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Thread: New Archeology Papers (Titles and Abstracts Only, Please)

  1. #61
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    Modelling the end of the Acheulean at global and continental levels suggests widespread persistence into the Middle Palaeolithic

    Abstract
    The Acheulean is the longest cultural tradition ever practised by humans, lasting for over 1.5 million years. Yet, its end has never been accurately dated; only broad 300–150 thousand years ago (Kya) estimates exist. Here we use optimal linear estimation modelling to infer the extinction dates of the Acheulean at global and continental levels. In Africa and the Near East the Acheulean is demonstrated to end between 175 and 166 Kya. In Europe it is inferred to end between 141 and 130 Kya. The Acheulean’s extinction in Asia occurs later (57–53 Kya), while global models vary depending on how archaeological sites are selected (107–29 Kya). These models demonstrate the Acheulean to have remained a distinct cultural tradition long after the inception of Middle Palaeolithic technologies in multiple continental regions. The complexity of this scenario mirrors the increasingly dynamic nature of the Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record, suggesting contemporaneous hominin populations to have practised distinct stone-tool traditions.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41599-021-00735-8

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  3. #62
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    Human expansion in Europe at the MIS 12/11 transition: Iberian Peninsula

    Coping with arid environments: A critical threshold for human expansion in Europe at the Marine Isotope Stage 12/11 transition? The case of the Iberian Peninsula

    Hugues-Alexandre Blain, AnaFagoaga, Francisco Javier Ruiz-Sánchez, Paula García-Medrano, Andreu Ollé, Juan Manuel Jiménez-Arenas

    Highlights
    • Human settlement in southern Europe is related to rainfall and environmental humidity.

    • Before MIS 11, hominins occupied relatively humid wooded areas.

    • After MIS 11, hominins had the potential to be in more open arid environments.

    •The potential distribution for early hominins after 426 ka is much larger in Europe.

    •Mediterranean Europe was not always a suitable place for early hominins.


    Abstract
    Archaeological remains have highlighted the fact that the interglacial Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 was a threshold from the perspective of hominin evolution in Europe. After the MIS 12 glaciation, considered one of the major climate-driven crises experienced by hominins, the archaeological records show an increasing number of occupations, evidence of new subsistence behaviors, and significant technical innovations. Here, we used statistical and geographic techniques to analyze the amphibian- and reptile-based paleoclimate and habitat reconstructions generated from a large data set of the Iberian Peninsula to (1) investigate if temperature, precipitation, and/or forest cover may have impacted the hominin occupation of the territory during the Early and Middle Pleistocene, (2) propose an ‘Iberian’ ecological model before and after the MIS 12/11 transition, and (3) evaluate, based on this model, the potential hominin occupation at a European scale. The results indicate the existence of climatic constraints on human settlement related to rainfall and environmental humidity. The Early Pleistocene and the first half of the Middle Pleistocene are dominated by the occupation of relatively humid wooded areas, whereas during the second part of the Middle Pleistocene, a broadening of the earlier ecological niche is clearly observed toward the occupation of more open arid areas. Based on the estimated occupational niche for hominins, a maximum potential distribution for early hominins is proposed in Europe before and after 426 ka. Results also indicate that parts of the Iberian Peninsula may not have been suitable for early hominin occupation. Our ecological model is consistent with the pattern of hominin occupation observed in northern and central Europe, where the earliest evidence reflects only pioneering populations merely extending their ranges in response to the expansion of their preferred habitats, as compared with a more sustained occupation by 400 ka.
    YFull: YF14620 (Dante Labs 2018)

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  5. #63
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    Social and Cultural Dynamics in North Africa During the Holocene (special issue)

    Social and Cultural Dynamics in North Africa During the Holocene: An Introduction
    Giulio Lucarini & Jörg Linstädter
    African Archaeological Review volume 38, pages1–4(2021)


    This special issue of the African Archaeological Review originated from the 22-1 Session organized by the 25th ACSPT-UISPP Commission (Art and Civilisations in the Sahara During Prehistoric Times - Union Internationale des Sciences Préhistoriques et Protohistoriques) at the 18th UISPP World Congress, held in the Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (June 4–9, 2018) (Fig. 1). The ACSPT-UISPP Commission, founded in 1991 by Gabriel Camps and Eduardo Ripoll Perelló, is currently chaired by Barbara E. Barich. The commission’s primary aim is to advance knowledge about the ancient Saharan societies within their environmental contexts, from the Atlantic to the Red Sea. The commission provides an overview of the archaeological research carried out in this region and hosts meetings to circulate and exchange information on key issues such as Holocene climate and environment, cultural interactions, rock art, and the cognitive world.

