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Thread: Asia in the Horn. The Indian Ocean trade in Somaliland

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    Quote Originally Posted by drobbah View Post
    Somalis were a periphery people,were not a majority of the Imam's forces especially in the later stages of the war.Yes, some Somalis nomadic clans lived within the Sultanate during that period but the vast majority lived outside of it, which the Futuh calls the country of the Somalis.

    Continue on without me walaalayaal!
    Nothing of what you stated was said in Futuh at all , you are trying to misrepresent the chronicles and spew misinformation to fit your own Hamite invasion narrative about Somalis which you borrowed I'M Lewis. First you did the same with the archeology evidence on the first page and i included what you ommited , that essentially refuted what you said in this post: https://anthrogenica.com/showthread....817#post771817

    Also if we are talking about Futuh or revisionism, show me where Imam Ahmed is mentioned as Afar or what Afar clans were involved in the war. You wont find any. It's ironic you push this nomad narrative when both of these groups like Beja or Afar are mainly pastorialists themselves. Somalis are far more urbanized they are. So it makes no sense what you are arguing.

    Everything i posted in reply to you is backed by medieval documents and manuscripts. The fact that Harla is Darood is not even Darood revisionism either it is literally a field mission report in to Awsa IslHornAfr 6th Field Mission Report

    This is what they found nothing tribalistic about it and they weren't employed by Kacan revisionists either since this was released by an Afar researcher in 2017 and the document they retrieved was collected from Yemen. It only confirms Somali traditions as this archeological study shows A History of Derbé Belanbel Historical and Cultural Site

    Somalis were the main inhabitants in the horn stretching from North & Hararghe into Showa and the Kingdom of Adals stretched over Cape Guardafui to the east according to portuguese writers and Futuh, but many of those Somali groups inn Hararge to the West and beyond were assimilated by Oromo during their expansions. The Great Oromo Expansions are fully documented by Abysinian historians like Bahrey and Portuguese writers like Almeida , Bermudas etc and even in Adal manuscripts preserved by Somalis
    Last edited by Moderator; 05-20-2021 at 01:03 PM. Reason: Quote edited out from previous quoted violation

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    Okay, walaal. Before I reply individually to some of the stuff you've said I need you to address the things I've pointed out before and will add to a bit now. It's important you not gloss over these things as they pretty much invalidate much of your earlier stated hypothesis:

     
    [X] Somalis were definitely never strict pastoral-nomads and always had an agro-pastoral and sedentary farmer subset going back over 1,500 years.

    [X] There are historical coastal and hinterland towns in Sanaag, Bari and Nugaal including quite sizable ruined hinterland towns as far east as Nugaal so your theory that pure pastoral nomad Somalis with no familiarity with urbanism, farming and so forth expanded westwards and absorbed more "civilized" people falls flat on its face.

    [X] There is no linguistic evidence for what you're claiming regarding a large non-Somali population in the northwest being absorbed. No Somali dialect that I know of has a Southern Ethiosemitic or Afar substratum, in fact the latter from what I've been told has an adstratum influence on Somali (came later).

    [X] There is also no genetic evidence. I mean even what you pointed out recently with your father and you is very weak. Elevated Mota influence? I've seen that in other Somali regions to the east and it's not exactly what I'd expect for what you're claiming. We can talk about this when you find things like elevated J1 and J2 frequencies with quite elevated South-Arabian ancestry but so far that is definitely not what the northwest is looking like. You and your father have shown these elevated Mota influences for a long time and, honestly, they look more like something Oromo-Wolayta-like to me than anything like Habeshas.

    [X] The northwest is definitely still a mostly arid region and always was, especially before modern agricultural techniques. Most of its land is good for pastoral nomadism, not settled farming. It would have always supported a large pastoral nomadic and agro-pastoral nomadic population rather than a majority settled farmer population. Not to mention most historical accounts by Arabs make it fairly obvious that there was always a large nomadic population around areas like Zeila and Berbera. There's even the absurdly damning account by al-Umari in the 1300s where he mentions that the local people "cultivate two times annually by seasonal rains … The rainfall for the winter is called ‘Bil’ and rainfall for the ‘summer’ is called ‘Karam’ in the language of the people of Zayla" as these are straight cut outs from the Somali calendar and not even Ethiosemitic.

    [X] There is no known history or tradition of seafaring, boatbuilding or coastal settling by Southern Ethiosemites. It is simply not their thing. Most scholars who agree that they were present in the northwest generally assume their nucleus was in the hinterland and that the coast was mostly Somali for the obvious reason that, as I've shown you, Somalis have a well-established tradition of coastal settling, boat-building and sailing like Arabians and other coastal Cushites.


    I would really appreciate that you explain away all of this, walaal.

    Quote Originally Posted by drobbah View Post
    First of all walaal Mattan bin Uthman was a Gerri Koombe, the Marexaan leader was "a treacherous Somali" by the name of Hiraabu Goita Tewedros, Sultan Muhammad bin Ali was a Harla.....
    Secondly the battle formation you are describing never happened the way you are describing it.There are two occasions I recall where the chronicler mentions how the army was divided. Also Nur ibn Mujahid wasn't Somali let alone Darood.This is nothing more than Kacaan revisionist history to please the last Somali dictator Afweyne.
    Please keep all the Somali clan politics stuff out of this, abowe. Anyway, I pointed out fairly clearly that him being Marehan wasn't originally claimed by Somalis at all but by scholars who went to Harar and read historical manuscripts there like Enrico Cerulli and that German I linked to. You think they were trying to please Siyaad Barre?

    Quote Originally Posted by drobbah
    Secondly the battle formation you are describing never happened the way you are describing it.There are two occasions I recall where the chronicler mentions how the army was divided. Also Nur ibn Mujahid wasn't Somali let alone Darood.This is nothing more than Kacaan revisionist history to please the last Somali dictator Afweyne.
    I've read the book and it's stated that the Harla division is holding up the rightwing whereas the Somalis are holding up the left and, finally the center is held by a seemingly elite force ("Malasai"). Tne right is commanded by the Imam's maternal cousin, Muhammad bin Ali, the left is commanded by his brother-in-law whom I did err in classifying as a Marehan as he is indeed a Geri Kombe Somali whereas the center is held down by the Imam himself:

     
    The storyteller; may God have mercy upon him, says: The imam Ahmad, may the Most High God have mercy upon him, summoned the sultan Muhammad son of the sultan 'All, son of his maternal aunt, and the sheikh Ans, son of the shiekh Sihab bin ‘Abd al-Wahab, son of the sheikh Biiba, " and put under their command all the tribes of the Harla, as for instance the tribe of Zaman Bara, the tribe of Barzara with their chieftain, the tribe of Yaqula, and the tribe of Jasar. the tribe of'Arab Tka, and the tribe of al-Qa: all of these belonged to the Harla. The imam commanded them to hold the Muslims’ right.
    Then in the same way the right wing of the idolaters charged the left wing of the Muslims, made up of the Somali tribes, while the tribes of Tegre and the depraved patricians charged the centre where the imam Ahmad, may God may mercy upon him, was. The imam and his soldiers confronted them w'ith Islamic hearts and Muhammadan high-mindedness.


