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Thread: New Samples from Migration Era and Early Medieval Moravia

  1. #131
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    Similarity map for Migration_1 sample (supposedly POH44):

     
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  3. #132
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  5. #133
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  7. #134
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    Which of these new samples are Migration era Breclav-Libiva samples and which are medieval Pohansko samples?
    Ελευθερία ή θάνατος.

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  9. #135
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    Quote Originally Posted by Michalis Moriopoulos View Post
    Which of these new samples are Migration era Breclav-Libiva samples and which are medieval Pohansko samples?
    Proably all except Migration:1 are Libiva, but nobody here knows for sure.
     
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  11. #136
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    PCA North Europe and Europe 1 featuring all available Medieval R-L1029, R-L260 and I-Y3120 samples (if I missed any, please let me know) and Kowalewko Goths.





    R-L1029:VK139,0.1161,0.131003,0.076178,0.073967,0.04 7393,0.02761,-0.0047,0.011307,0.010635,-0.020957,0.003573,-0.007793,0.018137,0.026148,-0.008822,-0.00305,-0.001043,0.001014,0.003897,0.002376,-0.003119,-0.007419,0.00912,-0.003494,-0.003233
    R-L1029:VK160,0.127482,0.122879,0.078818,0.072029,0. 044931,0.037092,0.004935,0.016615,-0.0045,-0.030616,-0.000974,-0.01154,0.019029,0.024772,-0.0095,-0.001326,-0.001956,-0.003167,0.009553,5e-04,-0.001747,-0.003215,0.010476,0.00241,0.004191
    R-L1029:VK309,0.135449,0.136081,0.079572,0.062016,0. 053241,0.023148,0.00987,0.014307,-0.005522,-0.021139,-0.004872,-0.007643,0.014866,0.015551,-0.000814,-0.003315,0.002086,-0.000507,-0.00352,0.005878,-0.011854,0.007543,0.004067,0.000361,-0.002754
    R-L1029:VK541,0.122929,0.12491,0.058831,0.052972,0.0 32314,0.01757,0.00705,0.01223,-0.005113,-0.015672,-0.00065,-0.004946,0.014866,0.022708,-0.015336,-0.001856,0.008736,-0.002027,-0.00088,0.004127,-0.005615,-0.012984,0.009737,-0.005422,0.004191
    R-L1029:KRA001,0.129758,0.125926,0.075424,0.072029,0 .046778,0.026774,0.011986,0.010384,-0.001636,-0.021322,-0.003085,-0.006294,0.008028,0.021194,-0.013843,0.013789,0.019036,-0.005701,0.00352,0.005378,0.004991,-0.008408,0.000986,-0.006145,0.001796
    R-L1029:KRA003,0.127482,0.121864,0.07995,0.072675,0. 052317,0.013108,0.008695,0.012461,0.004704,-0.023144,-0.00341,-0.005695,0.016204,0.007019,-0.005836,0.021745,0.020861,-0.001267,0.00176,0.002501,-0.008984,-0.005193,0.005546,0.00976,0.005748
    R-L260:VK453,0.108132,0.135065,0.073161,0.061047,0.0 50471,0.01255,0.00282,0.014538,0.005522,-0.027153,0.008444,-0.001798,0.013677,0.020231,-0.020494,0.001061,-0.016689,-0.003294,-0.008045,-0.002376,-0.01123,-0.012242,0.003697,-0.009037,0.000479
    R-L260:VK494,0.126344,0.125926,0.085606,0.066215,0.0 51702,0.034861,0.017626,0.014307,0.003886,-0.017312,-0.006496,3e-04,0.016353,0.029314,-0.011672,-0.005171,-0.014081,0.004181,0.013073,0.002126,0.009483,0.005 812,0.005669,-0.004699,0.001078
    I-Y3120:VK210,0.117238,0.121864,0.067505,0.05168,0.0 47701,0.018965,0.008225,-0.004615,-0.006136,-0.03098,-0.008282,-0.008542,0.006095,0.003578,0.001221,-0.024131,-0.019558,0.011275,0.004777,-0.001376,-0.022336,0.000742,0.003821,0.01446,-0.003473
    I-Y3120:VK542,0.118376,0.125926,0.062225,0.04845,0.0 28621,0.012271,0.00705,0.011769,-0.007363,-0.020775,-0.000162,-0.001499,0.013082,0.025873,-0.012622,-0.004906,-0.014342,-0.002027,-0.000377,0.002626,-0.002371,0.000989,0.003697,-0.006025,0.005149
