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Thread: New Samples from Migration Era and Early Medieval Moravia

  1. #151
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    Discussion

    Despite tremendous progress that has recently been made in archaeogenomic studies of European populations, our knowledge of the changes that occurred in the genetic structure of the peoples inhabiting Central Europe between the LN/EBA and Middle Ages is still very limited. One major problem is the scarcity of genetic data describing individuals who occupied the region east of the Oder river. To fill this gap, we performed an analysis of the mitochondrial genomes of a large group of people who lived in the area between the Oder and Vistula rivers (present-day western Poland) during the IA (the 1st and 2nd centuries AD). The studied group initially comprised 60 individuals; for 40 individuals, we assigned the mtDNA haplogroup, and for 33 of them, we determined the sequence of the entire mitochondrial genome. This dataset is particularly important to understand demographic processes that occurred in Central Europe during the IA and in the context of migrations between the 3rd and 6th centuries AD that are believed to have shaped the genetic landscape of contemporary Europe31.

    According to common knowledge, the region between the Oder and Vistula rivers 2 tya was densely wooded with single isolated human settlements scattered in the forest. It is thought that inhabitants of these settlements had very limited contact not only with the so-called “civilized world” but also with neighboring populations. Interestingly, the picture emerging from the latest archaeological studies of burials and artifacts seems to be different. Recently, it has been suggested that the settlement in Greater Poland was compact and regular, with the appearance and disappearance of the sites occupied by the arriving groups interacting with the surrounding populations32 and references therein. Our results strongly support the hypothesis presented by32. The analyses of intrapopulation variability revealed that the studied group was not an isolated population. The calculated HD and π levels fell within the range of values characteristic for contemporary open European populations.

    Based on our results of mtDNA haplogroup frequency analysis, we were able to update a phylogenetic tree describing the history of H. sapiens in Central Europe (see Fig. 2a). Compared with the previous phylogenetic tree2, the new tree was expanded with the IA populations inhabiting the region between Oder and Vistula rivers and the region of Jutland. In the earlier constructed tree, CEM was closest to BBC despite the latter coexisting in Central Europe with the CWC (LN) and followed by the UC (EBA). In the new tree, Kow-OVIA was clustered with the LN/EBA populations. The present-day European population (CEM) was clustered with the JIA that was contemporary to Kow-OVIA and inhabited Jutland.

    Based on the results presented above one can assume that there are some discrepancies between the hierarchical clustering (Fig. 3a) and PCA (Fig. 3b) of haplogroup frequencies in the EPT (for example, the placement of the Kow-OVIA in relation to the Treilles Culture population (TRE)). These differences indicate that in contrast to dendrogram, the PCA plot (capturing only first two principal components) did not show the full spectrum of EPT variability. We explored this issue by plotting additional principal components (Supplementary Figure S7a and b). It demonstrated that their contribution to the explanation of the genetic variability of EPT populations was non-trivial.

    Analysis of genetic distances (see Fig. 2b) showed that both JIA and Kow-OVIA, are the closest to the CEM. However, it should be mentioned that many of the resulting genetic proximities did not reach statistical significance at the alpha level 0.05 (mainly due to the multiple comparisons), thus they should be interpreted with caution (Supplementary Table S11). Higher prevalence of the mtDNA haplogroup H in Kow-OVIA and JIA (its high level is also characteristic for the BBC) than in the preceding CWC and UC supports the hypothesis assuming significant demographic changes in Central Europe after the LN/EBA period2. This hypothesis is additionally strengthened by the results of AMOVA analysis indicating that there is some inconsistency between genetic distances and the chronology of the appearance of the studied populations in Central Europe, i.e., the older populations (BBC, CWC) contributed more to the genetic structure of CEM than the younger ones (UC).

    Changes in the occurrence of mtDNA haplogroups U5a/U5b in Central Europe are also worth noting. At LN and EBA, the prevailing haplogroup was U5a for BBC/CWC/UC. Next, there was a dominance of U5b for the Kow-OVIA/JIA during IA and now U5a is again more popular (CEM). The first alteration in the U5a/U5b prevalence between the LN/EBA and the IA supports the hypothesis of demographic changes right after the LN, proposed by2. The second conversion indicated by our results suggests another crucial demographic event that should occur between the IA and present.