    As for Muhammad bin Ali being a Somali that seems based on secondary sources who assume the Zarba, who appear a subgroup of the Harla, are Somalis which might not be entirely unfounded like Mirix points out. But either way, at least 1-2 people among his foremost commanders were Somalis and his own sister was married off to one. Is that something that is normally done for periphery mercenary people?

    Quote Originally Posted by drobbah
    Now Awale, why don't you answer this simple question.Where is the land of the Somalis mentioned numerous times in the Futuh? Why did the Sultans of Zeila (Walashma dynasty) differentiate themselves from the Somalis if they ruled over at minimum a presumably Somali city?
    The Futuh would probably not call areas more along the west where it points out that Somali tribes live among other groups as strictly Somali like ("Country of the Somalis") but where is Zeila or Awdal ever mentioned not to be inhabited by Somalis or to be majority anything non-Somali? Zeila is mentioned like 8 times in the book and nothing is really stated about its demography. Even the Harla whom I guess you think were the majority in that area are mentioned about 11 times in the book and never once as the majority of Zeila or some grand elite or anything like that. Somalis in comparison come up 77 times. And please explain how these quotes imply that Walashma are definitely not Somali:

     
    After this, one of the foremost Sultans called Ura'i Abun camed to the Imam.When the country had been torn by disputes, he had gone to live with the Somalis.He became reconciled with the Imam and the latter gave him a district for his support.
    After this, the Sultan Abu Bakr, son of the Sultan Muhammad bin Azr from the stock of Sa'ad Din, stood up against Garaad Abun.He raised against him a band of Somalis whom he had recruited from among the riff-raff and highwaymen
    The Somalis wearied of the looting of their possessions and the the ravaging of their country, so they accom[[anied their ruler Hirabu and went to see the Imam and all of them became reconciled with him in a convenant that was sincere and agreeabe
    Hiraabu chieftain of the Somali tribe of Marexaan, killed one of the equerries of the Sultan Umar Din when he was in Nagab.The Imam heard about what Hiraabu had done, and he said to the Sultan. This Somali has acted treacherously towards you and killed your equerry.So the Imam and the Sultan with him, prepared himself for an expedition and set out and arrived at the country of the Somalis, as far as Kidad. Hiraabu, meantime had fled and was hiding in his own country.......The Sharifs (Ba'Alawi) reached him in the region of the Hawiya
    In the meantime the Somali tribes, since they taken booty and collected horses,mules,oxen,donkeys,slaves and fabrics held a metting by themselves.They said, "We have taken vast booty, so now let us go to the Imam and urge him to make the way clear for us to return to our country.If he agrees then there is no harm done. if he refuses, then we shall run away to our country, without his permission


    Let me add to those quotes, walaal:

     
    After this, the sultan Abu Bakr,42 son of the sultan Muhammad bin Azr from the stock of Sacd ad-Din, stood up against Garad Abun. He raised against him a band of Somalis4' whom he had recruited from among the riff raff and highwaymen. They fought against Garad Abun and waged a bloody battle against him, killing Garad Abun bin Adas in his homeland as he defended his country and his family44 He died a martyr’s death. May the Most High God have pity on him.
    When the sultan and the Somalis he had with him heard the news about them and what they had done during the jihad against the infidels, and the booty they had taken, they were overcome with anxiety and fear, and fled the country, he and the Somalis with him, to a town called Kidad in the country of the Somalis.

    The imam Ahmad bin Ibrahim and his companions heard news of the flight of the sultan and his Somalis from the country, and set out alter them and reached Kidad and ran the sultan and his Somalis to earth in a place called Qam - a river filled with much water - at mid-day.'4

    They organised their forces and joined battle, and the sultan and his Somalis were put to flight. A troop of them was killed. The imam took thirty horses from amongst their mounts, as booty. They sacked their country, and collected vast booty from it. The imam and his companions returned to their country, Harar, part of the land of Sabd ad-Din.53

    They had not settled down very long when the sultan Abu Bakr assembled a force against the imam Ahmad and his companions, made up of an immense army of Somalis and others. Their horses and troops were so numerous as to be incalculable. They all rcached the district, that is to say, Harar. When the imam and his companions heard of their coming, they withdrew from the country and proceeded to the town called Hubat Zcbcrta. In Hubat there was a high mountain which they climbed.
    The sultan found out about the imam and his taking over his country as well as his horses, and made preparations for attacking him. He assembled a vast army from the country of the Somalis and beyond. Bringing with him innumerable horses and a great army, he drew near to where the imam was.


    Seems to me like the Sultan generally had a thing for recruiting forces from among Somalis in particular. He is never explicitly called a "Somali" himself but that still doesn't rule anything out as the Futuh avoids explicitly stating the tribe of the top Adal elites for whatever reason, the Imam included. Some historians think this was very deliberate in order to not make the jihad out to be an ethnic conflict or one or so group's war. That is definitely something you ought to be mentioning, walaal. That leaders like the Sultan and the Imam are never clearly stated to belong to any particular group. It's actually very weird because if you read the Futuh it almost always immediately gives you a leader's tribal origins. But for the Imam and the Walashma it's a blank. Even for Mahfuz from what I remember. I see what some of these scholars mean about a deliberate attempt to conceal their identities. That being said, if the Sultans are something like the Harla, why is it that everytime they are mentioned they mainly recruit from among the Somalis? Out of the 77 times Somalis are mentioned in the book at least 20 or so of those times seem to be in relation to the Sultan whereas Harlas are mentioned a total of 11 times in the book and not once in relation to the Walashma Sultan.

    Besides, do you really think a man who wrote up a Somali nomenclature for the Arabic script (see here) and who went by Shaykh Abu Barakat al Barbari, which is like going by "al-Somali" to medieval Arabs, was not a Somali? And that guy is recounted as their founding ancestor, walaal. I also don't think medieval Arabs were blind. The simple fact is that they knew "Bebera/Berberi" people as dark-skinned herders and made no real distinction between the ones in the north and ones in the south or those in the west and east. I think they would have noticed or been told about the differences by locals if the northwest was basically medieval Harari land whilst the east and south were where actual Somalis could be found.

