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Thread: Bronze Age genomes from Tollense Valley - Burger et al. 2020

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    Bronze Age genomes from Tollense Valley - Burger et al. 2020

    I'm pleasantly surprised with the quality of this sample. TMRCA for the clade Y3672 is ~3400 years (1400 BC), and samples from Tollense battlefield are dated ~1300-1200 BC.


    WEZ15; 1300-1200 BC; Tollense Valley, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; Germany_LBA; I2-M223>Y3670>L1229>Z2069>Z2059>Z2068>Y3672


    Y3670 level: Y6749+ C>A (1A); Z26359+ C>T (1T); Y4189/FGC15074+ C>T (1T); FGC7985/Z2072+ G>C (3C); Z2082+ G>C (1C); Y6748+ T>C (1C)

    L1229 level: FGC15087/Y6750+ A>G (1G); S16895+ A>T (1T); S16694+ C>T (1T); FGC15086/Y4747+ C>G (1G); S4893/CTS3796/Z2081+ G>A (1A); Z2100+ G>A (1A)

    Z2069 level: *no calls*

    Z2059 level: *no calls*

    Z2068 level: *no calls*

    Y3672 level: Y3682/FGC15092+ A>C (1C); Z2054+ C>T (2T)

    Y3672>Y7244 level: Y7541- T>C (1T)

    Y3672>Y9443 level: *no calls*

    Y3672>FGC15109 level: *no calls*

    Y3672>FGC15109>BY138 level: *no calls*

    Y3672>FGC15109>Y4332 level: FGC15105- A>T (1A); Y4337/FGC15107- A>G (1A); BY211716- C>G (1C)
    Last edited by Pribislav; 09-06-2020 at 06:50 PM.

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    Looks like the relatives of WEZ15 survived in a mostly Celto-Germanic context, probably rather Celtic than Germanic. Would be interesting to check that for all samples where possible and probably connect it to the autosomal profile and associated weapons and equipment. I'm rather disappointed by the recent Tollense article, the insufficient references, lack of ethnic differentiation and contextual interpretation. I hope for more to come, but the yDNA might pave a way to further interpretation.
    Last edited by Riverman; 09-06-2020 at 05:14 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Riverman View Post
    Looks like the relatives of WEZ15 survived in a mostly Celto-Germanic context, probably rather Celtic than Germanic. Would be interesting to check that for all samples where possible and probably connect it to the autosomal profile and associated weapons and equipment. I'm rather disappointed by the recent Tollense article, the insufficient references, ethnic differntiation and lack of contextual interpretation. I hope for more to come, but the yDNA might pave a way to further interpretation.
    Hopefully Pribislav can continue looking through these genomes. The older articles suggested some of the warriors were not local, so a more southern origin in west-central Europe is quite likely.
    YDNA: R1b-BY50830 Stepney, London, UK George Wood b. 1782 English <-> Bavarian cluster
    maternal-gf YDNA: ?? Gurr, James ~1740, Smarden, Kent, England.
    maternal-gm YDNA: R1b-P311+ Beech, John Richard b. 1780, Lewes, England
    maternal-ggf YDNA R1b-U106 Thomas, Edward b 1854, Sittingbourne, Kent
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-Z17901. Gould, John Somerset England 1800s.
    paternal-ggf YDNA: R1b-L48. Scott, William Hamilton Ireland(?) 1800s

    other:
    Welch: early 1800s E-M84 Kent, England.

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    Quote Originally Posted by ADW_1981 View Post
    Hopefully Pribislav can continue looking through these genomes. The older articles suggested some of the warriors were not local, so a more southern origin in west-central Europe is quite likely.
    Its also the equipment and weapons found, because it seems, at least that's one possible intepretation, that one general draft and tribal contingent fought a more mixed bunch of which a larger portion might have been better equipped, even more professional warriors. The better equipped party went into a trap at a narrow path or crossing of the Tollense and was brought in disarray by heavy volleys of arrows, of which many were rather primitive for the time, but did their job, so coming from the more tribal contingent. Would be interesting whether one could find differences based on that between the bodies - like those with more elaborated, probably somewhat more Southern gear vs. more simple tribal warriors.