    On the basis of the above observations, one may assume that in the IA, specific genetic substructures were formed in Central Europe. Because the demographic history of fossil populations often has a local character33,34, it is worth considering the range of the observed changes. These considerations should also take into account the hypothesis on the migrations that most likely occurred between the 3rd and 6th century AD. In this context, it seems necessary to compare Kow-OVIA and JIA with other populations from the IA, in particular those located east of Vistula, and with the populations that inhabited this region during the Middle Ages.

    The process of demographic change in Central and Northern Europe after the LN/EBA appears to have a complex nature. Genetic proximity of the Kow-OVIA and JIA is consistent with the Kow-OVIA’s affiliation to the Wielbark archaeological culture, strictly connected with Baltic regions32. However, despite close genetic distance between Kow-OVIA and the JIA, PCA placed them asymmetrically in relation to other ancient populations (see Fig. 3b). According to MDS (Fig. 4), JIA was close to the North-East European populations (CWC, BEC, UC) whereas the relationships of Kow-OVIA with other populations (earlier and contemporary to Kow-OVIA) were not so obvious. Interestingly, a small genetic distance between the JIA and UC was correlated with a high prevalence of the mtDNA haplogroup I in both populations. This result is consistent with earlier hypotheses suggesting that the genetic structure of a contemporary Danish population was formed not later than in the IA35. Unfortunately, our knowledge of haplogroup I prevalence in the Nordic Bronze Age is still scarce because of the small number of analyzed individuals; thus, it cannot be unambiguously stated that the observed proximity of the JIA and UC was, indeed, a result of the demographic changes after the LN/EBA. However, the above conclusion postulating a close connection between JIA and UC is also supported by the result of shared haplotype analysis. We found that 25% of the ancestral haplotypes found in the JIA were first reported in the UC and were not common in any earlier population. To better understand this phenomenon, the analysis of Y chromosome haplogroups is required, as the Nordic Bronze Age is characterized by the occurrence of the Y-haplogroups I and I118, whereas the UC is mainly characterized by a higher prevalence of I213. More detailed Y chromosome analyses involving a larger number of individuals would also shed more light on the process that resulted in a high prevalence of the mtDNA H haplogroup in the JIA, which is another signal of post-LN demographic changes2. In the case of Kow-OVIA, its genetic root in multiple European populations is evidenced by the fact that 55% of the ancestral haplotypes that were identified in this group were common to populations of the LN/EBA period (the CWC, BBC, and UC). For the JIA, the same origin is observed for only 19% of ancestral haplotypes.

    Finally, we found that the genetic structures of female and male subpopulations of Kow-OVIA were significantly different. This fact cannot be explicitly determined based on the results of individual analyses; however, it is quite evident if one considers the whole set of data presented here including the Fisher test on haplogroup frequencies. The analyses of both mtDNA haplogroups and genetic distances indicated that women from Kowalewko were related closer to the EN/MN populations, and the men were closer to the CWC and UC. This observation may explain why the genetic relationships of Kow-OVIA with other ancient European populations were more complex and more difficult to define as it was in the case of JIA. In analyzing Kow-OVIA, we observed multiple overlapping effects of two subpopulations with different genetic affinities. One would speculate that the genetic profile of Kow-OVIA-F resulted from exogamy that was described for the CWC population36. This is, however, not the case. We found that the genetic differences between women and men were maintained for the entire observation period, i.e., for 200 years (approximately 8 generations). Such a composition of the genetic structure of Kow-OVIA could exist only if at least one subgroup (Kow-OVIA-F or -M) was periodically exchanged. It would further mean that Kowalewko played some specific roles in that region. According to the recent archaeological studies, the colonization pattern in IA Greater Poland could be linked with the existence of a centralized organization system32. Kowalewko could have been one of the important elements of this system. For example, it could have functioned as a garrison for the population closely associated with the JIA, such that warriors stayed in the garrison for only a few years and were then replaced by others. Other scenarios are also possible; however, verification of any hypothesis requires more detailed studies.