    Quote Originally Posted by drobbah
    Also have you noticed some of these Somalis carried what we in modern times would consider Habesha Orthodox names? Names like Hiraabu Goita Tewedros or the leader of the Habar Magaadle Garaad Dawit.What do you make of it?
    What Mirix says about forced conversions and an eventual return to Islam by them or their descendants sounds sensible. In fact, I remember such an instance being described in the Futuh.
    Last edited by Awale; 05-17-2021 at 09:23 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Awale View Post
    Okay, walaal. Before I reply individually to some of the stuff you've said I need you to address the things I've pointed out before and will add to a bit now. It's important you not gloss over these things as they pretty much invalidate much of your earlier stated hypothesis:

    [spoiler][X] Somalis were definitely never strict pastoral-nomads and always had an agro-pastoral and sedentary farmer subset going back over 1,500 years.
    You are very right on this the earliest Somalis were infact agro-pastorals, practiced farming supplemented with cattle and commerce with the coastal cities and that it seems from the looks of it according Historical linguistics.

    Infact linguistic evidence shows abundance of native cultivation related words in the both Northern and coastal and southern Somali language dialects: A LINGUISTIC OUTLINE OF EARLY SOMALI HISTORY

    Heine's linguistic analysis doesn't explain the presence of proto-Somali cultivation and cattle vocabulary, which are
    available widely in both Coastal-Northern and Riverine dialects , as demonstrated below.

    A significant cultivation vocabulary can be traced to the proto- Somali era, including such words as:

    qot : 'to dig, to cultiv~te'

    masango: 'sorghum'

    mooye: 'mortar'

    Kibis: 'bread'
    In a different thread he tried to suggest that Bantus influenced farming in the south but there is no linguistic or cultural evidence for this at all. Farming goes back to proto-Somali era, it was introduced 6000 years ago.

    Al-Umari pretty much confirms that North Western Somalis engaged in farming, he even confirms that Somalis were main inhabitants of Zeila by his discription of their language. In the south Al Idrisi even relay how Hawiye were agro-pastoral famers along Shabelle rivers in the Merka and Mogadishu hinterland cultivating Durra.

    Somalis seem to have practiced economically varried activities throughout their history.

    Seems to me like the Sultan generally had a thing for recruiting forces from among Somalis in particular. He is never explicitly called a "Somali" himself but that still doesn't rule anything out as the Futuh avoids explicitly stating the tribe of the top Adal elites for whatever reason, the Imam included. Some historians think this was very deliberate in order to not make the jihad out to be an ethnic conflict or one or so group's war. That is definitely something you ought to be mentioning, walaal. That leaders like the Sultan and the Imam are never clearly stated to belong to any particular group. It's actually very weird because if you read the Futuh it almost always immediately gives you a leader's tribal origins. But for the Imam and the Walashma it's a blank. Even for Mahfuz from what I remember. I see what some of these scholars mean about a deliberate attempt to conceal their identities. That being said, if the Sultans are something like the Harla, why is it that everytime they are mentioned they mainly recruit from among the Somalis? Out of the 77 times Somalis are mentioned in the book at least 20 or so of those times seem to be in relation to the Sultan whereas Harlas are mentioned a total of 11 times in the book and not once in relation to the Walashma Sultan.

    Besides, do you really think a man who wrote up a Somali nomenclature for the Arabic script (see here) and who went by Shaykh Abu Barakat al Barbari, which is like going by "al-Somali" to medieval Arabs, was not a Somali? And that guy is recounted as their founding ancestor, walaal. I also don't think medieval Arabs were blind. The simple fact is that they knew "Bebera/Berberi" people as dark-skinned herders and made no real distinction between the ones in the north and ones in the south or those in the west and east. I think they would have noticed or been told about the differences by locals if the northwest was basically medieval Harari land whilst the east and south were where actual Somalis could be found.
    I don't think there was deliberate attempt in Futuh to conceal identites for example it only mentions the clan accompanying that said person and some peoples clans are not mentioned because they were not clan leaders or cheiftains.

    Both Garaad Abun and Imam Ahmed for example their clan is not mentioned despite the fact that their fathers clan Garaad Ibrahim and Garaad Cadaadshe are mentioned as Balow because they were leader of it. Whereas the other two were non-clanal rulers comanding a large diverse group. The same with the sultans they were state rulers.

    Furthermore the whole book is written by an Arab Faqih he is an outsider that is included in and gives vague unexplained impressions throughout the book , he doesn't even relate what language people spoke and says ''The language of the Muslims''. Like what is that? He records what he sees and hears. Barely interested in explaining or going in depth. Employs Arab style literary tradition when he speaks about people.

    But despite that you can easily infer what clan Walashma rulers were and they were most likely Harla Darood from the looks of it. When Ibn Said spoke about Walashma he recorded Harla in the place they resisded in at Awfat. The Walashma trace descent from Aqeel ibn Talib and Al-Jabarti which is esentially the Darood clan lineage and the region from North and West was called Land of Jabarta which is what they called Darood clans at that time and they also trace descent from Aw Barkhadle like many other Somalis do.

    The rulers used Somali saintly traditions and reappropiated the pagan Waaq rituals to legitimize their rule according to Sada Mire:Divine Fertility: The Continuity in Transformation of an Ideology of Sacred
    Last edited by Mirix; 05-17-2021 at 10:08 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by drobbah View Post

    Camels are not everyday meat in the Horn. These animals are slaughtered “on feast days, religious occasions of special significance, and for the important occasions of births, marriages and deaths only.This suggests Ibn Battuta came during a medieval trade fair which probably attracted nomadic Somalis from the east but also different folks in the region (like the possibly Ethio-Semitic Harla).Also it is very likely non-Somali (Cushitic or heavlily Cushitic admixed) population lived in Zeila and Ibn Battuta wouldn't be able to differentiate between the different Horners.
    Zeila was very likely heavily Somali by the 14th Century if not from the very beginning. A source that was written within Ibn Battuta lifespan distinguishes between the Habasha and the Az-Zayla' who were Muslims occupied the land south of them. Which when considered Ibn Battuta's account supports the case that the city was likely heavily Somali.


    The countries (lying south of Egypt) are very numerous and contain many different peoples such as the Ḥabasha, the Zanj, the Nūba, the Takrūr, the Zayla' and others

    "South of the Ḥabasha live the Zayla' among whom the prevailing religion is Islam."

    -Abu-l-Fida, Taqwīm al-buldān, 1321 AD





    An earlier source from the 10th century on the other hand indicate that Zeila was somehow tied to the Abyssinian Empire.


