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Thread: My attempt at modelling of Native American Global 25 samples from Latin America.

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    Smile My attempt at modelling of Native American Global 25 samples from Latin America.

    It will be mainly about Mesoamerican, Amazonian, Andean and Southern Cone Native American groups. I will do Northern Amerindian groups in another post. These are the averages btw, not individual samples.

    Warning: the post will be very long, please have a patience looking at the results and give your opinions.

    -The CAN_400BP is an individual Native American sample from Canada.
    -Spirit_Cave individual is the oldest mummy in North America while Anzick is a Paleo-Indian infant sample from Montana, USA.
    -The Great Andamanese is utilized as a proxy to determine the Negrito affinity in some Amerindians (some Natives such as Amazonian tribes were founded to have Onge/Melanesian-like affinity).
    -MayahakCabPek is a 9300 year old Neolithic sample from Belize.
    -LapoDoSanto is an Early Neolithic sample from Brazil (almost Ice-Age)
    -Karitiana is utilize to represent Amazonian ancestry.
    -Andean components are represented by Aconcagua_500BP (before present) from precolonial Argentina, RioUncallane and Lauricocha from ancient Peru.
    -LosRieles are archaic (10900 years before present) samples from Central Chile
    -Ayayema is from Late Neolithic Patagonia in Chile- utilized as proxy for Patagonian-related ancestry
    -ArroyoSeco2 is a Neolithic sample from near Tres Arroyos in Argentina- maybe can represent Pampean affinity.

    Here are some Mesoamerican tribes (from Northern to Southern Mexico)


    The average result of the Pima tribe from SW USA/Northern Mexico (uncertain whether the samples are from US or Mexico) . Only 0.2% Iberian admixture. But keep in mind that these are the average, individual samples might varied in European admixture. 1% Negrito (Great Andamanese)-related affinity. Its interesting how the Pima seem to be able to modelled as a mix of Southwest US Amerindian (Chumash)+Northern Native (Can_400BP+Spirit_Cave)+Central American (MayahakCabPek), Amazonian (Karitiana) and Late Stone Age/Mesolithic Brazilian (Sumidouro). Also traceable amounts of 0.2% Papuan/Oceanic.

    Target: Pima
    Distance: 1.3060% / 0.01306024
    51.2 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    12.8 Karitiana
    12.4 CAN_400BP
    10.6 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    8.0 BRA_Sumidouro_10100BP
    3.6 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    1.0 IND_Great_Andamanese_100BP
    0.2 Papuan
    0.2 Spanish_Soria

    The average result of Pericues (only three individuals in G25), the precolonial Native American inhabitants of Baja California, Mexico who have been extinct since the 19th century: autosomally mostly Southwest US Native (Chumash) followed by Early Neolithic Brazilian (LapaDoSanto), prominent proportions of Central American (MayahakCabPek) and Northern Amerind (Spirit_Cave+CAN_400BP). The hilarious aspect is that they seem to also possessed 3.4% European admixture but I am unsure if it this "Euro" is actually ANE/archaic West Eurasian ancestry or actual Iberian admixture. Also miniscule Negrito and Papuan/Oceanic which could be noise or some type of unknown gene flow from South Asia/Melanesia.

    Target: MEX_Pericues
    Distance: 1.4762% / 0.01476179
    53.8 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    14.0 BRA_LapaDoSanto_9600BP
    13.2 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    11.2 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    3.6 CAN_400BP
    3.4 Spanish_Extremadura
    0.4 IND_Great_Andamanese_100BP
    0.4 Papuan

    Here is a Huichol individual (unfortunately only 1 sample in G25): Seems very genetically unique compared to most Amerindians in the region; having Spirit_Cave ancestry as the main component, also small amounts of Anzick and completely lack Southwest USA (Chumash) admixture. Zero European and 1% Negrito (Great Andamanese)-like affinity.

