications of this characterization are evaluated in the discussion.

    rstb20200231f01.jpg
    Figure 1. Distribution map of radiocarbon dataset
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  3. #42
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    networking and mobility during the 5th and 4th millennia BC in north-eastern Iberia

    Neolithic networking and mobility during the 5th and 4th millennia BC in north-eastern Iberia
    M. Díaz-Zorita Bonilla, M.E.Subirám, M.Fontanals-Coll, J.Knudsonm E.Alonzim K.Bolhofnerf, B.Morella, G.Remolins, J.Roig, A.Martín, P.González Marcén, J.Plasencia, J.M.Coll, J.F.Gibaja

    Highlights
    •North-eastern Iberia Neolithic necropolises: Bòbila Madurell, Can Gambús and Puig d'en Roca.
    •Multi-isotopic analyses 87Sr/86Sr, δ18O, δ13C showed low mobility patterns.
    •Chronological analysis confirmed their same horizon and temporal distribution.
    •Iberian Neolithic engaged in trading with Central Europe and the Mediterranean.


    Abstract
    In this paper we present data from multi-isotopic analyses (87Sr/86Sr, δ18O, δ13C) of human individuals buried in the Neolithic communities of the north-eastern Iberian Peninsula. The sites researched were Bòbila Madurell, Can Gambús and Puig d'en Roca, all dated to the late 5th and early 4th millennia cal BC. The main objective was to explore chronological movement and the extent to which these communities moved and interacted with their Neolithic counterparts. The results show that the mobility of these communities was limited, as only 8.3% of the individuals exhibited non-local values. In addition, the chronological analysis confirmed their same horizon and temporal distribution. This means that they used resources and raw materials found in the immediate vicinity. It also implies that they had a certain degree of social organization and were already engaged in the trading of raw materials, some of which came from Central Europe and the Mediterranean islands.
    Last edited by pmokeefe; 01-14-2021 at 02:08 AM.
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  5. #43
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    Ancient protein analysis in archaeology

    Ancient protein analysis in archaeology
    Jessica Hendy

    Abstract
    The analysis of ancient proteins from paleontological, archeological, and historic materials is revealing insights into past subsistence practices, patterns of health and disease, evolution and phylogeny, and past environments. This review tracks the development of this field, discusses some of the major methodological strategies used, and synthesizes recent developments in archeological applications of ancient protein analysis. Moreover, this review highlights some of the challenges faced by the field and potential future directions, arguing that the development of minimally invasive or nondestructive techniques, strategies for protein authentication, and the integration of ancient protein analysis with other biomolecular techniques are important research strategies as this field grows.
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  6. #44
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    Connectivity and funerary change in early medieval Europe

    Connectivity and funerary change in early medieval Europe
    Emma Brownlee

    Abstract

    Between the sixth and the eighth centuries AD, the practice of depositing grave goods was almost entirely abandoned across Western Europe. To date, however, explanations for this change have focused on local considerations. By collating data from 237 cemeteries from across Western Europe, this article assesses the spatial and chronological development of this phenomenon. Beginning in the mid sixth century, the process accelerated towards the end of the seventh century, before near complete abandonment across the region by the following century. This widespread and rapid transition is interpreted in light of evidence for trade and connectivity, which facilitated the swift diffusion of this and other cultural practices across the region.
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    Not entirely new, but interesting:

    Antler combs from the Salme ship burials: find context, origin, dating and manufacture
    Heidi Luik, Jüri Peets, John Ljungkvist, Liina Maldre, Reet Maldre, Raili Allmäe, Mariana Muñoz-Rodríguez, Krista McGrath, Camilla Speller and Steven Ashby

    Abstract
    In 2008 and 2010, two partly destroyed ship burials were discovered near Salme on the island of Saaremaa. During the archaeological excavations, at least 41 wholly or partially preserved skeletons were discovered, and a large number of artefacts were found, including a dozen single-sided antler combs. On the basis of the finds, as well as radiocarbon dating, the ship burials were dated to the Pre-Viking Period, while both the isotopic and archaeological evidence point towards central Sweden as the most probable origin of the buried individuals. The combs from Salme have features that are generally consistent with the 8th century, with the closest parallels coming from the Mälar region of central Sweden. According to ZooMS and aDNA analyses, they are made of elk (Alces alces) and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) antler. Elk inhabited the Mälar region, but reindeer antler had its origin in more northern regions. Most combs were clearly manufactured with great skill, and finished with care, though some details indicate differences in the skills of comb makers
    Last edited by Bygdedweller; 01-21-2021 at 07:44 PM.