    The chief town of the Ḥabasha is called Ku'bar, which is a large town and the residence of the Najāshī, whose empire extends to the coasts, opposite to Yemen, and possesses such towns as Zayla', Dahlak and Nāsi'.

    Al-Mas'udi, Mūrūj adh-dhahab wa-ma'ādin al-jawāhir, 956 AD.
    These earlier source unfortunately doesn't distinguish between various African populations very well, Al-Mas'udi seemed to use Habasha to refer to a very wide variety of peoples. Interestingly he also seems to have called labeled some Waaqist Cushitic population Zanj which was a title that was typically limited to Southeast African populations in both earlier and later texts.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Mnemonics View Post
    Zeila was very likely heavily Somali by the 14th Century if not from the very beginning. A source that was written within Ibn Battuta lifespan distinguishes between the Habasha and the Az-Zayla' who were Muslims occupied the land south of them. Which when considered Ibn Battuta's account supports the case that the city was likely heavily Somali.








    An earlier source from the 10th century on the other hand indicate that Zeila was somehow tied to the Abyssinian Empire.



    These earlier source unfortunately doesn't distinguish between various African populations very well, Al-Mas'udi seemed to use Habasha to refer to a very wide variety of peoples. Interestingly he also seems to have called labeled some Waaqist Cushitic population Zanj which was a title that was typically limited to Southeast African populations in both earlier and later texts.
    Al Umari in his study pretty much describes the language and cultivation practices of the Awdal populations: Somali Calendar

    In his study in 1340s about the history of Awdal, the medieval state in western and northern parts of historical Somalia and some related
    areas, Al-Umari of Cairo states that in the land of Zayla’ (Awdal) “they cultivate two times annually by seasonal rains … The rainfall for the winter is called ‘Bil’ and rainfall for the ‘summer’ is called ‘Karam’ in the language of the people of Zayla’ [Awdali Somalis].”21 The author’s description about seasons generally corresponds to the local seasons in historical Awdal where Karan or Karam is an important rainy season at the beginning of the year. The second half of the year is called ‘Bilo Dirir’, (bil = month; bilo = months).

    But the name Awdal makes it painfully obvious. The fact it's recorded in that spelling in the 13th century by Al-Dimashqi and Somalis still know Zeila surrounding regions by this name Is proof enough: The Cambridge History of Africa:

    But there is no doubt that Zeila was also predominantly Somali, and Al-Dimashqi, another thirteen-century Arab writer, gives the city name its Somali name Awdal (Adal), still known among the local Somali.

    Furthermore i have seen some authors mistankingly translate Habashi into Abyssinian or Ethiopian but when medieval Arab writers used it was a broad Ethno-geographical term that hardly if ever distinguished between the different Cushitic/Semetic horner groups from eachother and most often than not they were speaking of Coastal muslims by the red sea and not Christian Highlanders:

    This book examining medieval and early modern Muslim texts carefully explains it: Jews, Christians and Muslims in Medieval and Early Modern Times:

    The rest of the designations are broadly ethno-geographical. Red Sea East Africans appear as Ḥabashī, or Abyssinian, which in the Geniza context generally applies to Muslims from the Red Sea coastlands rather than from the Ethiopian highlands.

    A lot of them were broadly ethno-graphical terms. But their mode of life etc and the description of their language reveals who they were.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Mirix View Post
    You are very right on this the earliest Somalis were infact agro-pastorals, practiced farming supplemented with cattle and commerce with the coastal cities and that it seems from the looks of it according Historical linguistics.
    What I find confusing about all this is that the Futuh itself explicitly states that the Somalis have cities and mentions one town, Kidad, which drobbah has quoted himself:

     
    Those Somalis who had entered the service of the imam Ahmad and the previously mentioned Sultan Ura‘i Abun, were with the imam as w'e mentioned before, and the tribe of Habr Maqdi, which the imam put to flight, had plundered their territory.

    The tribe of Girri complained to the imam, saying to him, ‘They would never have ravaged our country if we had not entered your service, and made peace with you’. This distressed the imam Ahmad who organised his forces and went to the country of the Somalis, to the Habr Maqdi who were engaging in brigandage and plundering the possessions of the Muslims, time after time.

    The imam defeated them and plundered their wealth a second time, destroying their cities which he reduced to ashes and then he turned around and went back to his country.
    When the sultan and the Somalis he had with him heard the news about them and what they had done during the jihad against the infidels, and the booty they had taken, they were overcome with anxiety and fear, and fled the country, he and the Somalis with him, to a town called Kidad in the country of the Somalis.


    So what is all this about pure pastoral nomads with no concept of urbanism? The document itself refutes this.

    Quote Originally Posted by drobbah View Post
    Now Awale, why don't you answer this simple question.Where is the land of the Somalis mentioned numerous times in the Futuh? Why did the Sultans of Zeila (Walashma dynasty) differentiate themselves from the Somalis if they ruled over at minimum a presumably Somali city?
    I apologize cos I didn't give this bit a full reply earlier as I had to go. But I'm confused, walaal. Are you implying that the "Country of the Somalis" mentioned about four times in the book is somewhere far to the east like eastern Somaliland and Puntland? That doesn't make sense to me:

     

    Among the Somali tribes there was another called Habr Maqdi, from which the imam had demanded the alms tax. They refused to pay it, resorting to banditry on the roads, and acting evilly towards the country. The imam set out for a locality known as Ra’bud, between the country of the Muslims and the country of the infidels, as if he intended going on to Abyssinia. But then he doubled back towards the country of the Somali evil doers. The Somalis were routed, and the imam Ahmad followed them almost to the sea, a day’s march. He plundered their territory thoroughly and devastated it. Then he turned round and went back.

    Those Somalis who had entered the service of the imam Ahmad and the previously mentioned Sultan Ura‘i Abun, were with the imam as w'e mentioned before, and the tribe of Habr Maqdi, which the imam put to flight, had plundered their territory.

    The tribe of Girri complained to the imam, saying to him, ‘They would never have ravaged our country if we had not entered your service, and made peace with you’. This distressed the imam Ahmad who organised his forces and went to the country of the Somalis, to the Habr Maqdi who were engaging in brigandage and plundering the possessions of the Muslims, time after time.

    The imam defeated them and plundered their wealth a second time, destroying their cities which he reduced to ashes and then he turned around and went back to his country.