    Target: Huichol
    Distance: 1.3742% / 0.01374182
    44.2 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    38.6 BRA_LapaDoSanto_9600BP
    8.6 CAN_400BP
    7.6 USA_Anzick
    1.0 IND_Great_Andamanese_100BP

    Here is also a Nahua individual (like the Huichol, only one sample in G25) from Central Mexico: also mostly Southwest US (Chumash) with Northern Amerindian (CAN_400BP+Spirit_Cave)+Amazonian (Karitiana) and some Central American (MayahakCabPek) ancestry. Its weird how this Nahua, has lower Central American admixture than the Pima, who are located much further north. Also approximately 2.6% Euro.

    Target: Nahua
    Distance: 1.2075% / 0.01207522
    51.8 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    16.4 Karitiana
    13.4 CAN_400BP
    11.8 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    4.0 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    2.4 Spanish_Soria
    0.2 Spanish_Extremadura

    Here is the average Mixe from Central-Southern Mexico: a mix of Southwest USA (Chumash)+Early Neolithic Brazilian (LapaDoSanto)+Northern Amerindian (CAN_400BP+Spirit_Cave)+Central American (MayahakCabPek) and Amazonian (Karitiana) ancestry. Zero Iberian/European admixture.

    Target: Mixe
    Distance: 1.8627% / 0.01862704
    22.0 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    19.2 BRA_LapaDoSanto_9600BP
    19.2 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    15.0 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    14.2 Karitiana
    10.4 CAN_400BP

    The average Mixtec from Southern Mexico has similar autosomal profile to the Mixe, but much higher Early Neolithic Brazilian (LapaDoSanto) and much lower Amazonian (Karitiana) which is odd. Possesss 4% European and traceable Papuan/Oceanic but could be noise.

    Target: Mixtec
    Distance: 1.1135% / 0.01113511
    33.6 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    32.6 BRA_LapaDoSanto_9600BP
    20.2 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    6.6 Karitiana
    2.4 CAN_400BP
    2.2 Spanish_Soria
    1.8 Spanish_Extremadura

    0.6 Papuan

    The average Zapotec result from Southern Mexico: higher Neolithic Brazilian but lower Southwest US Native, notable amount of Central American, low Amazonian and minor Mesolithic Brazilian and Northern Amerindian. Also around 3.6% European and 1% Negrito-related admixture.

    Target: Zapotec
    Distance: 1.2985% / 0.01298486
    29.8 BRA_LapaDoSanto_9600BP
    22.8 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    21.8 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    13.6 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    4.8 Karitiana
    3.6 Spanish_Extremadura
    1.6 BRA_Sumidouro_10100BP
    1.0 CAN_400BP
    1.0 IND_Great_Andamanese_100BP

    The average Mayan result from Guatemala: similar case to Pima and Nahua in being dominated by the Southwest US Native (Chumash) and Amazonian (Karitiana) but much lower Northern Amerindian (Spirit_Cave+barely traceable CAN_400BP). What's peculiar is that the Central American (MayahakCabPek) is very low when one would expected it to be the main ancestral component of the Mayans. Also noteworthy proportions of Mesolithic Brazilian (Sumidouro) and some Early Neolithic Brazilian (LapoDoSanto). Anyway, has around 4.2% European.

    Target: Mayan
    Distance: 0.8963% / 0.00896288
    37.0 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    20.2 Karitiana
    14.2 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    10.4 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    10.2 BRA_Sumidouro_10100BP
    4.2 Spanish_Extremadura
    3.6 BRA_LapaDoSanto_9600BP
    0.2 CAN_400BP

    Next, I will post Caribbean and Northern South American/Amazonian Natives.


    A Taino individual from pre-Hispanic Puerto Rico (once again, only one sample in G25 unfortunately): seem to be mostly Amazonian with significant Central American, lower Southwest US Native and Northern Amerindian. Also demonstrates negligible amounts of African which could be noise or some archaic unknown admixture.