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  3. #152
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    I am still at my POH44.
    Here is a short analysis of his components

    POH44 profile decomposed into Slavic and Germanic part according to the selected samples from 1 CE to 800 CE (including Baltic shifted Pohansko samples):


    -------------- ANCESTRY BREAKDOWN: -------------
    34.623% Migration__POH13
    23.909% HUN_Avar_Szolad__Av2
    23.207% VK2020_NOR_South_IA__VK391
    7.841% England_Saxon__I0769
    6.627% Migration__POH28
    2.610% ITA_Rome_Imperial__RMPR37
    0.967% Sarmatian_RUS_Urals__tem002
    0.217% RUS_Alan_MA__DA146
    ------------------------------------------------
    Fit error: 0.03221231208469604




    Components:
    0.23909 HUN_Avar_Szolad__Av2
    0.0261 ITA_Rome_Imperial__RMPR37
    0.34623 Migration__POH13
    0.06627 Migration__POH28
    0.00217 RUS_Alan_MA__DA146
    0.00967 Sarmatian_RUS_Urals__tem002
    -----
    0.68953 POH44_Slavic




    0.23207 VK2020_NOR_South_IA__VK391
    0.07841 England_Saxon__I0769
    -----
    0.31048 POH44_Germanic




    From this analysis it appears that POH44 has 1 grandparent + 1 great-great-grandparent of Germanic origin (25% + 6.25% = 31.25%):








    merged map:



    Code:
    POH44_Slavic,0.139471052,0.13137959,0.079155835,0.078237616,0.052355599,0.024215253,0.021488349,0.000776181,-0.002725471,-0.020338598,-0.00770582,-0.004380661,0.017977575,0.029329586,-0.009978764,0.000721935,0.011355355,-0.009190601,0.007552926,0.006636488,-0.012059105,-0.009169765,0.017869242,-0.016585487,0.00484602
    POH44_Germanic,0.137514854,0.139982744,0.075639829,0.068648174,0.055209117,0.019881549,0.023429114,-0.003218659,-0.010412223,-0.011175934,-0.015313865,-0.000410287,-0.002096917,-0.010611461,0.022164584,0.021029634,0.012159283,-0.008563862,0.000232105,0.002582905,0.001059818,-0.003933281,-0.001575995,0.009279595,0.014311966

    POH44 similarity map:
     
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  5. #153
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    Hi! POH28 is being put on my branch on YFull. I'm the sample from Slovakia, and am in contact with the two Polish individuals. I'm not very adept at many of these things, so can someone please explain what we know about this sample? I would need a rather straightforward explanation, but I do have access to someone with a PhD in biochemistry that even understands Czech, so they could help me decipher technical details.

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  7. #154
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    Quote Originally Posted by rjny38 View Post
    Hi! POH28 is being put on my branch on YFull. I'm the sample from Slovakia, and am in contact with the two Polish individuals. I'm not very adept at many of these things, so can someone please explain what we know about this sample? I would need a rather straightforward explanation, but I do have access to someone with a PhD in biochemistry that even understands Czech, so they could help me decipher technical details.
    Exciting. POH44 still doesn't appear in yfull.

    POH28 is a grave from Pohansko – Jizní Předhradí graveyard, grave: H 42
     
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  9. #155
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  11. #156
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    So PO44 is from the migration era, or early medieval?

    I was under the impression LIB samples are from migration era, and POH from early medieval?

  12. #157
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    Quote Originally Posted by Brent.B View Post
    So PO44 is from the migration era, or early medieval?

    I was under the impression LIB samples are from migration era, and POH from early medieval?
    POH44 is from the EMA (Early Middle Ages) - https://anthrogenica.com/showthread....l=1#post766465
    Last edited by Waldemar; 04-19-2021 at 03:25 PM.

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  14. #158
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    Here are the nearest neighbors of Kowalewko samples in my UMAP in #149.
    Migration.1 looks like a POH.
    The results are a little messy, but nothing impossible.
    Two samples are a neighbor of Migration: 4 and two others are a neighbor of Migration: 6
    There are relatively many neighbors of England Saxons; Migration.9 has even three of them.