    The Somalis wearied of the looting of their possessions and the ravaging of their country, so they accompanied their ruler Hirabu and went to see the imam, and all of them became reconciled with him in a covenant that was sincere and agreeable.
    The storyteller; may God have mercy upon him, says: Then Hirabu the chieftain of the Somali tribe of Marraihan, killed one of the equerries of the sultan ‘Umar Din when he was in Nagab. The imam heard about what Hirabu had done, and he said to the Sultan ‘Umar Din, 'This Somali has acted treacherously towards you and killed your equerry,’ So the imam, and the sultan with him, prepared himself for an expedition and set out and arrived at the country of the Somalis, as far as Kidad. Hirabu, meantime, had fled and was hiding in his own country.

    The imam asked the sultan, ‘What shall we do now? I am going to send for him to hand over the horses, and to pay the blood-money. If he does so, then all is well; if he does not, then I shall go against him, while you go back to your country.’ So the imam sent to Hirabu to hand over the horses, and to pay the blood-money to some sharifs of the family of Ba ‘Alawi, the Husainites, may God bless us through their means.

    | [The sixth jihad ]

    The sharifs reached him in the region of the Hawiya where he was. He greeted them courteously, and sent back with them the horses and the
    blood-money. They returned to Kidad and handed over the horses and the blood-money to the imam Ahmad and the sultan. The imam then said to the sultan, ‘This Hirabu has done all that we asked of him. The sultan and the chieftains replied, ‘Let us return to our country/ To which the imam rejoined, "Rather, let us set off on a raid into the country of Bali.


    In these mentions of the "Country of the Somalis" the territory is apparently close enough to the border between Muslim and Christian lands for him to just immediately double back from being on the edge and raid it. And at one point he is mentioned to be in the region of the "Hawiya". Then of course the chieftain he is chasing down in the second set of quotes is Marehan. Do you believe Marehans and Hawiyes lived as far east as Sanaag and beyond back then? Even though all later historical accounts of these clans outside of southern Somalia tells us they lived even further west than Awdal and in the general vicinity of Harar with no signs of them anywhere as far east as Sanaag, Sool, Bari or Nugaal? Then we have the other two tribes mentioned, the Girri and the Habr Maqdi. You believe Dirs and Geri Kombes lived as far east as Sanaag back then? Also, notice which clan is never mentioned when "The Country of the Somalis" is used in these 4 instances in the book; the Harti who are associated in the Futuh with the settlement of Maydh far away to the east in Sanaag. So I really am confused if your argument is that the country of the Somalis is some far eastern, periphery region when it clearly seems very much to the west, near the border with Christian lands and seemingly not far from places like Harar.

    Another thing to keep in mind is that there are two main "countries" spoken of in the book. "The Country of the Muslims" and "The Country of the Christians". All the other countries and regions appear mere districts of these two. In fact, at one point the Somali and Harla territories where the same Somali tribes mentioned above live are both referred to as "districts" from which the Imam recruits troops:

     

    It was after this that the Mahra party and the sharif Muhammad reached the imam who feted their coming on account of the jihad ; and then he sent to all the districts of the Somalis and to the tribes of Harla. Then all the tribes rose up.

    The first tribe to come up was the Habr Maqdi with their lord Garad Dawit, fifty knights and five-hundred foot-soldiers. After them the Marraihan came up, with their lord Ahmad bin Hirabu, with eighty knights and seven-hundred foot-soldiers. After them came up the Gorgorah with Garad kabd their chieftain, and thirty knights and one-thousand foot-soldiers.

    Then the tribe of Girri came up, with their chieftain Garad Mattan along with eighty knights and one-thousand foot-soldiers. In the same way the tribe of Zarba came up from Harla with their lord the sultan Muhammad with twenty knights and three-hundred foot-soldiers. The tribes assembled - all of them volunteers and on good terms with one another. The number of the horses in readiness was around five-hundred, and there were twelve-thousand foot-soldiers, not to mention those who carried the provisions and other things besides
    .


    There is even a "Muslim district" not named after Somalis that was at one point controlled by Somali tribes:

    It was while the Muslims were encamped in the region of Ayfars, that Farasaham ‘All came to them, accompanied by six knights and two-hundred foot-soldiers. He embraced Islam, and his conversion was genuine. This man had been a Muslim who had gone up from Jalbi, a Muslim district, at the time when the Somalis had taken control of it after the death of the Sultan Muhammad, may the Most High God have mercy upon him. He made up his mind to go up to the land of Abyssinia, with Ahmad Goita and soldiers from the people of Najab.
    And judging by the fact that the Muslims provision themselves in Kidad, in the country of the Somalis, then set off for Bali and end up in this place called Jalbi on the way you can assume it is somewhere between Bali, which is this far west, and this particular Somali region:

    So then the Muslims, provisioned from Kidad, set off in the direction of Bali until they came to one of the Muslim provinces in the land of Jalbi, called Dalfal: the market place of Jalbi. The people of the country made them welcome and the sharif Hasem bin ‘Umar as-Satari, the sharif sheikh bin ‘Abd Allah and Hasem bin az-Zafai met with them. This latter was a well- known mystic, God’s servant, a holy man and famous. May the Most High God have mercy upon them all; may they shower down their blessings upon us. They made the Muslims welcome, and these rested four days in Dalfai. Then they organised themselves, and marched off towards Bali arriving at a place known as the Wabi, a mighty river that flowed through many countries. We mentioned it earlier on in the book.
    Why provision yourself in a region as far away as Sanaag or even Togdheer to go to Bali? And how did periphery mercenary people come to control a Muslim region seemingly close to Bali? So I don't know where you get this impression that the Country of the Somalis mentioned in the Futuh is some separate entity off to the east and not just a sub-region of the wider Muslim lands the Imam and the Sultans exert their influence over.

    Quote Originally Posted by drobbah View Post
    Somalis were a periphery people,were not a majority of the Imam's forces especially in the later stages of the war.Yes, some Somalis nomadic clans lived within the Sultanate during that period but the vast majority lived outside of it, which the Futuh calls the country of the Somalis.

    Continue on without me walaalayaal!!
    I would advise against personalizing discussions, walaal. It is against the rules here. Not to mention the fact that your accusations seem a little ridiculous given that the sources myself and Mirix shared are from non-Somalis like an Italian, a German and an Afar who did things like review manuscripts in Harar and speak to people involved in all this in person. What on earth does any of that have to do with Afweyn? For the non-Somalis reading; drobbah is implying things like Nur ibn Mujahid being Marehan and the Harla being Darods is pre-civil war propaganda made to please the dictator Siyaad Barre (Afweyn = big mouth / a nod at this overbite, rofl) who was of Marehan origins. Unfounded but also pretty offensive considering I have relatives who were murdered on the man's orders.