    I-Y3120:Sunghir6,0.129758,0.116786,0.070899,0.060078 ,0.041238,0.018965,0.009165,0.011307,0.001432,-0.017859,0.000487,-0.008093,0.014271,0.023809,-0.014658,-0.005834,0.00013,-0.002154,0.000628,-0.001251,-0.007986,-0.005812,0.012695,-0.010724,-0.005868
    I-Y3120:KRA008,0.132035,0.135065,0.076555,0.06137,0. 043085,0.025937,0.00564,0.007384,0.002045,-0.02041,-0.010555,-0.005995,0.014569,0.004129,-0.012758,0.001856,0.022035,-0.000633,0.005531,0.002501,-0.00025,-0.002349,-0.001849,-0.006748,0.001078
    I-Y3120:POH36,0.12862,0.132019,0.072407,0.05491,0.05 5395,0.01004,0.00376,0.006692,0.005727,-0.02278,0.000812,-0.025777,0.005946,0.015138,-0.011672,0.00358,0.014864,-0.006334,0.007919,-0.001876,-0.003619,-0.000247,0.002835,0.000964,0.005389
    I-Y3120:POH41,0.129758,0.128972,0.074293,0.062016,0. 033852,0.01757,0.014101,0.013153,0.000205,-0.01877,-0.00682,0.005545,0.013528,0.026286,-0.011129,0.012596,0.00013,-0.001014,0.004274,0.005503,0.001747,-0.001731,0.00912,-0.005543,0.014609
    I-Y3120:POH44,0.138864,0.13405,0.078064,0.075259,0.0 53241,0.022869,0.022091,-0.000462,-0.005113,-0.017495,-0.010068,-0.003147,0.011744,0.016928,0,0.007027,0.011604,-0.008995,0.005279,0.005378,-0.007986,-0.007543,0.011832,-0.008555,0.007784
    Kowalewko_Goths:2,0.136588,0.133034,0.078441,0.067 507,0. 056626,0.025658,0.020916,0.012692,0.016566,0.00236 9,-0.017376,0.007343,-0.002379,-0.005918,0.00665,0.011535,-0.010691,0.024198,-0.003268,0.015758,0.010357,0.000618,0.002465,0.006 266,-0.003353
    Kowalewko_Goths:4,0.137726,0.129988,0.070144,0.081 719,0. 045547,0.015339,0.003055,0.014076,0.005318,-0.017312,-0.015914,0.005095,-0.00892,0.001927,0.012486,0.009944,-0.015776,0.01761,-0.000628,0.007629,0.011979,0.004081,0.002465,0.024 341,0.007903
    Kowalewko_Goths:5,0.114961,0.131003,0.065619,0.048 45,0.0 47701,0.01506,0.00282,0.018692,0.006136,-0.020228,-0.010718,-0.013638,-0.000595,-0.009496,0.018458,0.010342,0.014342,0.006081,-0.013324,0.004877,0.016596,-0.013107,0.001232,0.00482,0.004191
    Kowalewko_Goths:6,0.119514,0.108662,0.05242,0.0426 36,0.0 36007,0.001394,0.008225,0.000231,0.001636,-0.015126,-0.008119,-0.008542,-0.001041,-0.008808,0.009636,0.004641,0.025164,-0.001014,-0.013952,-0.00075,-0.005989,0.000247,-0.002711,0.012652,0.006826
    Kowalewko_Goths:7,0.127482,0.125926,0.078441,0.053 295,0. 049548,0.023706,0.013631,0.006461,0.01084,-0.00893,-0.007145,0.004796,-0.011001,0.006606,0.03203,0.001326,-0.001304,0.014949,0.014204,0.008629,0.021462,-0.018301,0.000493,0.000241,-0.002275
    Kowalewko_Goths:8,0.144555,0.137096,0.06939,0.0545 87,0.0 18157,0.023985,0.011751,0.004154,0.002045,-0.008383,-0.014615,-0.013038,0.003419,-0.007156,0.024022,0.005569,-0.008605,-0.005954,-0.002011,0.012006,0.011854,-0.008779,-0.003944,0.024943,0.003592
    Kowalewko_Goths:9,0.140002,0.120848,0.071653,0.067 83,0.0 48624,0.023148,-0.000235,0.001846,0.015544,-0.02442,-0.003897,0.01109,0.005054,-0.007569,0.035966,0.022275,0.003651,-0.010769,-0.000377,0.016383,0.007986,-0.001978,-0.004807,0.016749,-0.007784
    Kowalewko_Goths:10,0.134311,0.097491,0.074293,0.05 9755,0 .046778,0.021753,0.015511,0.006923,0.008385,-0.021868,-0.010068,-0.006145,-0.014569,0.00234,0.02823,0.001458,-0.007171,0.007855,-0.001634,0.013131,0.026578,0.01014,0.005669,0.0153 03,0.010179
    Kowalewko_Goths:11,0.108132,0.137096,0.070899,0.05 5556,0 .052933,0.020638,0.003055,0.010615,0.016975,-0.019499,0.002923,0.007943,-0.00446,-0.004404,-0.004072,0.019888,0.02021,-0.002027,-0.015461,0.01138,-0.000873,-0.007296,-0.001479,0.035547,0.011735
    Kowalewko_Goths:12,0.111547,0.12491,0.070522,0.062 016,0. 042469,0.013108,0.007755,0.019384,-0.008795,-0.000364,0.007795,0.012289,-0.01115,-0.001927,0.010722,0.001193,-0.011083,0.013809,0.019357,-0.002751,0.013351,0.008903,-0.00456,0.008555,-0.022393