    Migration.1
    [1] "Baltic_EST_MA: s19_IIf_1" "DEU_Krakauer_Berg_MA: KRA001" "VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA: VK60"
    [4] "Migration: POH41" "VK2020_POL_Bodzia_VA: VK156" "Scythian_UKR: scy009"
    [7] "VK2020_POL_Bodzia_VA: VK154" "VK2020_UKR_Lutsk_MA: VK541" "HUN_Avar_Szolad: Av1"
    [10] "HUN_Avar_Szolad: Av2" "DEU_Krakauer_Berg_MA: KRA011" "Migration: POH11"
    [13] "DEU_Krakauer_Berg_MA: KRA003" "VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA: VK439"
    Nearest neighbors # 4 and 12 are POH41 and POH11.
    This must be a POH.
    Nearest neighbor of all three DEU_Krakauer_Berg_MA

    Migration.2
    [1] "Migration: 4" "ISL_Viking_Age_Pre_Christian: SVK-A-1"
    [3] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK553" "VK2020_IRL_Dublin_VA: VK546"
    [5] "ITA_Collegno_MA: CL83" "VK2020_Scotland_Orkney_VA: VK204"
    [7] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK489" "VK2020_GreenlandE_VA: VK6"
    [9] "VK2020_SWE_Uppsala_VA: VK527" "VK2020_SWE_Skara_VA: VK404"
    [11] "Iberia_Northeast_c.6CE_PL: I12032" "England_Saxon: I0774"
    [13] "VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA: VK63" "VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA: VK50"
    Nearest neighbor of Migration: 4

    Migration.4
    [1] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK489" "England_Saxon: NO3423" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK484"
    [4] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK508" "ITA_Collegno_MA: CL83" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK555"
    [7] "VK2020_Scotland_Orkney_VA: VK204" "VK2020_DNK_Sealand_IA: VK532" "VK2020_DNK_Sealand_EVA: VK70"
    [10] "VK2020_GreenlandE_VA: VK6" "VK2020_DNK_Sealand_IA: VK521" "VK2020_DNK_Langeland_VA: VK290"
    [13] "VK2020_Faroes_EM: VK236" "VK2020_RUS_Ladoga_VA: VK23"

    Migration.5
    [1] "VK2020_SWE_Uppsala_VA: VK527" "VK2020_RUS_Ladoga_VA: VK23" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK512"
    [4] "VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA: VK57" "VK2020_SWE_Skara_VA: VK404" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK483"
    [7] "VK2020_DNK_Langeland_VA: VK275" "VK2020_DNK_Funen_VA: VK301" "VK2020_NOR_South_VA: VK422"
    [10] "VK2020_England_Oxford_VA: VK147" "VK2020_SWE_Oland_VA: VK533" "Migration: 6"
    [13] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK491" "DEU_MA: STR_480"
    Nearest neighbor of Migration: 6

    Migration.6
    [1] "UKR_Chernyakhiv_Shyshaky: MJ37" "VK2020_DNK_Funen_VA: VK301"
    [3] "Iberia_Northeast_c.6CE_PL: I12031" "SWE_Viking_Age_Sigtuna: vik_84001"
    [5] "VK2020_RUS_Gnezdovo_VA: VK223" "Iberia_Northeast_c.6CE_PL: I12163"
    [7] "England_IA: I0789" "Scythian_MDA_o: scy303"
    [9] "VK2020_DNK_Funen_VA: VK371" "VK2020_RUS_Ladoga_VA: VK15"
    [11] "VK2020_England_Oxford_VA: VK147" "VK2020_RUS_Ladoga_VA: VK23"
    [13] "HUN_MA_Szolad: SZ5" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK490"

    Migration.7
    [1] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK487" "HUN_MA_Szolad_o2: SZ25"
    [3] "VK2020_Scotland_Orkney_VA: VK204" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK491"
    [5] "ITA_Collegno_MA: CL83" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK507"
    [7] "VK2020_DNK_Funen_VA: VK373" "VK2020_DNK_Sealand_IA: VK532"
    [9] "VK2020_DNK_Funen_VA: VK141" "Iberia_Northeast_c.6-8CE_ES: I3777"
    [11] "FRA_Hauts_De_France_IA2: BFM265" "VK2020_NOR_South_VA: VK414"
    [13] "VK2020_RUS_Ladoga_VA: VK219" "DEU_MA: ALH_1"

    Migration.8
    [1] "VK2020_DNK_Langeland_VA: VK366" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK549"
    [3] "VK2020_DNK_Sealand_VA: VK445" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK554"
    [5] "VK2020_SWE_Skara_VA: VK404" "VK2020_DNK_Jutland_VA: VK384"
    [7] "HUN_MA_Szolad: SZ7" "DEU_MA: AED_249"
    [9] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK511" "VK2020_RUS_Ladoga_VA: VK23"
    [11] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK510" "England_Saxon: NO3423"
    [13] "VK2020_SWE_Oland_VA: VK533" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK507"