    Target: BHS_Taino
    Distance: 1.6415% / 0.01641507
    61.6 Karitiana
    20.0 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    10.6 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    7.2 USA_Anzick
    0.6 Esan_Nigeria

    Precolonial Native Americans from Puerto Rico during Ceramic Age (don't know their ethnicity/tribe but is possibly the ancestors of the Carib and Taino): Mostly Amazonian with significant Central American, Early Neolithic Brazilian, smaller amounts of Southwest US Native and minor Mesolithic Brazilian. Also traceable African which could be noise or some unknown archaic admixture.

    Target: BHS_Ceramic
    Distance: 0.6930% / 0.00692971
    48.8 Karitiana
    26.0 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    15.2 BRA_LapaDoSanto_9600BP
    8.0 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    1.4 BRA_Sumidouro_10100BP
    0.4 Esan_Nigeria
    0.2 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP

    Precolonial Amerindians from Dominican Republic during Ceramic Age (probably the ancestors of the Carib and Taino): slightly more Amazonian than the Puerto Rican Ceramic (BHS_Ceramic) individuals, lower Central American, Early Neolithic Brazilian, but higher Northern Amerindian and even lower Southwest US Native ancestry. Negligible amount of Mesolithic Brazilian, African and Papuan/Oceanic (the latter two is possibly some archaic admixture or unknown link with Melanesia).

    Target: DOM_southeast_Ceramic
    Distance: 0.8535% / 0.00853495
    51.6 Karitiana
    19.8 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    13.8 BRA_LapaDoSanto_9600BP
    9.4 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    3.6 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    1.0 BRA_Sumidouro_10100BP
    0.6 Esan_Nigeria
    0.2 Papuan

    Piapoco Amerindians from the Amazon area of Colombia: genetically almost identical to the Taino individual but possessed Northern Amerindian and lower Southwest US Native unlike the latter. Also miniscule African affinity which again, could be just archaic admixture or noise.

    Target: Piapoco
    Distance: 1.0566% / 0.01056626
    62.8 Karitiana
    20.4 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    11.0 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    5.4 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    0.4 Esan_Nigeria

    Lonely Yukpa sample (only one individual in G25) from Northern South America (don't know whether it is from Colombia or Venezuela): predominantly Amazonian but very substantial Southwest US Native-related admixture and low Central American. The individual shows negligible signals of Papuan which would be noise or archaic link with Oceania. 0.4% Euro which could be authentic Iberian admixture or just noise.

    Target: Yukpa
    Distance: 1.7506% / 0.01750582
    63.6 Karitiana
    29.0 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    6.4 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    0.6 Papuan
    0.4 Spanish_Extremadura

    Average Surui from Brazil's Amazon: pure Amazonian (literally 100% identical to the Karitiana).

    Target: Surui
    Distance: 1.9183% / 0.01918270
    100.0 Karitiana

    The average result of the Cachi/Chachi, a Native American rainforest dwelling tribe from Northern coast of Ecuador: a mix of Andean (RioUncallane+Aconcagua)+Amazonian (Karitiana)+Mesolithic Brazilian (Sumidouro)+Pampean (ArroyoSeco) and minor Central American (MayahakCabPek) ancestries. Have 4.2% Euro and almost negligible African (which could be noise, archaic admix or actual ancestry if there were African runaway slaves in Ecuador) and Papuan.

    Target: Cachi
    Distance: 0.7122% / 0.00712170
    44.2 PER_RioUncallane_1800BP
    22.8 Karitiana
    8.2 ARG_Aconcagua_500BP
    8.2 ARG_ArroyoSeco2_7700BP
    7.8 BRA_Sumidouro_10100BP
    4.2 Spanish_Extremadura
    3.8 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    0.6 Esan_Nigeria
    0.2 Papuan

    In the next section, it will be Andean Native Americans.


    The average Quechua result from Peru: mostly Andean (Aconcagua+RioUncallane+Lauricocha) with Amazonian, Southwest US Native-related ancestry. Has 9.6% European which is one of the highest among the Latin American Native samples in G25. Negligible African which could be from slave ancestry or come from the Iberian admixture (Spaniards has very tiny SSA/North African-like affinity) and Papuan (could be noise or some archaic admixture/link).

