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    The mixed genetic origin of the first farmers of Europe

    Quote Originally Posted by teepean47 View Post
    The mixed genetic origin of the first farmers of Europe (preprint)

    Abstract
    While the Neolithic expansion in Europe is well described archaeologically, the genetic origins of European first farmers and their affinities with local hunter-gatherers (HGs) remain unclear. To infer the demographic history of these populations, the genomes of 15 ancient individuals located between Western Anatolia and Southern Germany were sequenced to high quality, allowing us to perform population genomics analyses formerly restricted to modern genomes. We find that all European and Anatolian early farmers descend from the merging of a European and a Near Eastern group of HGs, possibly in the Near East, shortly after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Western and Southeastern European HG are shown to split during the LGM, and share signals of a very strong LGM bottleneck that drastically reduced their genetic diversity. Early Neolithic Central Anatolians seem only indirectly related to ancestors of European farmers, who probably originated in the Near East and dispersed later on from the Aegean along the Danubian corridor following a stepwise demic process with only limited (2-6%) but additive input from local HGs. Our analyses provide a time frame and resolve the genetic origins of early European farmers. They highlight the impact of Late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations that caused the fragmentation, merging and reexpansion of human populations in SW Asia and Europe, and eventually led to the world's first agricultural populations.

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...3.394502v1?ct=
    I think this deserves a thread of its own. There are a number of bold statements in this paper. For instance this:

    Finally, we investigated the relationship between two western European HGs from Bichon and Loschbour and our newly-sequenced Mesolithic individuals from Serbia. We find that Bichon and Loschbour have a common ancestor branching off the centralHG ancestral population 23.3 kya (95% CI 23.3-20.0) (Fig.S47c, S48, Supp. Table 4), and that they diverged from each other soon after this split. In contrast, the Danube Gorges Mesolithic population from Vlasac diverged from the centralHG group relatively late about 10.2 kya (95% CI 9.0-21.3) and remained well isolated afterwards with very little later admixture (<1%) (Fig.S31, Supp. Table 4). Altogether, this suggests that the LGM led to a fragmentation of HG populations in SW Asia and Europe with at least four genetically distinct groups: one related to Loschbour and Bichon (called west,subdividedinto west1and west2,based on the old divergence between Loschbour and Bichon branches), one related to the Danube GorgesMesolithic samples (central), another one that later received the massive Central HG introgression (east1then 206admixed), and a last one potentially further East (east2) relatted to WC1
    Last edited by epoch; 11-24-2020 at 07:14 PM.

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    I found two dissertations that use the same samples and whose authors are part of the team that created the study.

    Palaeogenomic and Biostatistical Analysis of
    Ancient DNA Data from Mesolithic and
    Neolithic Skeletal Remains


    https://d-nb.info/113609640X/34

    Genetic variation related to the adaptation of
    humans to an agriculturalist lifestyle


    https://d-nb.info/1209245647/34

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    So this whole time we thought the Bichon type (west) was widespread throughout Western, Central, and Southern Europe but instead South East Europe had another type of HG which would contribute a large portion of ancestry of the eventual EEF (early European farmers). Amazing. How was this not known earlier?

    What was the most southeastern HG in Europe before this? I thought we had hungary and maybe serbia. We also had Sicily which was the typical WHG, Bichon, type? I was always bothered with statements regarding the spread of the neolithic into the southern balkans since we didnt have mesolithic samples from there.

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    Quote Originally Posted by pnuadha View Post
    So this whole time we thought the Bichon type (west) was widespread throughout Western, Central, and Southern Europe but instead South East Europe had another type of HG which would contribute a large portion of ancestry of the eventual EEF (early European farmers). Amazing. How was this not known earlier?

    What was the most southeastern HG in Europe before this? I thought we had hungary and maybe serbia. We also had Sicily which was the typical WHG, Bichon, type? I was always bothered with statements regarding the spread of the neolithic into the southern balkans since we didnt have mesolithic samples from there.
    I have always thought this because of the Neolithic samples from the Iberian Peninsula which are different from the early Neolithics in central Europe and Anatolia.
    They are neither Bichon nor Anatolian farmer.
    Their origin seemed to come between the two.
    Unfortunately, we have not yet found a Mesolithic resembling them ...