    Quote Originally Posted by Mirix View Post
    Harla Genealogy
    The Harla are mentioned a total of 8 times in the book (word used 11 times):

     
    So, after that, the Muslims stood their ground. The tribe of the Somalis said, 'it was the tribe of Harla2"1 that gave us away,’ while the tribe of Harla said, it was the Somali tribe that gave us away’.

    ...

    The imam split his forces into three divisions: all the Somalis were in one division whose command he entrusted to Mattan; another division was made up of the [tribe of] Harla whose command he gave to the sultan Muhammad, son of the imam’s maternal aunt; and the other division was made up of the Malasai. a people used to incursions and to a thorough-going jihad upon whom he could rely in battle: heroic leaders, over whom was the imam, who ordered them to stand resolute so that they never became disunited. At the time when the Muslims deserted, seeking their own country, these stood firm

    ...

    The storyteller; may God have mercy upon him, says: The imam Ahmad, may the Most High God have mercy upon him, summoned the sultan Muhammad son of the sultan 'All, son of his maternal aunt, and the sheikh Ans, son of the shiekh Sihab bin ‘Abd al-Wahab, son of the sheikh Biiba, " and put under their command all the tribes of the Harla, as for instance the tribe of Zaman Bara, the tribe of Barzara with their chieftain, the tribe of Yaqula, and the tribe of Jasar. the tribe of Arab Tka, and the tribe of al-Qa: all of these belonged to the Harla. The imam commanded them to hold the Muslims’ right.

    ...

    Now for what happened to those from the people of Harla who were holding the Muslim right wing: the first, second and third ranks [of the Abyssinians] charged them, and the fighting between them revolved like a mill-stone, with men's heads being cut off. The Abyssinians committed more forces against the Muslim right. But the Muslims endured with a remarkable endurance.

    ...

    Among the leaders of the Muslims who were killed was Hamzah al- Juf who died a martyr on this day. may God the Most High have mercy upon him. Also killed was Jadid Kurju; and the muezzin of Garad Abun, Kabir Ibrahim; and the Qur’anic teacher Muhammad the preacher from Sim; Dallu [of] Bali; Muhammad [of] Dawaro. Five-thousand Muslims from the tribes of the Somalis, Harla, Malasai and desert Arabs were killed. God put his seal of martyrdom upon them, introducing them to the Garden of delights, bestowed upon them the pleasures of the table, houris with black eyes, and lavished on them his all-pervasive Favour. In it [the garden of paradise] lasting blessing shall be theirs; abiding there for ever. Surely God carries a mighty reward with him'.

    ...


    Thereupon the emir Husain bin Abu Bakr al-Gaturl arose and said to the imam Ahmad, ‘This will never happen. If they want war. then we will assemble our armies from the people of Sim and from the Somali tribes: the tribe of Girri, the tribe of Habr Maqdi, the tribe of Harla, for our armies have been dispersed. How can we do as they wish? We shall not surrender the country to them.’

    ...

    The storyteller, may the Most High God have mercy upon him, says: When the desire for a raiding party and a jihad had been rekindled in the imam Ahmad, may the Most High God have mercy upon him, he went down, first of all, to a country called Zarba, in the region of Harla. Then he sent to Zayla‘ to have weapons of war, swords and the like, procured for him. He also ordered them to buy for him some cannon because he wanted to take them with him on the raid into Abyssinia. They bought him what he desired and brought back to him seven cannon.

    ...

    It was after this that the Mahra party and the sharif Muhammad reached the imam who feted their coming on account of the jihad ; and then he sent to all the districts of the Somalis and to the tribes of Harla. Then all the tribes rose up.

    The first tribe to come up was the Habr Maqdi with their lord Garad Dawit, fifty knights and five-hundred foot-soldiers. After them the Marraihan came up, with their lord Ahmad bin Hirabu, with eighty knights and seven-hundred foot-soldiers. After them came up the Gorgorah with Garad kAbd their chieftain, and thirty knights and one-thousand foot-soldiers.

    Then the tribe of Girri came up, with their chieftain Garad Mattan along with eighty knights and one-thousand foot-soldiers. In the same way the tribe of Zarba came up from Harla with their lord the sultan Muhammad with twenty knights and three-hundred foot-soldiers. The tribes assembled - all of them volunteers and on good terms with one another.


    In about 4 of those instances the Harla are spoken of like they are a separate entity from the Somali tribes whereas in one where they are mentioned above with the Habar Maqdi and Geri Kombe they are oddly listed as though they are a Somali tribe. You maybe assuming the author means that they are of the "people of sim" and not Somalis in that quote but he tells us earlier and later who "people of sim" seems to refer to:

    At that time the imam assembled his forces and called up his army. He tied a white standard to a spear, and entrusted it to the wazir ‘Addoli and the people of Sim rallied to him, from the tribe of the Somalis the Habr Maqdi, and the tribe of Ahmad Girri, and with them two-hundred cavalry and two- thousand infantry like savage lions.

    ...

    Then he split his force into three divisions. The first consisted of the people of Sim, the tribe of Marraihan and Bar Tarri which are the Habr Maqdi, and the people of Jawatir: they were under the command of the wazir ‘Addoli.


    Anyway, despite being given the rightwing of the army the Harla don't seem otherwise very important during the war. They are mentioned very few times in a 400 page book and, oddly, possibly aren't even led by one of their own chieftains into battle unlike the Somali right which is led by the Geri Kombe chieftain who is the Imam's brother-in-law. I assumed Muhammad bin Ali was a Harla because "Zarba" is mentioned to be a country in the region of Harla but when the Harla tribes are all listed out Zarba is not mentioned as one and he is never explicitly called a Harla either so can't be sure on that count.
    Last edited by Moderator; 05-20-2021 at 10:12 PM. Reason: Quote edited out from previous quoted violation

  11. The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Awale For This Useful Post:

     drobbah (05-19-2021),  Mirix (05-19-2021)

  12. #27
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    Quote Originally Posted by Awale View Post
    What I find confusing about all this is that the Futuh itself explicitly states that the Somalis have cities and mentions one town, Kidad, which drobbah has quoted himself:

     




    So what is all this about pure pastoral nomads with no concept of urbanism? The document itself refutes this.