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    https://journals.plos.org/plosone/ar...l.pone.0240462
    ABSTRACT: We present a method for detecting perceptible standardization of weights and apply this to 5028 Early Bronze Age rings, ribs, and axe blades from Central Europe. We calculate the degree of uniformity on the basis of psychophysics, and quantify this using similarity indexes.

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  12. #47
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    Quote Originally Posted by leonardo View Post
    https://journals.plos.org/plosone/ar...l.pone.0240462
    ABSTRACT: We present a method for detecting perceptible standardization of weights and apply this to 5028 Early Bronze Age rings, ribs, and axe blades from Central Europe. We calculate the degree of uniformity on the basis of psychophysics, and quantify this using similarity indexes.
    Here's an article that helps to summarize the journal
    https://www.thedailystar.net/backpag...-study-2031885
    Last edited by leonardo; 01-22-2021 at 07:34 PM.

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    Cross-disciplinary approaches to prehistoric demography

    Cross-disciplinary approaches to prehistoric demography
    compiled and edited by Jennifer C. French, Philip Riris, Javier Fernandéz-López de Pablo, Sergi Lozano and Fabio Silva

    Demography impacts a wide range of aspects of human culture past and present; from our capacity to transmit genes and knowledge across generations, to the reach of our social networks and long-term impacts on the environment. Recent cross-disciplinary advances in the reconstruction and interpretation of prehistoric population histories (palaeodemography) have been transforming our understanding of past societies. This theme issue integrates the efforts of researchers working across archaeology, anthropology, genomics, palaeoecology, and evolutionary demography, combining original research alongside critical reviews, to provide a benchmark for the state-of-the-art in prehistoric demography and a statement of the future of this rapidly growing cross-disciplinary endeavour.

    PART I: THEORY AND METHOD


    Sometimes hidden but always there: the assumptions underlying genetic inference of demographic histories
    Liisa Loog

    Abstract
    Demographic processes directly affect patterns of genetic variation within contemporary populations as well as future generations, allowing for demographic inference from patterns of both present-day and past genetic variation. Advances in laboratory procedures, sequencing and genotyping technologies in the past decades have resulted in massive increases in high-quality genome-wide genetic data from present-day populations and allowed retrieval of genetic data from archaeological material, also known as ancient DNA. This has resulted in an explosion of work exploring past changes in population size, structure, continuity and movement. However, as genetic processes are highly stochastic, patterns of genetic variation only indirectly reflect demographic histories. As a result, past demographic processes need to be reconstructed using an inferential approach. This usually involves comparing observed patterns of variation with model expectations from theoretical population genetics. A large number of approaches have been developed based on different population genetic models that each come with assumptions about the data and underlying demography. In this article I review some of the key models and assumptions underlying the most commonly used approaches for past demographic inference and their consequences for our ability to link the inferred demographic processes to the archaeological and climate records.


    Cultural evolution and prehistoric demography
    Sarah Saxton Strassberg and Nicole Creanza
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0713

    The past, present and future of skeletal analysis in palaeodemography
    Clare McFadden
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0709

    Demographic uniformitarianism: the theoretical basis of prehistoric demographic research and its cross-disciplinary challenges
    Jennifer C. French and Andrew T. Chamberlain
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0720

    Modifiable reporting unit problems and time series of long-term human activity
    A. Bevan and E. R. Crema
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0726

    Dispersals as demographic processes: testing and describing the spread of the Neolithic in the Balkans
    Marc Vander Linden and Fabio Silva
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0231

    Approaching prehistoric demography: proxies, scales and scope of the Cologne Protocol in European contexts
    Isabell Schmidt, Johanna Hilpert, Inga Kretschmer, Robin Peters, Manuel Broich, Sara Schiesberg, Oliver Vogels, Karl Peter Wendt, Andreas Zimmermann and Andreas Maier
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0714

    Why are population growth rate estimates of past and present hunter–gatherers so different?
    Miikka Tallavaara and Erlend Kirkeng Jørgensen
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0708

    PART II: THEMES

    Directly modelling population dynamics in the South American Arid Diagonal using 14C dates
    Adrian Timpson, Ramiro Barberena, Mark G. Thomas, César Méndez and Katie Manning
    Published:30 November 2020Article ID:20190723
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0723

    Population density and size facilitate interactive capacity and the rise of the state
    Paul Roscoe, Daniel H. Sandweiss and Erick Robinson
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0725

    Demographic estimates from the Palaeolithic–Mesolithic boundary in Scandinavia: comparative benchmarks and novel insights
    Victor Lundström, Robin Peters and Felix Riede
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0037

