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Thread: New Bronze Age Greece samples in Yfull

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    These results are similar to Mr Pribislav results

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    '50% Pontic-Caspian steppe ancestry' and Y-DNA J and G. Was Greece invaded by Amazons?

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  7. #4
    Steppe and farmer populations have been interacting for centuries. And Greece is not so far from the zone of interaction

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    Received 17 April 2020, Revised 17 September 2020, Accepted 18 March 2021, Available online 29 April 2021.

    Published: April 29, 2021

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.03.039

    open access
    Highlights

    • Bronze Age (BA) Helladic, Cycladic, and Minoan genomes from the Aegean were sequenced
    • 3,000 BCE Aegeans are homogeneous and derive ancestry mainly from Neolithic farmers
    • Neolithic Caucasus-like and BA Pontic-Caspian Steppe-like gene flow shaped the Aegean
    • Present-day Greeks are genetically similar to 2,000 BCE Aegeans from Northern Greece

    Summary

    The Cycladic, the Minoan, and the Helladic (Mycenaean) cultures define the Bronze Age (BA) of Greece. Urbanism, complex social structures, craft and agricultural specialization, and the earliest forms of writing characterize this iconic period. We sequenced six Early to Middle BA whole genomes, along with 11 mitochondrial genomes, sampled from the three BA cultures of the Aegean Sea. The Early BA (EBA) genomes are homogeneous and derive most of their ancestry from Neolithic Aegeans, contrary to earlier hypotheses that the Neolithic-EBA cultural transition was due to massive population turnover. EBA Aegeans were shaped by relatively small-scale migration from East of the Aegean, as evidenced by the Caucasus-related ancestry also detected in Anatolians. In contrast, Middle BA (MBA) individuals of northern Greece differ from EBA populations in showing ∼50% Pontic-Caspian Steppe-related ancestry, dated at ca. 2,600-2,000 BCE. Such gene flow events during the MBA contributed toward shaping present-day Greek genomes


    "Middle Helladic period between 2200 and 2000 BC a wave of Greek tribes, later self-styled Hellenes, poured into the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula. They were coming to Aegeida from the north. During the excavations of many settlements, the Early Helladic cultural layer is separated from the subsequent ones by a layer of ash. Other Early Helladic settlements were abandoned altogether. The conquerors were called Minias. " Who could have come from the Pontic steppe at that time ... R1b-Z2103 ?
    Last edited by VladimirTaraskin; 04-29-2021 at 06:06 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by VladimirTaraskin View Post
    Received 17 April 2020, Revised 17 September 2020, Accepted 18 March 2021, Available online 29 April 2021.

    Published: April 29, 2021

    https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.03.039

    open access
    Highlights

    • Bronze Age (BA) Helladic, Cycladic, and Minoan genomes from the Aegean were sequenced
    • 3,000 BCE Aegeans are homogeneous and derive ancestry mainly from Neolithic farmers
    • Neolithic Caucasus-like and BA Pontic-Caspian Steppe-like gene flow shaped the Aegean
    • Present-day Greeks are genetically similar to 2,000 BCE Aegeans from Northern Greece

    Summary

    The Cycladic, the Minoan, and the Helladic (Mycenaean) cultures define the Bronze Age (BA) of Greece. Urbanism, complex social structures, craft and agricultural specialization, and the earliest forms of writing characterize this iconic period. We sequenced six Early to Middle BA whole genomes, along with 11 mitochondrial genomes, sampled from the three BA cultures of the Aegean Sea. The Early BA (EBA) genomes are homogeneous and derive most of their ancestry from Neolithic Aegeans, contrary to earlier hypotheses that the Neolithic-EBA cultural transition was due to massive population turnover. EBA Aegeans were shaped by relatively small-scale migration from East of the Aegean, as evidenced by the Caucasus-related ancestry also detected in Anatolians. In contrast, Middle BA (MBA) individuals of northern Greece differ from EBA populations in showing ∼50% Pontic-Caspian Steppe-related ancestry, dated at ca. 2,600-2,000 BCE. Such gene flow events during the MBA contributed toward shaping present-day Greek genomes


    "Middle Helladic period between 2200 and 2000 BC a wave of Greek tribes, later self-styled Hellenes, poured into the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula. They were coming to Aegeida from the north. During the excavations of many settlements, the Early Helladic cultural layer is separated from the subsequent ones by a layer of ash. Other Early Helladic settlements were abandoned altogether. The conquerors were called Minias. " Who could have come from the Pontic steppe at that time ... R1b-Z2103 ?
    Probably yes R1b Z103 seems at the moment the most likely candidate. Maybe trough a Yamnaya Bulgaria kind of population.
    Last edited by etrusco; 04-29-2021 at 06:27 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Philjames View Post
    '50% Pontic-Caspian steppe ancestry' and Y-DNA J and G. Was Greece invaded by Amazons?
    If I'm not mistaken, the MBA Steppe-admixed individuals are the samples whose Y-DNA was not retrieved (because they were females). The J and G samples are non-Steppe-admixed EBA individuals.
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    Ancestral paternal origin: [BigY results and YFull interpretation coming soon]
    Ancestral maternal origin: Nordic Bronze Age > Pre-Roman Iron Age > Roman Iron Age > Germanic Iron Age > Longobard

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    According to their modelling there were groups

    a) south of them that had 'Iran Neolithic / Caucasus HG like' ancestry but lacked 'Europe HG like' ancestry= no 'Steppe', e.g. the 'Minoans'
    b) north of them that had 'Europe HG like' ancestry but lacked 'Iran Neolithic / Caucasus HG like' ancestry = no 'Steppe' either, e.g. the samples labeled Balkan EBA

    The 'steppe' admixture is an artifact. The admixture is Balkans EBA related.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kanenas View Post
    According to their modelling there were groups

    a) south of them that had 'Iran Neolithic / Caucasus HG like' ancestry but lacked 'Europe HG like' ancestry= no 'Steppe', e.g. the 'Minoans'
    b) north of them that had 'Europe HG like' ancestry but lacked 'Iran Neolithic / Caucasus HG like' ancestry = no 'Steppe' either, e.g. the samples labeled Balkan EBA

    The 'steppe' admixture is an artifact. The admixture is Balkans EBA related.
    I do not think that you can have purely WHG/EHG kind of population in the third millennium BC in the balkans north of Greece. It would be a great surprise. Clearly those were the PIE but at the time of the expansion they would have been more eastern shifted.

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    Did the Greeks then reintroduce the pontic/steppe genes back into Anatolia and perhaps surrounding areas?

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