    Migration.9
    [1] "England_IA: I0156" "VK2020_DNK_Jutland_VA: VK328"
    [3] "VK2020_DNK_Jutland_VA: VK384" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK554"
    [5] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK482" "England_Saxon: I0769"
    [7] "VK2020_NOR_South_VA: VK422" "VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA: VK455"
    [9] "England_Saxon: I0157" "VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA: VK479"
    [11] "DEU_MA_Alemanic_Lombardian: NIEcap6" "VK2020_DNK_Langeland_VA: VK285"
    [13] "VK2020_England_Dorset_VA: VK264" "England_Saxon: I0773"
    Three England Saxons

    Migration.10
    [1] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK553" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK510"
    [3] "VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA: VK50" "ITA_Collegno_MA: CL93"
    [5] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK555" "England_Saxon: NO3423"
    [7] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK489" "VK2020_DNK_Funen_VA: VK316"
    [9] "Migration: 4" "VK2020_DNK_Langeland_VA: VK366"
    [11] "ITA_Collegno_MA: CL151" "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK508"
    [13] "DEU_MA: AED_249" "ITA_Collegno_MA: CL83"
    Nearest neighbor of Migration: 4

    Migration.11
    [1] "VK2020_NOR_South_VA: VK422" "VK2020_England_Oxford_VA: VK147"
    [3] "VK2020_RUS_Ladoga_VA: VK17" "VK2020_England_Oxford_VA: VK168"
    [5] "VK2020_RUS_Gnezdovo_VA: VK223" "SVK_Poprad_MA: DA119"
    [7] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK482" "Migration: 6"
    [9] "VK2020_SWE_Skara_VA: VK34" "VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA: VK57"
    [11] "VK2020_RUS_Ladoga_VA: VK15" "VK2020_SWE_Skara_VA: VK425"
    [13] "VK2020_SWE_Oland_VA: VK332" "Scythian_MDA_o: scy303"
    Nearest neighbor of Migration: 6

    Migration.12
    [1] "ISL_Viking_Age_Early_Christian: KOV-A-2" "SWE_Viking_Age_Sigtuna: vik_nuf002"
    [3] "ITA_Rome_Late_Antiquity: RMPR106" "VK2020_DNK_Jutland_VA: VK326"
    [5] "HUN_MA_Szolad_o2: SZ25" "VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA: VK450"
    [7] "VK2020_Faroes_EM: VK245" "VK2020_SWE_Oland_VA: VK343"
    [9] "VK2020_EST_Saaremaa_EVA: VK480" "VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA: VK430"
    [11] "VK2020_DNK_Langeland_VA: VK292" "VK2020_DNK_Langeland_VA: VK288"
    [13] "VK2020_DNK_Sealand_IA: VK521" "VK2020_Faroes_EM: VK238"

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  16. #159
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    mtDNA (M)
    H4a

    Norway
    Quote Originally Posted by Riverman View Post
    Do we really know when the Baltic and Uralic slight shift started in some Swedish subpopulations? It was present in some samples from the Viking study, but how much do we have from early Germanics? Could it be picked up locally in Poland too? I don't know, I just think these are the questions which need to be answered to be sure.
    There’s the IA-sample RISE174 from Scania, which sure enough is from a later timeframe, but has the necessary genetic profile to be ancestral to modern North Germanics and potentially other Germanic groups too. A Baltic/Uralic-shift, assuming that’s what it is, may have been present in small amounts to give it that profile, as it looks more eastern-like than what’s been found in some contemporary Germanic samples from the continent and elsewhere. There’s something to be said for differing ancestry-proportions from BA-populations too, but that’s another debate.
    Similarly, it looks to me as though both Öland Iron Age-samples (VK579 and VK522) have some type of Baltic/Uralic shift, although perhaps to a slightly higher degree than RISE174. VK579 is dated to 200-400 CE, that should be close chronologically (assuming these Wielbark-samples are indeed the same ones from Stolarek’s study), although we shouldn’t take for granted that the genetic landscape went unchanged from the time of the two preceding centuries. The Jutland Iron Age-sample from Alken Engen (VK582) is from the 1th century CE and rather low quality, but looks comparably western as shown in the PCA.