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  13. #137
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    It appears that some Polish Goths had local roots in one of their parents or grandparents:

    KKO10
    East Central Euro 9.3
    KKO4
    East Central Euro 11.93
    KKO6
    East Central Euro 7.24
    KKO9
    East Central Euro 14.93

    For comparison - an early Slav from Moravia:

    POH44
    East Central Euro 20.20

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  15. #138
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    I understand these goths from this article?
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5802798/

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  17. #139
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    Quote Originally Posted by VladimirTaraskin View Post
    I understand these goths from this article?
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5802798/
    That's correct.

    Discussion

    Despite tremendous progress that has recently been made in archaeogenomic studies of European populations, our knowledge of the changes that occurred in the genetic structure of the peoples inhabiting Central Europe between the LN/EBA and Middle Ages is still very limited. One major problem is the scarcity of genetic data describing individuals who occupied the region east of the Oder river. To fill this gap, we performed an analysis of the mitochondrial genomes of a large group of people who lived in the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers (present-day western Poland) during the IA (the 1st and 2nd centuries AD). The studied group initially comprised 60 individuals; for 40 individuals, we assigned the mtDNA haplogroup, and for 33 of them, we determined the sequence of the entire mitochondrial genome. This dataset is particularly important to understand demographic processes that occurred in Central Europe during the IA and in the context of migrations between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD that are believed to have shaped the genetic landscape of contemporary Europe31.

    According to common knowledge, the region between the Oder and Vistula rivers 2 tya was densely wooded with single isolated human settlements scattered in the forest. It is thought that inhabitants of these settlements had very limited contact not only with the so-called “civilized world” but also with neighboring populations. Interestingly, the picture emerging from the latest archaeological studies of burials and artifacts seems to be different. Recently, it has been suggested that the settlement in Greater Poland was compact and regular, with the appearance and disappearance of the sites occupied by the arriving groups interacting with the surrounding populations32 and references therein. Our results strongly support the hypothesis presented by32. The analyses of intrapopulation variability revealed that the studied group was not an isolated population. The calculated HD and π levels fell within the range of values characteristic for contemporary open European populations.

    Based on our results of mtDNA haplogroup frequency analysis, we were able to update a phylogenetic tree describing the history of H. sapiens in Central Europe (see Fig. 2a). Compared with the previous phylogenetic tree2, the new tree was expanded with the IA populations inhabiting the region between Oder and Vistula rivers and the region of Jutland. In the earlier constructed tree, CEM was closest to BBC despite the latter coexisting in Central Europe with the CWC (LN) and followed by the UC (EBA). In the new tree, Kow-OVIA was clustered with the LN/EBA populations. The present-day European population (CEM) was clustered with the JIA that was contemporary to Kow-OVIA and inhabited Jutland.

    Based on the results presented above one can assume that there are some discrepancies between the hierarchical clustering (Fig. 3a) and PCA (Fig. 3b) of haplogroup frequencies in the EPT (for example, the placement of the Kow-OVIA in relation to the Treilles Culture population (TRE)). These differences indicate that in contrast to dendrogram, the PCA plot (capturing only first two principal components) did not show the full spectrum of EPT variability. We explored this issue by plotting additional principal components (Supplementary Figure S7a and b). It demonstrated that their contribution to the explanation of the genetic variability of EPT populations was non-trivial.

    Analysis of genetic distances (see Fig. 2b) showed that both JIA and Kow-OVIA, are the closest to the CEM. However, it should be mentioned that many of the resulting genetic proximities did not reach statistical significance at the alpha level 0.05 (mainly due to the multiple comparisons), thus they should be interpreted with caution (Supplementary Table S11). Higher prevalence of the mtDNA haplogroup H in Kow-OVIA and JIA (its high level is also characteristic for the BBC) than in the preceding CWC and UC supports the hypothesis assuming significant demographic changes in Central Europe after the LN/EBA period2. This hypothesis is additionally strengthened by the results of AMOVA analysis indicating that there is some inconsistency between genetic distances and the chronology of the appearance of the studied populations in Central Europe, i.e., the older populations (BBC, CWC) contributed more to the genetic structure of CEM than the younger ones (UC).