    Many of the bodies were robbed of their equipment, but some were not, because they were hidden under water level soon after their death. Those are the most interesting ones, first because of their more complete equipment as such, secondly because many of the winning parties victims might have been taken away and buried at another place. If somebody knows whether we have data from one of these, this would be particularly interesting, because they died and were left alone with the equipment they had on their body at the time of their death. Some even had a primitive form of money and kind of a purse. Like knights on campaign thousands of years later. This was a very rare find, but I think it might have been more common than most people realise - just not included in the regular burial all too often.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Riverman View Post
    Those are the most interesting ones, first because of their more complete equipment as such, secondly because many of the winning parties victims might have been taken away and buried at another place. If somebody knows whether we have data from one of these, this would be particularly interesting, because they died and were left alone with the equipment they had on their body at the time of their death.


    Maybe the “winners” who recovered their dead practiced cremation?
    Last edited by Dewsloth; 09-06-2020 at 05:52 PM.
    R1b>M269>L23>L51>L11>P312>DF19>DF88>FGC11833 >S4281>S4268>Z17112>BY44243

    Ancestors: Francis Cooke (M223/I2a2a) b1583; Hester Mahieu (Cooke) (J1c2 mtDNA) b.1584; Richard Warren (E-M35) b1578; Elizabeth Walker (Warren) (H1j mtDNA) b1583;
    John Mead (I2a1/P37.2) b1634; Rev. Joseph Hull (I1, L1301+ L1302-) b1595; Benjamin Harrington (M223/I2a2a-Y5729) b1618; Joshua Griffith (L21>DF13) b1593;
    John Wing (U106) b1584; Thomas Gunn (DF19) b1605; Hermann Wilhelm (DF19) b1635

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    Quote Originally Posted by Dewsloth View Post
    Maybe the “winners” who recovered their dead practiced cremation?
    I don't know, I'm not even sure to which cultural formation they can be attributed with any certainty. But whatever the case, some of the equipment found is generally rare, because even in cases of inhumation, it was no regular grave good. Like we found at "Oetzi" equipment too which is not all to common in burials and would not have have remained intact under different circumstances anyway. This is similar in a way, because only such deads which were not robbed or "properly" buried got some of the equipment.

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    I somehow missed it the first time, but Balto-Slavic-like sample WEZ56 indeed has one derived call at Z283 level. Nothing derived below Z283 though, and only a few notable negatives.

    WEZ56; 1300-1200 BC; 1300-1200 BC; Tollense Valley, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; Germany_LBA; R1a-Z283 (xM458,Z92,YP340)


    M459 level: CTS11706+ A>T (1T); M602+ C>T (1T); M754/CTS10042/PF6207+ C>T (1T)

    M198 level: L168+ A>G (1G); CTS3004/M669+ C>T (1T); M747/CTS9690+ C>G (1G); F3337+ G>A (1A); CTS2891/M664+ T>C (1C)

    M417 level: *no calls*

    Z645 level: *no calls*

    Z283 level: Z662/CTS11197/PF6225+ C>A (1A)

    Z282 level: *no calls*

    Z282>PF6155>M458 level: M458/PF6241- A>G (19A)

    Z282>Y2395>Z284 level: *no calls*

    Z282>Z280>S24902 level: *no calls*

    Z282>Z280>Z92 level: Z660/S344/CTS91- T>G (1T)

    Z282>Z280>CTS1211 level: *no calls*

    Z282>Z280>CTS1211>YP343>YP340 level: FGC2563/YP653- G>A (1G); FGC2594/M12460/Y4017- T>C (1T)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Pribislav View Post
    I somehow missed it the first time, but Balto-Slavic-like sample WEZ56 indeed has one derived call at Z283 level. Nothing derived below Z283 though, and only a few notable negatives.

