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Thread: The genomic origins of the Bronze Age Tarim Basin mummies (Incredible!)

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    The genomic origins of the Bronze Age Tarim Basin mummies (Incredible!)

    Courtesy of Arza:

    The genomic origins of the Bronze Age Tarim Basin mummies

    Here we present genomic data from 5 individuals dating to ca. 3000-2800 BCE from the Dzungarian Basin and 13 individuals dating to ca. 2100-1700 BCE from the Tarim Basin, representing the earliest yet discovered human remains from north and south Xinjiang, respectively. We find that the Early Bronze Age Dzungarian individuals exhibit a predominantly Afanasievo ancestry with an additional local contribution, while the Early-Middle Bronze Age Tarim individuals only harbor a local ancestry. Our results do not support previous hypotheses for the origin of the Tarim mummies, who were argued to be Proto-Tocharian speaking pastoralists descended from the Afanasievo1,2 or to have originated among the BMAC3 or IAMC cultures4. Instead, although Tocharian may have been plausibly introduced to the Dzungarian Basin by Afanasievo migrants during the Early Bronze Age, we find that the earliest Tarim Basin cultures appear to have arisen from a genetically isolated local population that adopted neighboring pastoralist and agriculturalist practices, which allowed them to settle and thrive along the shifting riverine oases of the Taklamakan Desert."

    G25 coords courtesy of David:
    Code:
    CHN_Dzungaria_EBA1:AYIM22BN,0.111547,0.031481,0.051288,0.127909,-0.052933,0.049364,-0.014336,-0.015461,-0.039678,-0.073077,0.005034,-0.007943,0.004608,-0.038534,0.028501,0.021347,-0.004172,-0.004054,-0.007165,0.008379,-0.012852,0.000495,0.004683,0.020846,0.000718
    CHN_Dzungaria_EBA1:AYIM22BY,0.104717,0.014217,0.050534,0.114343,-0.055703,0.036535,-0.012926,-0.008538,-0.046631,-0.073623,0.00747,-0.007044,0.010555,-0.042388,0.038002,0.012861,-0.018123,0.004814,0.000126,-0.003252,-0.008859,0.008408,0.01405,0.020244,-0.012933
    CHN_Dzungaria_EBA1:SSGM16,0.119514,0.026404,0.052043,0.134369,-0.046778,0.041276,-0.00705,-0.017538,-0.050517,-0.078179,0.005359,0.00045,0.00773,-0.036057,0.03963,0.016176,-0.01343,-0.005321,-0.007039,0.005378,-0.01697,0.004081,0.012818,0.025425,-0.00455
    CHN_Dzungaria_EBA2:G218M5-2,0.10927,-0.008124,0.056945,0.122418,-0.062781,0.041276,-0.011516,-0.023999,-0.044586,-0.071437,0.004872,0.003147,0.009663,-0.049269,0.029044,0.021745,-0.006389,0.00076,-0.011941,0.005503,-0.01697,0.008037,0.018241,0.022533,-0.003473
    CHN_Dzungaria_EBA2:G218M5-3N,0.104717,-0.035544,0.054305,0.115958,-0.057549,0.035698,-0.022091,-0.019384,-0.037632,-0.072165,0.001624,0.001499,0.02438,-0.04225,0.030673,0.008221,-0.020079,0.002154,0.003771,0.005378,-0.024083,0.012365,0.012078,0.025907,-0.003952
    CHN_Tarim_EMBA1:GMGM1,0.094473,-0.121864,0.067127,0.192832,-0.11356,0.038208,-0.043242,-0.060459,-0.045813,-0.100594,0.024521,-0.015137,0.025718,-0.068123,0.022801,0.027844,-0.025295,-0.004054,-0.006788,-0.001251,-0.040928,0.00136,0.021815,0.008555,-0.0097
    CHN_Tarim_EMBA1:L5209,0.104717,-0.099522,0.075047,0.203814,-0.117868,0.047133,-0.053347,-0.063459,-0.042336,-0.097679,0.028418,-0.014087,0.033151,-0.074591,0.029451,0.024396,-0.017993,-0.00266,0.004525,-0.004002,-0.052158,0.012489,0.035126,0.020003,-0.003353
    CHN_Tarim_EMBA1:L5213,0.101303,-0.103584,0.075424,0.198646,-0.115406,0.053268,-0.047237,-0.067382,-0.049086,-0.096767,0.026469,-0.01124,0.020367,-0.072802,0.030809,0.025325,-0.015125,-0.001014,0.003017,-0.011255,-0.05091,0.006677,0.019843,0.013616,-0.00479
    CHN_Tarim_EMBA1:L6101,0.104717,-0.100537,0.078441,0.202845,-0.107712,0.029841,-0.055698,-0.057228,-0.043564,-0.08966,0.022572,-0.01169,0.020069,-0.06193,0.02253,0.031954,-0.01682,0.0019,0.008799,-0.00075,-0.057024,-0.00371,0.017378,0.007471,-0.006706
    CHN_Tarim_EMBA1:L6103,0.104717,-0.101553,0.078818,0.201876,-0.109559,0.051037,-0.042537,-0.059997,-0.046427,-0.093487,0.027444,-0.015137,0.022448,-0.079271,0.022122,0.018828,-0.011604,-0.004687,0.003268,-0.013757,-0.052782,0.000866,0.020952,0.012773,-0.017244
    CHN_Tarim_EMBA1:L6105,0.094473,-0.103584,0.072407,0.208336,-0.125562,0.051316,-0.048882,-0.061844,-0.039064,-0.093305,0.037512,-0.015736,0.026462,-0.074729,0.019272,0.01538,-0.029858,-0.003041,-0.005279,-0.012006,-0.05116,0.014096,0.025389,0.013737,-0.006227
    CHN_Tarim_EMBA1:L6106,0.092197,-0.102568,0.072407,0.215119,-0.117868,0.054105,-0.051232,-0.058151,-0.036814,-0.089842,0.03264,-0.01139,0.029137,-0.071151,0.033387,0.019093,-0.01369,0.002027,0.008547,-0.01063,-0.052907,0.002968,0.025019,0.012652,-0.012454
    CHN_Tarim_EMBA1:XHM75,0.110408,-0.09546,0.064865,0.207367,-0.118176,0.0502,-0.048412,-0.066228,-0.035178,-0.100594,0.028743,-0.013488,0.027651,-0.074454,0.02633,0.022408,-0.025425,-0.001014,-0.003142,-0.004002,-0.044921,0.018177,0.029086,0.020244,-0.014609
    CHN_Tarim_EMBA1:XHM100,0.106994,-0.102568,0.070522,0.204783,-0.11356,0.044344,-0.047472,-0.063459,-0.034769,-0.104239,0.028418,-0.012139,0.022002,-0.071426,0.023072,0.022408,-0.019036,0.000633,-0.003771,-0.012631,-0.048914,0.014962,0.024157,0.015183,-0.003712
    CHN_Tarim_EMBA1:XHM110,0.108132,-0.093429,0.067505,0.198,-0.109251,0.044344,-0.052877,-0.05169,-0.044791,-0.099319,0.022897,-0.014387,0.020069,-0.071977,0.030944,0.025855,-0.020992,-0.001267,0.005656,0.003752,-0.052033,0.005564,0.018117,0.013375,-0.008502
    CHN_Tarim_EMBA1:XHM135,0.104717,-0.097491,0.074293,0.193155,-0.117253,0.051316,-0.046532,-0.058151,-0.046631,-0.097132,0.030367,-0.014387,0.023934,-0.061655,0.024565,0.021612,-0.019427,-0.004561,-0.001634,0,-0.049163,0.006183,0.024033,0.014701,-0.007784
    CHN_Tarim_EMBA2:11KBM1,0.104717,-0.118817,0.078441,0.199938,-0.088016,0.05271,-0.041127,-0.053998,-0.035587,-0.086015,0.022572,-0.012739,0.02334,-0.052985,0.002443,0.02612,-0.003651,0.007095,-0.003771,-0.01013,-0.057773,0.011376,0.019843,0.02663,0.002155
    Quick basic components run:

