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Thread: Steppe mtDNA in Pakistan

  1. #1
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    Steppe mtDNA in Pakistan

    A brand new paper on Pakistani mtDNA.

    However, it seems mostly behind a paywall, unfortunately.

    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41431-021-00829-6

    To elucidate whether Bronze Age population dispersals from the Eurasian Steppe to South Asia contributed to the gene pool of Indo-Iranian-speaking groups, we analyzed 19,568 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from northern Pakistani and surrounding populations, including 213 newly generated mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from Iranian and Dardic groups, both speakers from the ancient Indo-Iranian branch in northern Pakistan. Our results showed that 23% of mtDNA lineages with west Eurasian origin arose in situ in northern Pakistan since ~5000 years ago (kya), a time depth very close to the documented Indo-European dispersals into South Asia during the Bronze Age. Together with ancient mitogenomes from western Eurasia since the Neolithic, we identified five haplogroups (~8.4% of maternal gene pool) with roots in the Steppe region and subbranches arising (age ~5–2 kya old) in northern Pakistan as genetic legacies of Indo-Iranian speakers. Some of these haplogroups, such as W3a1b that have been found in the ancient samples from the late Bronze Age to the Iron Age period individuals of Swat Valley northern Pakistan, even have sub-lineages (age ~4 kya old) in the southern subcontinent, consistent with the southward spread of Indo-Iranian languages. By showing that substantial genetic components of Indo-Iranian speakers in northern Pakistan can be traced to Bronze Age in the Steppe region, our study suggests a demographic link with the spread of Indo-Iranian languages, and further highlights the corridor role of northern Pakistan in the southward dispersal of Indo-Iranian-speaking groups.

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    Interesting...Significantly lower proportion of Steppe admixture on the Y chromosome in ancient Swat valley too, so that it would be women's that migrated first ?

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    The study reports 23% W. Eurasian mtDNA (with an approx. 16%-to-8% division between Turanian agriculturalist and MLBA steppe respectively).

    It would be interesting to determine which of these mt lines appear to show a general persistence from the IA period onwards.

    Quote Originally Posted by Zee View Post
    Interesting...Significantly lower proportion of Steppe admixture on the Y chromosome in ancient Swat valley too, [COLOR="#0000FF"]so that it would be women's that migrated first ?
    There's ongoing discussion regarding what may have happened, there.

    The MLBA steppe-related ancestry in Swat_IA appears to have been mediated via the maternal line (based on the over-representation of such auDNA on the X chromosome IIRC).

    This remains my proposal.

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    In terms of burial, Hindus of Kalat (Balochistan) seem to be practicing sitting burials rather than cremation. Not sure how ancient this practice is.
    @ 27:55; https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RBO6QBpWFuw
    "I don't think it was the exclusive funeral arrangement undertaken by the LBA and IA Indo-Europeans. Recall that their ancestors loved to build kurgans during the EMBA period, with that practice continuing on well into the Classical period in the eastern Eurasian steppes among Scythian-related/derived groups."

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    Quote Originally Posted by DMXX View Post
    The study reports 23% W. Eurasian mtDNA (with an approx. 16%-to-8% division between Turanian agriculturalist and MLBA steppe respectively).

    It would be interesting to determine which of these mt lines appear to show a general persistence from the IA period onwards.



    There's ongoing discussion regarding what may have happened, there.

    The MLBA steppe-related ancestry in Swat_IA appears to have been mediated via the maternal line (based on the over-representation of such auDNA on the X chromosome IIRC).

    This remains my proposal.
    Y-DNA is much more affected by founder effects in both dirction than mtDNA and it is unclear if all of Swat_IA samples were IEs in the first place. It is quite possible that some of them were not yet IE-speaking and in this case admixture between IEs and non IEs would be mainly female mediated. Something similar we see in Siberia for IA nomads of IE origin and local non-IE Siberians. Today I can not really recall an (big) Indo-Iranian group except some small and bottle-necked groups like Kalash who show more Steppe mtDNA than Steppe Y-DNA the pattern for Pashtuns, Brahmins, Ror and many Tajiks seems to be either biased strongly towards steppe Y-DNA or balanced. Also some of local BMAC/Central Asian lines probably overlap with Steppe mtDNA and some of the mtDNA clades are quite old (predating the BA/LN).