    I apologize cos I didn't give this bit a full reply earlier as I had to go. But I'm confused, walaal. Are you implying that the "Country of the Somalis" mentioned about four times in the book is somewhere far to the east like eastern Somaliland and Puntland? That doesn't make sense to me:

     





    In these mentions of the "Country of the Somalis" the territory is apparently close enough to the border between Muslim and Christian lands for him to just immediately double back from being on the edge and raid it. And at one point he is mentioned to be in the region of the "Hawiya". Then of course the chieftain he is chasing down in the second set of quotes is Marehan. Do you believe Marehans and Hawiyes lived as far east as Sanaag and beyond back then? Even though all later historical accounts of these clans outside of southern Somalia tells us they lived even further west than Awdal and in the general vicinity of Harar with no signs of them anywhere as far east as Sanaag, Sool, Bari or Nugaal? Then we have the other two tribes mentioned, the Girri and the Habr Maqdi. You believe Dirs and Ogadenis lived as far east as Sanaag back then? Also, notice which clan is never mentioned when "The Country of the Somalis" is used in these 4 instances in the book; the Harti who are associated in the Futuh with the settlement of Maydh far away to the east in Sanaag. So I really am confused if your argument is that the country of the Somalis is some far eastern, periphery region when it clearly seems very much to the west, near the border with Christian lands and seemingly not far from places like Harar.

    Another thing to keep in mind is that there are two main "countries" spoken of in the book. "The Country of the Muslims" and "The Country of the Christians". All the other countries and regions appear mere districts of these two. In fact, at one point the Somali and Harla territories where the same Somali tribes mentioned above live are both referred to as "districts" from which the Imam recruits troops:

     



    There is even a "Muslim district" not named after Somalis that was at one point controlled by Somali tribes:



    And judging by the fact that the Muslims provision themselves in Kidad, in the country of the Somalis, then set off for Bali and end up in this place called Jalbi on the way you can assume it is somewhere between Bali, which is this far west, and this particular Somali region:



    Why provision yourself in a region as far away as Sanaag or even Togdheer to go to Bali? And how did periphery mercenary people come to control a Muslim region seemingly close to Bali? So I don't know where you get this impression that the Country of the Somalis mentioned in the Futuh is some separate entity off to the east and not just a sub-region of the wider Muslim lands the Imam and the Sultans exert their influence over.



    I would advise against personalizing discussions, walaal. It is against the rules here. Not to mention the fact that your accusations seem a little ridiculous given that the sources myself and Mirix shared are from non-Somalis like an Italian, a German and an Afar who did things like review manuscripts in Harar and speak to people involved in all this in person. What on earth does any of that have to do with Afweyn? For the non-Somalis reading; drobbah is implying things like Nur ibn Mujahid being Marehan and the Harla being Darods is pre-civil war propaganda made to please the dictator Siyaad Barre (Afweyn = big mouth / a nod at this overbite, rofl) who was of Marehan origins. Unfounded but also pretty offensive considering I have relatives who were murdered on the man's orders.



    The Harla are mentioned a total of 8 times in the book (word used 11 times):

     


    In about 4 of those instances the Harla are spoken of like they are a separate entity from the Somali tribes whereas in one where they are mentioned above with the Habar Maqdi and Geri Kombe they are oddly listed as though they are a Somali tribe. You maybe assuming the author means that they are of the "people of sim" and not Somalis in that quote but he tells us earlier and later who "people of sim" seems to refer to:



    Anyway, despite being given the rightwing of the army the Harla don't seem otherwise very important during the war. They are mentioned very few times in a 400 page book and, oddly, possibly aren't even led by one of their own chieftains into battle unlike the Somali right which is led by the Geri Kombe chieftain who is the Imam's brother-in-law. I assumed Muhammad bin Ali was a Harla because "Zarba" is mentioned to be a country in the region of Harla but when the Harla tribes are all listed out Zarba is not mentioned as one and he is never explicitly called a Harla either so can't be sure on that count.
    Arab Faqih doesn't specify where the Bliad al-Soomaal is . It is impossible to locate where this is and people who analyzed in Futah have come to understand this. And his usage of bilad is vague, and he uses it different ways. The "Futuh al-Habasa" : the writing of history, war and society in the "Bar Sa'ad ad-din" (Ethiopia, 16th century)


    From the text of ‘Arab Faqīh, the space inhabited by the Somali seems to be
    separate from Bar Sa’ad ad-dīn. It is impossible to locate it.
    On the one hand, the term (bilād - د t ب ( is used in a sentence246 to designate both the "country of the Muslims" (المسلمين د t ب, (that of the Ḥabaša or infidels (الحبشة د t ب or الكفرة د t ب (and that of the Somali / Ṣūmal
    (الصومل د t ب. (This could distinguish three different and equivalent entities. However, commonly translated as "country", the term bilād is extremely vague in the Arabic language, and can designate territorial entities of very variable dimensions.
    However, the Somalis are no less Muslim. They actively participated in the imām's first expeditions, representing in some battles almost half the strength of the Muslim army248. However, they are not part of the Muslim bilād, which, in the pen of ‘Arab Faqīh, is a synonym of Bar Sa'ad ad-dīn. The fact that despite their religion, ‘Arab Faqīh does not integrate Somali territory into Bar Sa’ad ad-dīn, is explained by the fact that the Somali are represented as a set of“ nomadic tribes ”-. They therefore lead a different way of life from that of the inhabitants of Bar Sa'ad ad-dīn, urban and sedentary, practicing agriculture and animal husbandry and residing in cities such as Harar or Dakar. On the other hand, Somali bilād is not localizable. Indeed, it is written that the imām pursues Somali in their territory up to a day's distance from the sea252. Moreover, in an article correcting some reading errors by René Basset in his edition of the Arabic text of Futūḥ, Carlo Conti Rossini proposed to read fafan instead of qrn 253 for the name of the "considerable river254" crossed by the imām during of the pursuit of the king in Kidād. The Fāfān is today a river which originates in the west of Harar and descends towards the south, in crossing the Ogaden. If this identification can be correct, it hardly allows to locate the Kidād. Finally, the short texts published by Enrico Cerulli about the Awsa sultanate also locate the Somali populations near the port of Zayla'255. It remains impossible to be more precise in the location of bilād al-Ṣūmāl. Sources prior to the 16th century do not tell us either.
    It's because what Arab Faqih means by Bilad Bar'Sa'adin is the urban cities and those who live outside or roaming around it are usually Bedouins. The way that ''Soomaal'' appears in texts is like they have an omniprescence like they are everywhere all over the place at all times. At the same time their discriptions are ambigous and at times contradictive.

    Some writers including Drobbah that don't understand that ''Soomaal'' during the 16th century was just a loose occupational term that was more akin to bedouin. It didn't denote an ethnicity. This is how Arab Faqih employs the term itself in his text and thats what the etymology of the term means as well.

    Even to this day Hararis for example call Somalis collectively by occupational identity like Tumur(Tumaal). Instead of Soomaal. They picked that up from Somalis. Because most Somalis in Harar region were Blacksmiths, Crafts people and masons.