    Beyond that, I agree that there are many confounding factors. There’s the question of whether the samples represent anything like a homogenous population, the current low resolution of the samples and the possibilities of local admixture-events. That makes it hard to say whether the samples have Swedish-specific drift or not, but I’m finding the seeming overlap with IA-Swedes a bit too coincidental. It makes sense that such a genetic profile would have been brought over from the other side of the Baltic.

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  18. #160
    Registered Users
    Posts
    1,052
    Sex
    Location
    Netherlands
    Ethnicity
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    Y-DNA (P)
    I2a2a1b2-CTS1977
    mtDNA (M)
    H13a1a1

    Netherlands Belgium
    Quote Originally Posted by ph2ter View Post
    I am still at my POH44.
    Here is a short analysis of his components

    POH44 profile decomposed into Slavic and Germanic part according to the selected samples from 1 CE to 800 CE (including Baltic shifted Pohansko samples):


    -------------- ANCESTRY BREAKDOWN: -------------
    34.623% Migration__POH13
    23.909% HUN_Avar_Szolad__Av2
    23.207% VK2020_NOR_South_IA__VK391
    7.841% England_Saxon__I0769
    6.627% Migration__POH28
    2.610% ITA_Rome_Imperial__RMPR37
    0.967% Sarmatian_RUS_Urals__tem002
    0.217% RUS_Alan_MA__DA146
    ------------------------------------------------
    Fit error: 0.03221231208469604




    Components:
    0.23909 HUN_Avar_Szolad__Av2
    0.0261 ITA_Rome_Imperial__RMPR37
    0.34623 Migration__POH13
    0.06627 Migration__POH28
    0.00217 RUS_Alan_MA__DA146
    0.00967 Sarmatian_RUS_Urals__tem002
    -----
    0.68953 POH44_Slavic




    0.23207 VK2020_NOR_South_IA__VK391
    0.07841 England_Saxon__I0769
    -----
    0.31048 POH44_Germanic




    From this analysis it appears that POH44 has 1 grandparent + 1 great-great-grandparent of Germanic origin (25% + 6.25% = 31.25%):






    Code:
    POH44_Slavic,0.139471052,0.13137959,0.079155835,0.078237616,0.052355599,0.024215253,0.021488349,0.000776181,-0.002725471,-0.020338598,-0.00770582,-0.004380661,0.017977575,0.029329586,-0.009978764,0.000721935,0.011355355,-0.009190601,0.007552926,0.006636488,-0.012059105,-0.009169765,0.017869242,-0.016585487,0.00484602
    POH44_Germanic,0.137514854,0.139982744,0.075639829,0.068648174,0.055209117,0.019881549,0.023429114,-0.003218659,-0.010412223,-0.011175934,-0.015313865,-0.000410287,-0.002096917,-0.010611461,0.022164584,0.021029634,0.012159283,-0.008563862,0.000232105,0.002582905,0.001059818,-0.003933281,-0.001575995,0.009279595,0.014311966
    Are you confident that your method to decompose POH44 into a Slavic and a Germanic component is more reliable than an UMAP analysis?

    IMO 31% Germanic is quite a lot.
    In my UMAP analysis in #149 I find that POH44 plots in the center of the Balto-Slavic cluster or even more to the East.
    My list of nearest neighbors is in #158. For Migration.1 I find the next 14 nearest neighbors:

    Baltic_EST_MA:s19_IIf_1
    DEU_Krakauer_Berg_MA:KRA001
    VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA:VK60
    Migration: POH41
    VK2020_POL_Bodzia_VA:VK156
    Scythian_UKR:scy009
    VK2020_POL_Bodzia_VA:VK154
    VK2020_UKR_Lutsk_MA:VK541
    HUN_Avar_Szolad:Av1
    HUN_Avar_Szolad:Av2
    DEU_Krakauer_Berg_MA:KRA011
    Migration: POH11
    DEU_Krakauer_Berg_MA:KRA003
    VK2020_SWE_Gotland_VA:VK439

    I don't doubt that this list is not exact, but it is hard to avoid the conclusion that these are very eastern samples.
    The only "German" samples in the list are the three DEU_Krakauer_Berg_MA samples.
    But Krakauer_Berg_MA is very eastern itself.

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