    One way or another Swat_IA seems to come from another migration wave than classical Vedic Indo-Aryans and seems to need much more extra BMAC than R1a-L657-rich South Asians like Ror and Brahmins what points to at least two different Indo-Aryan/BMAC migrations into South Asia.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Coldmountains View Post
    Y-DNA is much more affected by founder effects in both dirction than mtDNA and it is unclear if all of Swat_IA samples were IEs in the first place. It is quite possible that some of them were not yet IE-speaking and in this case admixture between IEs and non IEs would be mainly female mediated. Something similar we see in Siberia for IA nomads of IE origin and local non-IE Siberians. Today I can not really recall an (big) Indo-Iranian group except some small and bottle-necked groups like Kalash who show more Steppe mtDNA than Steppe Y-DNA the pattern for Pashtuns, Brahmins, Ror and many Tajiks seems to be either biased strongly towards steppe Y-DNA or balanced. Also some of local BMAC/Central Asian lines probably overlap with Steppe mtDNA and some of the mtDNA clades are quite old (predating the BA/LN).
    Yeah it really is Indo-European social structure 101. Well for a lot of ethnicities really but in this case we have it pretty well backed by linguistics.

    Patrilineal, patrilocal peoples who practise female exogamy. How does that translate into ancient genetics? Predominantly female geneflow going in, and predominantly female geneflow going out.

    The DSKC from LBA Mongolia are a perfect example of that.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Coldmountains View Post
    Y-DNA is much more affected by founder effects in both dirction than mtDNA and it is unclear if all of Swat_IA samples were IEs in the first place. It is quite possible that some of them were not yet IE-speaking and in this case admixture between IEs and non IEs would be mainly female mediated. Something similar we see in Siberia for IA nomads of IE origin and local non-IE Siberians. Today I can not really recall an (big) Indo-Iranian group except some small and bottle-necked groups like Kalash who show more Steppe mtDNA than Steppe Y-DNA the pattern for Pashtuns, Brahmins, Ror and many Tajiks seems to be either biased strongly towards steppe Y-DNA or balanced. Also some of local BMAC/Central Asian lines probably overlap with Steppe mtDNA and some of the mtDNA clades are quite old (predating the BA/LN).

    One way or another Swat_IA seems to come from another migration wave than classical Vedic Indo-Aryans and seems to need much more extra BMAC than R1a-L657-rich South Asians like Ror and Brahmins what points to at least two different Indo-Aryan/BMAC migrations into South Asia.
    No disagreements there.

    Like you, I don't necessarily agree with Anthony's proposal regarding Swat representing the Vedic Indo-Aryans.
    Given their steppe input appears to be female-mediated, and given the apparent patriarchal character of the Vedic Indo-Aryans, there's a clear mismatch there.
    The only way to gerrymander the data to fit a Swat_IA = VIA identity is if we posited some sort of substantial bottleneck between the BMAC and Swat on the Y-line at the expense of R1a1a, but there's a clear discordance with modern data (we'd have to seek other sources for all modern Pakistani R1a1a, which is an extraordinarily difficult task, given the ubiquity of Y-DNA R1a1a across SC Asia).

    More aDNA from EMBA Afghanistan-Pakistan would be quite interesting - Let's recall the existence of Darra-i-Kur, which I believe belonged to mtDNA H2a.

    [Edit]: Just so I'm consistent with my comments elsewhere - This is off-the-cuff speculation. Much (if not most) of my comments on aDNA are just that. The prerequisites to form a research question etc. don't exist right now. Though, given the ubiquity of Y-DNA R1a1a in modern pops, it stands to reason that the default hypothesis would assume an early entry, and at a formative time in the region's ethnogenesis.
    Last edited by DMXX; 04-21-2021 at 08:12 AM. Reason: line

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    Here are other mtDNA studies from groups in Northern Pakistan. I don't understand why they was no Y DNA , in both studies. There also does not seem to be any autosomal data either.

    Shina



    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...tan_Pakistan_b


    Khattak/Kheshgi Pashtuns , T =T2 I assume based of the figures .



    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...alley_Pakistan
    Last edited by pegasus; 05-05-2021 at 08:18 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by pegasus View Post
    Here are other mtDNA studies from groups in Northern Pakistan. I don't understand why they was no Y DNA , in both studies. There also does not seem to be any autosomal data either.

    Shina



    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...tan_Pakistan_b


    Khattak/Kheshgi Pashtuns , T =T2 I assume based of the figures .



    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...alley_Pakistan
    They only covered mitochondrial control region, mostly because WGS facilities hardly exist in the country and even for genetics papers samples have to be sent abroad.
    "PCR amplification of target mtDNA HVRs region comprises of 1122 bp...."
    "Here, we report mtDNA control region sequences in 58 individuals from the Khattak and the Kheshgi"

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    26% T mtdna for Khattak? Is it possible there are maternally related individuals in the data set? Seems high for 1 mtdna.
    pegasus modeling:
    sample": "Punjabi_Jat:Sapporo_AGUser",
    "fit": 1.1506,
    "IRN_Shahr_I_Sokhta_BA3": 43.33,
    "TKM_Gonur1_BA": 31.67,
    "RUS_Sintashta_MLBA": 25,
    "closestDistances": [

    avatar credit goes out to aaronbee2010

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