    New Light on the Silent Millennia: Mediterranean Africa, ca. 4000–900 BC
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    The Scythians: Isotopic analysis of diet and mobility in Iron Age Ukraine

    Re-evaluating Scythian lifeways: Isotopic analysis of diet and mobility in Iron Age Ukraine
    A

    licia R. Ventresca Miller ,James Johnson,Sergey Makhortykh,Claudia Gerling,Ludmilla Litvinova,Svetlana Andrukh,Gennady Toschev,Jana Zech,Petrus le Roux,Cheryl Makarewicz,Nicole Boivin,Patrick Roberts

    Abstract
    The Scythians are frequently presented, in popular and academic thought alike, as highly mobile warrior nomads who posed a great economic risk to growing Mediterranean empires from the Iron Age into the Classical period. Archaeological studies provide evidence of first millennium BCE urbanism in the steppe while historical texts reference steppe agriculture, challenging traditional characterizations of Scythians as nomads. However, there have been few direct studies of the diet and mobility of populations living in the Pontic steppe and forest-steppe during the Scythian era. Here, we analyse strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotope data from human tooth enamel samples, as well as nitrogen and carbon isotope data of bone collagen, at several Iron Age sites across Ukraine commonly associated with ‘Scythian’ era communities. Our multi-isotopic approach demonstrates generally low levels of human mobility in the vicinity of urban locales, where populations engaged in agro-pastoralism focused primarily on millet agriculture. Some individuals show evidence for long-distance mobility, likely associated with significant inter-regional connections. We argue that this pattern supports economic diversity of urban locales and complex trading networks, rather than a homogeneous nomadic population.
    YFull: YF14620 (Dante Labs 2018)

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  9. #65
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    Quote Originally Posted by pmokeefe View Post
    Re-evaluating Scythian lifeways: Isotopic analysis of diet and mobility in Iron Age Ukraine
    A

    licia R. Ventresca Miller ,James Johnson,Sergey Makhortykh,Claudia Gerling,Ludmilla Litvinova,Svetlana Andrukh,Gennady Toschev,Jana Zech,Petrus le Roux,Cheryl Makarewicz,Nicole Boivin,Patrick Roberts

    Abstract
    The Scythians are frequently presented, in popular and academic thought alike, as highly mobile warrior nomads who posed a great economic risk to growing Mediterranean empires from the Iron Age into the Classical period. Archaeological studies provide evidence of first millennium BCE urbanism in the steppe while historical texts reference steppe agriculture, challenging traditional characterizations of Scythians as nomads. However, there have been few direct studies of the diet and mobility of populations living in the Pontic steppe and forest-steppe during the Scythian era. Here, we analyse strontium, oxygen, and carbon isotope data from human tooth enamel samples, as well as nitrogen and carbon isotope data of bone collagen, at several Iron Age sites across Ukraine commonly associated with ‘Scythian’ era communities. Our multi-isotopic approach demonstrates generally low levels of human mobility in the vicinity of urban locales, where populations engaged in agro-pastoralism focused primarily on millet agriculture. Some individuals show evidence for long-distance mobility, likely associated with significant inter-regional connections. We argue that this pattern supports economic diversity of urban locales and complex trading networks, rather than a homogeneous nomadic population.
    do you have anu informatoin about H.g this remains

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  11. #66
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    A revised, Last Interglacial chronology for a Middle Palaeolithic Iberian site

    A revised, Last Interglacial chronology for the Middle Palaeolithic sequence of Gruta da Oliveira (Almonda karst system, Torres Novas, Portugal)
    João Zilhão, Diego E.Angelucci, Lee J.Arnold, Martina Demuro, Dirk L. Hoffmann, Alistair W.G. Pike

    Highlights
    • High-resolution Middle Palaeolithic sequence of late Last Interglacial age.

    • Upper Palaeolithic-like pace of technological change across a Middle Palaeolithic sequence.

    • Occurrence of Vasconian cleavers and bifaces restricted to short interval at the end of MIS 5b.


    Abstract
    Based on previous radiocarbon and U-series (Diffusion/Adsorption) dating of bone samples, the Middle Palaeolithic has been thought to persist at Gruta da Oliveira until ∼37 thousand years (ka) ago. New U-series ages for stratigraphically constraining speleothems, coupled with new luminescence ages for sediment infill, show that the site’s ∼6 m-thick archaeological stratigraphy dates entirely within a <30 ka interval spanning substages 5a-5b of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5. Significant technological change is observed across the sequence, akin to that seen in the Upper Palaeolithic over similar timescales. Flake-cleavers and bifaces, normatively definitional of the Vasconian facies, are restricted to a short interval correlated with Greenland Stadial (GS) 22, 85.1–87.6 ka ago. In cave and rock-shelter sites of southern and western Iberia, intact archaeological deposits securely dated to the ∼37–42 ka interval remain elusive. Geological dynamics (e.g., erosion, sedimentation hiatuses, palimpsest formation) and human adaptive responses to climate-driven environmental change (e.g., abandonment of now forest-covered low- and mid-altitude karst areas, concentration of settlement in alluvial plains and coastal settings) are possible explanations for this pattern.
    YFull: YF14620 (Dante Labs 2018)

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