    Target: Quechua
    Distance: 0.7741% / 0.00774056
    29.6 ARG_Aconcagua_500BP
    20.0 Karitiana
    16.0 PER_RioUncallane_1800BP
    14.4 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    9.8 PER_Lauricocha_8600BP
    5.0 Spanish_Extremadura
    4.6 Spanish_Soria
    0.4 Esan_Nigeria
    0.2 Papuan

    Average result of three Bolivians from La Paz (could be Aymara): predominantly Andean (RioUncallane+Aconcagua) with notable amounts of Pampean (ArroyoSeco). Around 2.6% Euro and negligible Amazonian (surprising because the Quechua from Peru shows good proportions of Amazonian-like admixture).

    Target: Bolivian_LaPaz
    Distance: 1.2349% / 0.01234893
    54.4 PER_RioUncallane_1800BP
    30.0 ARG_Aconcagua_500BP
    12.4 ARG_ArroyoSeco2_7700BP
    2.6 Spanish_Extremadura
    0.6 Karitiana

    Lonely Bolivian result from Cochabamba (could be Aymara or Quechua, don't know): a mix of Andean, significant Amazonian and Mesolithic Brazilian. Also negligible African (possibly actual slave ancestry or comes from Iberian admixture) and Papuan (archaic admix/ancient link with Oceania).

    Target: Bolivian_Cochabamba
    Distance: 1.5733% / 0.01573301
    56.8 PER_RioUncallane_1800BP
    21.2 Karitiana
    12.8 BRA_Sumidouro_10100BP
    7.8 Spanish_Extremadura
    0.8 Esan_Nigeria
    0.6 Papuan

    Average result of Bolivians from Pando (not sure the ethnicity), the Amazonian far north region of the country: Almost purely Andean with some Northern Amerindian (Spirit_Cave). Its really weird how these samples despite being from the Amazon, doesn't show any Karitiana admixture. Maybe they are recent migrants to the region from the Andes. Approximately 11% Euro which is the highest among the Latin American Native G25 samples. 0.8% African which could come from Iberian ancestry (since Spaniards already have minor SSA/North African-like affinity) or actual slave admixture.

    Target: Bolivian_Pando
    Distance: 0.9458% / 0.00945823
    46.4 ARG_Aconcagua_500BP
    37.6 PER_RioUncallane_1800BP
    10.8 Spanish_Extremadura
    4.4 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    0.8 Esan_Nigeria

    Aymara individual (only one sample in G25); not sure if it is from Southern Peru/Bolivia or Northern Chile: a mix of Andean+Araucanian (LosRieles)+Pampean (ArroyoSeco), has lower Amazonian than the average Quechua result and minor Central American. 0.6% Euro and no African.

    Target: Aymara
    Distance: 1.4232% / 0.01423195
    37.0 PER_RioUncallane_1800BP
    19.0 CHL_LosRieles_10900BP
    18.2 ARG_Aconcagua_500BP
    17.8 Karitiana
    5.2 ARG_ArroyoSeco2_7700BP
    2.2 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    0.6 Spanish_Soria

    The average Colla result from Andean region of Northwest Argentina: mostly Andean with notable Patagonian (Ayayema), much lower Amazonian than Quechua and Aymara, minor Mesolithic Brazilian and Southwest US Native. Has almost 4% Euro and almost zero African (could be noise or some spilling from Iberian admixture).

    Target: Colla
    Distance: 1.0504% / 0.01050414
    46.0 ARG_Aconcagua_500BP
    23.0 PER_RioUncallane_1800BP
    10.6 CHL_Ayayema_5100BP
    9.4 Karitiana
    3.8 BRA_Sumidouro_10100BP
    3.8 Spanish_Soria
    3.2 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    0.2 Esan_Nigeria

    In the last section, here are Native Americans from the Pampas and Patagonia.