    As for ANE and Eurasian basal, are notions "invented".
    Who may have existed but in such a very ancient time that I don't see why we speak of them to describe populations after the last ice age!
    Y haplogroup: R1b: L21 --> DF13 --> BY145002
    The oldest L21 known are I2457 et I2565 from Stonehenge (Beaker Culture, 2400-1900 BC)

    MTDNA: U4c1
    The oldest U4c1 known are "poz224", Yamnaya culture (2882-2698 BC), and 2 Bell-Beaker in Germany (Karsdorf, 2314-2042 BC)

    Paternal MTDNA: K1b2b
    The oldest K1b2 are Eastern European Mesolithic: Kunda Donkalnis5 (Lithuania), 6000 BC and Meso-Ene Lepenski Vir Lepe28 in Serbia, 5900 BC.
    The oldest K1b2b is Alt-3, Corded-Ware Germany (2500 BC)

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    EcHj373U8AAYT91.png

    That is the admixture chart of the recent fatyanovo paper so everyone can make a comparison with the one we are talking about

    Blu color is WHG

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    Quote Originally Posted by Tolan View Post
    I have always thought this because of the Neolithic samples from the Iberian Peninsula which are different from the early Neolithics in central Europe and Anatolia.
    They are neither Bichon nor Anatolian farmer.
    Their origin seemed to come between the two.
    Unfortunately, we have not yet found a Mesolithic resembling them ...

    As for ANE and Eurasian basal, are notions "invented".
    Who may have existed but in such a very ancient time that I don't see why we speak of them to describe populations after the last ice age!
    I think you are pushing it too far. I do not know about Basal but ANE is a living component of billions of people around the world from native americans to southern asians and obviously of european too.
    Its presence helps explain how CHG, Iran Neolithic and obviously EHG came to be.

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    I found two dissertations that use the same samples and whose authors are part of the team that created the study.

    Palaeogenomic and Biostatistical Analysis of
    Ancient DNA Data from Mesolithic and
    Neolithic Skeletal Remains


    https://d-nb.info/113609640X/34

    Genetic variation related to the adaptation of
    humans to an agriculturalist lifestyle


    https://d-nb.info/1209245647/34
    In the second Paper they sequenced several new EHGs from Minimo, Russia. Very interesting. All of them have the allele derived in the SLC24a5 gene, one of those responsible for fair skin.

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    Quote Originally Posted by madaleninha View Post
    In the second Paper they sequenced several new EHGs from Minimo, Russia. Very interesting. All of them have the allele derived in the SLC24a5 gene, one of those responsible for fair skin.
    These minino samples, judging by the archeology, are approximately from a similar culture as PES001. MtDNA they also have the same U4a1. Logically, they should be R1a-YP1272. On the other hand, according to the PCA on page 30, the minino samples are almost identical to the Lesnik Cav 2 sample from the Crimea Ukraine HG.

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    Quote Originally Posted by madaleninha View Post
    In the second Paper they sequenced several new EHGs from Minimo, Russia. Very interesting. All of them have the allele derived in the SLC24a5 gene, one of those responsible for fair skin.
    The Lec2 sample is interesting as well. It's from the Crimea, either late Paleolithic or early Mesolithic. The Buran Kaya paper the first layer in the cave coming after the LGM was assigned to the Swiderian. Lec2 appears to have less ANE than other EHG samples.

    So maybe the Swiderian could have played an important role the formation of the EHG component.
    Last edited by epoch; 11-25-2020 at 02:25 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by epoch View Post
    The Lec3 sample is interesting as well. It's from the Crimea, either late Paleolithic or early Mesolithic. The Buran Kaya paper the first layer in the cave coming after the LGM was assigned to the Swiderian. Lec2 appears to have less ANE than other EHG samples.

    So maybe the Swiderian could have played an important role the formation of the EHG component.
    There is a monumental degree of confusion in the way they use the colors. The orange color is used as

    EHG admixture in Ukraine Mesolithic; as ANE in the Minimo samples and mindblowingly as a proxy for Yamnaya ancestry in the Welzin samples. But Yamnaya is a more complex population overpacked with CHG and also a tad green (EEF)
    So according to them LBA northern Germany was 1/3 ANE 1/3 WHG and 1/3 EEF?
    Last edited by etrusco; 11-25-2020 at 08:45 AM.

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