    Did pre-Columbian populations of the Amazonian biome reach carrying capacity during the Late Holocene?
    Manuel Arroyo-Kalin and Philip Riris
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0715

    Late Glacial and Early Holocene human demographic responses to climatic and environmental change in Atlantic Iberia
    T. Rowan McLaughlin, Magdalena Gómez-Puche, João Cascalheira, Nuno Bicho and Javier Fernández-López de Pablo
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0724

    The Neolithic Demographic Transition in the Central Balkans: population dynamics reconstruction based on new radiocarbon evidence
    Marko Porčić, Tamara Blagojević, Jugoslav Pendić and Sofija Stefanović
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0712

    Dendrochronological dates confirm a Late Prehistoric population decline in the American Southwest derived from radiocarbon dates
    Erick Robinson, R. Kyle Bocinsky, Darcy Bird, Jacob Freeman and Robert L. Kelly
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0718

    Carrying capacity, population density and the later Pleistocene expression of backed artefact manufacturing traditions in Africa
    W. Archer
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0716

    Archaeology, demography and life history theory together can help us explain past and present population patterns
    Stephen Shennan and Rebecca Sear
    https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0711
    Last edited by pmokeefe; 01-24-2021 at 01:51 AM.
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    THE ABSOLUTE CHRONOLOGY OF COLLECTIVE BURIALS FROM THE 2ND MILLENNIUM BC IN EAST CENTRAL EUROPE

    Abstract

    This article discusses the absolute chronology of collective burials of the Trzciniec Cultural Circle communities of the Middle Bronze Age in East Central Europe. Based on Bayesian modeling of 91 accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (AMS 14C) dates from 18 cemeteries, the practice of collective burying of individuals was linked to a period of 400–640 (95.4%) years, between 1830–1690 (95.4%) and 1320–1160 (95.4%) BC. Collective burials in mounds with both cremation and inhumation rites were found earliest in the upland zone regardless of grave structure type (mounded or flat). Bayesian modeling of 14C determinations suggests that this practice was being transmitted generally from the southeast to the northwest direction. Bayesian modeling of the dates from the largest cemetery in Żerniki Górne, Lesser Poland Upland, confirmed the duration of use of the necropolis as ca. 140–310 (95.4%) years. Further results show the partial contemporaneity of burials and allow formulation of a spatial and temporal development model of the necropolis. Based on the investigation, some graves were used over just a couple of years and others over nearly 200, with up to 30 individuals found in a single grave.

    https://www.cambridge.org/core/journ...6C28AC3FFDC93E

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    Bone degradation at five Arctic archaeological sites: Quantifying the importance of burial environment and bone characteristics
    Bone degradation at five Arctic archaeological sites: Quantifying the importance of burial environment and bone characteristics lHenning Matthiesen et al

    Highlights
    •Respirometry and environmental monitoring allow quantitative degradation studies of bone.
    •State of preservation of bones correlate closely to burial environment at five Arctic sites.
    •Bone oxidation rate increases fourfold as temperature increases by 10 °C and more than hundred-fold when dry bones are soaked.
    •The oxidation rate of different bones varies depending on organic content and preservation state.
    •Oxidation rates measured in the laboratory are realistic when compared to field observations.


    Abstract
    The degradation of archaeological bones is influenced by many variables. The bone material itself is a composite of both organic and inorganic components, and their degradation depends on processes occurring both before and after burial, and on both intrinsic bone characteristics as well as extrinsic environmental parameters. In this study we attempt to quantify the effect of some of the variables using a novel approach that includes detailed monitoring of the burial environment combined with respirometry studies of bone material from five archaeological sites in West Greenland. First, we compare the state of preservation of excavated bone material with the current burial environment including the soil pH, thawing degree days, soil porosity and soil moisture. Secondly, we investigate oxic degradation of collected bone samples through respirometry and quantify the effects of temperature and moisture on the oxidation rate of individual bones. Finally, we discuss how the oxidation rate is influenced by intrinsic bone parameters. Some of the main conclusions are:

    1) There is a significant correlation between the current burial environment and the current state of preservation of the bones.

    2)The oxidation rate measured by respirometry increases on average fourfold as temperature increases by 10 °C, and more than hundred-fold when dry bones are soaked in water.

    3) The oxidation rate of different bones varies over two orders of magnitude due to intrinsic variables such as organic content and state of preservation of the bones.

    4) The median oxidation rate of wet bone at 15 °C corresponds to a yearly loss of 3.8% of their mean organic content, while the median yearly loss for dry bones at 75% RH is 0.02%.

    5) Respirometry is a promising tool for quantitative degradation studies of bone, but more studies are needed in order to obtain a better understanding of the oxidation processes involved.

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