    The average result of Wichi tribe from Northern Argentina: a hybrid of Amazonian, Andean (Aconcagua+Lauricocha+RioUncallane) and Patagonian (Ayayema) ancestries. No Euro or African. Its peculiar how there is zero Pampean (ArroyoSeco) despite being from the Pampas region.

    Target: Wichi
    Distance: 1.0896% / 0.01089573
    37.2 Karitiana
    25.2 ARG_Aconcagua_500BP
    14.6 PER_Lauricocha_8600BP
    13.8 CHL_Ayayema_5100BP
    9.2 PER_RioUncallane_1800BP

    The average of two Kaweskar individuals from Chilean Patagonia: a hybrid of Northern Amerindian (Spirit_Cave+Anzick)+Andean (RioUncallane+Aconcagua)+Amazonian and minor Pampean (ArroyoSeco), Patagonian (Ayayema), Mesolithic Brazilian. Very strange how they hardly score Patagonian (Ayayema) ancestry. Traceable Negrito and Papuan which is noise level or archaic admixture/link to Oceania/South Asia.

    Target: CHL_Kaweskar_1000BP
    Distance: 1.2860% / 0.01286022
    29.2 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    28.0 PER_RioUncallane_1800BP
    18.0 Karitiana
    9.2 ARG_Aconcagua_500BP
    9.0 USA_Anzick
    2.8 ARG_ArroyoSeco2_7700BP
    1.4 CHL_Ayayema_5100BP
    1.2 BRA_Sumidouro_10100BP
    0.6 IND_Great_Andamanese_100BP
    0.6 Papuan

    The average result of two Yamana/Yaghans from Chilean Patagonia: a mixture of Andean+Northern Native (Anzick+Spirit_Cave)+Central American+Southwest US Native. Also no Patagonian ancestry which is strange. 0.2% African which could be noise or some archaic affinity.

    Target: CHL_Yamana_1000BP
    Distance: 1.3191% / 0.01319138
    53.2 PER_RioUncallane_1800BP
    14.6 USA_Anzick
    11.4 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    10.2 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    9.4 USA_Island_Chumash_SanCruz
    1.0 ARG_Aconcagua_500BP
    0.2 Esan_Nigeria

    Average result of two unknown individuals (don't know the tribal affiliation) from Chilean Patagonia: a mix of Pampean (ArroyoSeco)+Andean+Araucanian (LosRieles)+low Northern Amerindian. 1.6% Negrito and minor African and European which could be noise or archaic admixture/affinity to South Asia.

    Target: CHL_Fuego_Patagonian
    Distance: 2.3256% / 0.02325648
    34.0 ARG_ArroyoSeco2_7700BP
    32.8 ARG_Aconcagua_500BP
    22.8 CHL_LosRieles_10900BP
    6.2 USA_Spirit_Cave_11000BP
    2.2 CAN_400BP
    1.6 IND_Great_Andamanese_100BP
    0.2 Esan_Nigeria
    0.2 Spanish_Extremadura

    Lastly, the average result of four unknown individuals (don't know their ethnic or tribal affiliation) from the southernmost tip of Argentina: a peculiar mixture of Andean (RioUnCallane)+Central American (MayahakCabPek)+Neolithic Brazilian (LapaDoSanto)+Patagonian (Ayayema)+Amazonian and minor Northern Native (CAN_400BP) ancestry. Also minor signals of African and Papuan but very likely just noise. Very strange how the Patagonian ancestry is lower than the Andean, Central American and Neolithic Brazilian. Also noise levels of African and Papuan which could be noise or archaic affinity.

    Target: ARG_Fuego_Patagonian
    Distance: 1.1085% / 0.01108481
    32.2 PER_RioUncallane_1800BP
    21.0 BLZ_MayahakCabPek_9300BP
    16.4 BRA_LapaDoSanto_9600BP
    13.4 CHL_Ayayema_5100BP
    9.4 Karitiana
    3.8 BRA_Sumidouro_10100BP
    3.4 CAN_400BP
    0.2 Esan_Nigeria
    0.2 Papuan

    Thoughts?? Sorry for the very long post but please take a patience inspecting them.

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