     
    Last edited by Michalis Moriopoulos; 08-18-2021 at 11:57 PM.
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    This is way more ANE than I would have expected so late, but it makes sense actually.
    Edit: I thought they were are all from the Tarim basin but the 5 early ones aren't(North Xinjiang)?
    Last edited by Granary; 08-19-2021 at 12:22 AM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Granary View Post
    This is way more ANE than I would have expected so late, but it makes sense actually.
    Edit: I thought they were are all from the Tarim basin but the 5 early ones aren't(North Xinjiang)?
    Indeed, five earliest samples are from Dzungarian Basin, so just north of Tarim Basin.
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    Delete
    Last edited by J Man; 08-19-2021 at 12:27 AM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Michalis Moriopoulos View Post
    Indeed, five earliest samples are from Dzungarian Basin, so just north of Tarim Basin.
    Do Uygur plausibly have any ancestry left from those WHSG-like people? It doesn't look like it.

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    Wild stuff.

    It appears a very early introduction of Tocharian to the Tarim basin is now unlikely. If we still want to connect Tocharian to Afanasievo, then might we be looking at a late entry from Dzungaria, perhaps under pressure from the Andronovo expansion?

    If so, there would only be a limited timeframe for this to happen before Indo-Iranians proper made their entrance, as we now have evidence for. Much to think about.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Psynome View Post
    Wild stuff.

    It appears a very early introduction of Tocharian to the Tarim basin is now unlikely. If we still want to connect Tocharian to Afanasievo, then might we be looking at a late entry from Dzungaria, perhaps under pressure from the Andronovo expansion?

    If so, there would only be a limited timeframe for this to happen before Indo-Iranians proper made their entrance, as we now have evidence for. Much to think about.
    Was the Tarim basin entirely dominated by this population? I'm trying to look at this from the archeological point of view(yes I know pots =/= people, but if the entire basin shared an ecological niche and material culture it's a safe assumption for now)

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    It's a fair point. These samples are limited, although they appear to cover a fair amount of time.

    A hint is that Tocharian languages are only attested along the northern rim of the Tarim basin and into the Lop desert. This suggests that they were introduced from the north...inviting the possiblity of Dzungarian Afanasievo descendants. One big missing of piece of that puzzle is a lack of a time series of samples postdating the Early Bronze Age in Dzungaria, though we now have Chemurchek. Tocharian is attested long after the Bronze Age, so many links need to be made or imputed to get there.

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    West Siberian Hunter-Gatherer (WSG) are a specific archaeogenetic lineage, first reported in a genetic study published in Science in September 2019. WSGs were found to be of about 30% EHG ancestry, 50% ANE ancestry, and 20% to 38% East Asian ancestry.

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