    WEZ56; 1300-1200 BC; 1300-1200 BC; Tollense Valley, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; Germany_LBA; R1a-Z283 (xM458,Z92,YP340)


    M459 level: CTS11706+ A>T (1T); M602+ C>T (1T); M754/CTS10042/PF6207+ C>T (1T)

    M198 level: L168+ A>G (1G); CTS3004/M669+ C>T (1T); M747/CTS9690+ C>G (1G); F3337+ G>A (1A); CTS2891/M664+ T>C (1C)

    M417 level: *no calls*

    Z645 level: *no calls*

    Z283 level: Z662/CTS11197/PF6225+ C>A (1A)

    Z282 level: *no calls*

    Z282>PF6155>M458 level: M458/PF6241- A>G (19A)

    Z282>Y2395>Z284 level: *no calls*

    Z282>Z280>S24902 level: *no calls*

    Z282>Z280>Z92 level: Z660/S344/CTS91- T>G (1T)

    Z282>Z280>CTS1211 level: *no calls*

    Z282>Z280>CTS1211>YP343>YP340 level: FGC2563/YP653- G>A (1G); FGC2594/M12460/Y4017- T>C (1T)
    Do you know something about the samples archaeological context? I couldn't find a resource on that.

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    WEZ35; 1300-1200 BC; 1300-1200 BC; Tollense Valley, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; Germany_LBA; R1b-P312


    M269 level: M269/PF6517/MF53029+ T>C (7C); L777/YSC0000248+ T>C (1C); PF6461/FGC43/CTS4608+ T>C (1C)

    L23 level: PF6404+ T>C (1C)

    Z2103 level: CTS7340/Z2107- T>C (1T)

    L51 level: *no calls*

    L51>Z2118 level: Z2119/CTS7153- G>C (1G)

    L51>L52 level: *no calls*

    L51>L52>L151 level: *no calls*

    L51>L52>L151>U106 level: U106/S21/M405- C>T (4C)

    L51>L52>L151>P312 level: P312/S116/PF6547/MF52579+ C>A (10A)

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    Quote Originally Posted by Pribislav View Post
    WEZ15; 1300-1200 BC; Tollense Valley, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; Germany_LBA; I2-M223>Y3670>L1229>Z2069>Z2059>Z2068>Y3672
    Regarding WEZ15, I found in my Ancient I2 spreadsheet that one of the Langobard samples from Hungary (SZ43) has been reported by someone as Y3672>Y9443>L812, so I checked his Y-calls since he is shotgun sequenced to exceptional depth (~14,5). And it turns out he doesn't belong to Y9443, but to parallel subclade Y3672>FGC15109>BY138*. He has all SNPs from downstream subclades covered (both from YFull and FTDNA block tree), and all are ancestral. He's been submitted to YFull, so he might form new clade with one of the existing modern BY138* individuals.

    Whether subclade Y3672 is of local (post-Unetice?) origin, or of more western proto-Celtic origin, it seems it has been assimilated by Early Germanic tribes from Jastorf culture. Langobard homeland is just a little bit southwest of Tollense Valley.



    SZ43; 600-650 AD; Szolad; Hungary; Langobard; I2a2a1a2a1a-Y3672>FGC15109>BY138*


    Y3672 level: Y3682/FGC15092+ A>C (7C); Z2054+ C>T (10T); FGC15095/Y4717+ C>T (9T-1C); FGC15091/Y3672+ G>T (4T-5G); FGC15085/Y4185+ G>A (5A); FGC15097/Y3673+ G>A (9A); FGC15098/Y3675+ G>A (7A-1G)

    FGC15109 level: FGC15109+ G>A (10A)

    BY138 level: BY138+ A>T (7T); FT84416+ A>T (9T)
    Last edited by Pribislav; 09-07-2020 at 11:30 PM.

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