    Changes in the occurrence of mtDNA haplogroups U5a/U5b in Central Europe are also worth noting. At LN and EBA, the prevailing haplogroup was U5a for BBC/CWC/UC. Next, there was a dominance of U5b for the Kow-OVIA/JIA during IA and now U5a is again more popular (CEM). The first alteration in the U5a/U5b prevalence between the LN/EBA and the IA supports the hypothesis of demographic changes right after the LN, proposed by2. The second conversion indicated by our results suggests another crucial demographic event that should occur between the IA and present.

    On the basis of the above observations, one may assume that in the IA, specific genetic substructures were formed in Central Europe. Because the demographic history of fossil populations often has a local character33,34, it is worth considering the range of the observed changes. These considerations should also take into account the hypothesis on the migrations that most likely occurred between the 3rd and 6th century AD. In this context, it seems necessary to compare Kow-OVIA and JIA with other populations from the IA, in particular those located east of Vistula, and with the populations that inhabited this region during the Middle Ages.

    The process of demographic change in Central and Northern Europe after the LN/EBA appears to have a complex nature. Genetic proximity of the Kow-OVIA and JIA is consistent with the Kow-OVIA’s affiliation to the Wielbark archaeological culture, strictly connected with Baltic regions32. However, despite close genetic distance between Kow-OVIA and the JIA, PCA placed them asymmetrically in relation to other ancient populations (see Fig. 3b). According to MDS (Fig. 4), JIA was close to the North-East European populations (CWC, BEC, UC) whereas the relationships of Kow-OVIA with other populations (earlier and contemporary to Kow-OVIA) were not so obvious. Interestingly, a small genetic distance between the JIA and UC was correlated with a high prevalence of the mtDNA haplogroup I in both populations. This result is consistent with earlier hypotheses suggesting that the genetic structure of a contemporary Danish population was formed not later than in the IA35. Unfortunately, our knowledge of haplogroup I prevalence in the Nordic Bronze Age is still scarce because of the small number of analyzed individuals; thus, it cannot be unambiguously stated that the observed proximity of the JIA and UC was, indeed, a result of the demographic changes after the LN/EBA. However, the above conclusion postulating a close connection between JIA and UC is also supported by the result of shared haplotype analysis. We found that 25% of the ancestral haplotypes found in the JIA were first reported in the UC and were not common in any earlier population. To better understand this phenomenon, the analysis of Y chromosome haplogroups is required, as the Nordic Bronze Age is characterized by the occurrence of the Y-haplogroups I and I118, whereas the UC is mainly characterized by a higher prevalence of I213. More detailed Y chromosome analyses involving a larger number of individuals would also shed more light on the process that resulted in a high prevalence of the mtDNA H haplogroup in the JIA, which is another signal of post-LN demographic changes2. In the case of Kow-OVIA, its genetic root in multiple European populations is evidenced by the fact that 55% of the ancestral haplotypes that were identified in this group were common to populations of the LN/EBA period (the CWC, BBC, and UC). For the JIA, the same origin is observed for only 19% of ancestral haplotypes.

    Finally, we found that the genetic structures of female and male subpopulations of Kow-OVIA were significantly different. This fact cannot be explicitly determined based on the results of individual analyses; however, it is quite evident if one considers the whole set of data presented here including the Fisher test on haplogroup frequencies. The analyses of both mtDNA haplogroups and genetic distances indicated that women from Kowalewko were related closer to the EN/MN populations, and the men were closer to the CWC and UC. This observation may explain why the genetic relationships of Kow-OVIA with other ancient European populations were more complex and more difficult to define as it was in the case of JIA. In analyzing Kow-OVIA, we observed multiple overlapping effects of two subpopulations with different genetic affinities. One would speculate that the genetic profile of Kow-OVIA-F resulted from exogamy that was described for the CWC population36. This is, however, not the case. We found that the genetic differences between women and men were maintained for the entire observation period, i.e., for 200 years (approximately 8 generations). Such a composition of the genetic structure of Kow-OVIA could exist only if at least one subgroup (Kow-OVIA-F or -M) was periodically exchanged. It would further mean that Kowalewko played some specific roles in that region. According to the recent archaeological studies, the colonization pattern in IA Greater Poland could be linked with the existence of a centralized organization system32. Kowalewko could have been one of the important elements of this system. For example, it could have functioned as a garrison for the population closely associated with the JIA, such that warriors stayed in the garrison for only a few years and were then replaced by others. (???) Other scenarios are also possible; however, verification of any hypothesis requires more detailed studies.
    Last edited by Waldemar; 04-19-2021 at 07:32 AM.

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    "Kowalewko could have been one of the important elements of this system. For example, it could have functioned as a garrison for the population closely associated with the JIA, such that warriors stayed in the garrison for only a few years and were then replaced by others".

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