    As i have shown you when Richard Burton visited Harar in the 1800s in is First footsteps in East Africa : or, An exploration of Harar he saw that thousands of Somalis living in the city were mainly crafts people and blacksmiths:

    Burton’s description of the population of the city of Harar shows there were 2500 Somalis engaged in different
    activities
    (Burton, R., 1956). The spatial organization of the city and the quarters also has some ethnic
    stratification. Accordingly, the Somalis were predominantly found in the Suqtat Bari, engaged in occupations such as handicraft, smithery and leatherwork.
    Interestingly enough he also noted there were 3000 undindentified seasonal bedouins romoaning in and out of Harar , were most likely Somali pastoralists.

    In Berbera for example where he tried to suggest there were foreigners, there is an ancient graveyard called Xabaalo Tumaalood (The cemetery of the Blacksmiths) and there is a list of names of Somalis buried there kept by the locals.

    That they once belonged to this region is signified in the use of the name 'Xabaalo Tumaalood' (the 'Cemetery of Blacksmiths') to mark an archaeological cemetery site on the Berbera Road
    In this period somalis were widely divided into occupations like Bajimaal (Potter), Biyomaal(Water cultivator) probably responsible for transportation of water or water resource management, Tumaal(Black Smiths), Qudaal/Qotto(farmer), Dabaato etc. Except for Biyomaal, to this day Bajimaal, Tumaal and Soomaal stay more or less true to their very names.

    Now its widely accepted by many historians that Somalis were economically varied people Encyclopedia of African History 3-Volume Set

    Thus, the same Somalis who had been characterized as mostly nomads had always practiced varied economic activities, depending on the layout of the land. On the coast, they were traders, seafarers, and entrepreneurs.... in the interior regions , they practiced animal husbandry and agriculture where conditions permitted it.
    The name Soomaal however only evolved into an ethnic name post 16th century collapse and when there was a large scale re-nomadization and de-urbanization following the collapse of the states and the Oromo invasion. Consquently a shift from agricultural surplus that characterized both Awdal's economy and Ajuuran's Economy Kingdoms into one of substinence . I also believe Oromo expansions and them conquering/destroying Bali & Dawaro disturbed the interior trade routes in the south which was the main factor that also caused Ajuuran to collapse, possibly loss of revenue made the rulers tax heavy.

    Then Pastorialism became the pre-dominant mode of life and all other modes of life was marginalized as a consequence of it. Unsafe settlements were abandoned. What emerged was the client-cultivator and bondsmen type relationships. If people try to intepret Soomaal as an ethnicity from Futuh all they are met with is confusions and contradictions & ambiquity.

    Harla themselves were more like Raxanweyn clans in the South in the way that they occupied deep fertile Western regions in Hawash rivers and were predominately sedentary agro-pastoral farmers in larger numbers. That is what differentiated them. But some other minor Somali clans were the same in that region which is why when they are mentioned it's without the term Soomaal but we can easily identify them as Somali today. But they were a Darood confederation and they only claim descent from the Darood Ogaden ancestors according to traditions and historical manuscripts.

    Harar was not the border of the Somali occupied region, Harar was the center at the time. For example, Harti, Marreehaan, and Hawiye, who has been told may have come from other regions, this was not the case. Arab-Faqih states that they lived near Harar, where they always lived. Other tribes were settled in the same area and further west.

    Also Western regions and Berbera weren't the only settlements , there are ruins in the East in the interior of Bari and Nugall valley. Like the big city of Badda that was mentioned by medieval historians like Al-Idris and Ibn Said that was recently discovered around Lake Cuun: Understanding_the_Drivers_of_Drought_in_Somalia

    Figure 10: Lake Cuun , 50 km NE of Garowe, 4 km long and 60 m wide, is one of the few remaining lakes and springs in
    Nugaal valley. We recently found here ruins of sizeable medieval city which is apparently “Badda” of Al-Idriisi (1154)
    and Ibn Said (1260s). Obviously the lost city of Badda, which means ‘the sea’, was named after the lake which was far
    greater than today’s one,
    May 31st, 2016

    Funny thing is locals still know the place as "Badda". They found that the ruins had inscriptions and escavated artifacts from them as well.

    Many other medieval ruins of a large town in the iskhushuban district in Wadi Valley(Lake) in Bari and one in Goan Bogame. So even in the east there was urban settlements by Somalis.

    When the central authority of Awdal collapsed in the ensuing the upheaval that followed it and Oromo invasions and it effected the whole of Somali occupied regions thats why you find bunch of abandoned ruined settlements sparsely over the place. The settlements were always sparesly located in agricultural locations, lakes, springs, rivers or close to wells. It is also obvious that some places were impacted by climate change and permanent springs, rivers and lakes drying up.

    From late 16th to early 18th century it was total utter dark age contributed to the dearth of written records on that period with some fragmented chronicles and writtings surviving in Harar and lesser extant in Berbera and Yemen, it was followed by a revival of Islam & development in the late 18th-20th century . In what somali historian like Sheikh Samatar and Abdullahi Baddow dubbed asThe Era of Sheikh's and in this period also saw a revival of literature and scholarship

    Various scholars and important Sufi reformers emerged like Sheikh Madar, Uways Al-Barawi , Al-Zayla. etc many many more on page 50 of this study The Islamic Movement in Somalia: A Study of the Islah Movement Badoow gives a historical breakdown of all of them and all the settlements and education centers and systems they established:

    He sums it up as:
    “...The emergence of organized Sufism allowed these religious men to exercise autocratic powers unknown to secular men in the fragmented politics of clan organization.”

    Moreover, most of the Islamic education centers were located in settlements in agricultural areas and around water wells, and many of these were later transformed into villages, towns, and cities. In this way, Sufi orders transformed pastoral society into settled communities engaged in agriculture and/or trade.
    Last edited by Mirix; 05-19-2021 at 10:30 PM.

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    The Hamite hypothesis is a colonial narrative about superior mixed White/Black Europeans invading pastorals from the North outside of Africa that overran dumb primitive agricultural Negroids . Something that has been discredited and rejected by modern scholars as pseudo history and science. That was used to help and justify colonialist agendas. Nomad characterization of Somalis and baseless theories of Arab migrations & mixture/influences has it's roots & origins in that hypothesis.

    Likewise I'M lewis and some of Enrico Cerruli's writings are heavily influenced by this Hamitic Myth something several writers have criticized him for including Herbert Lewis, even after this hypothesis was rejected he continued use it, didn't even bother to defend why. Most historians and linguists have discredited the "The Somali Conquest of the Horn of Africa ", based on earlier sources and historical linguistics. Like Herbert Lewis , Turton, Fleming, Heine etc. Nobody believes anymore that Somalis aborbed people and or invaded from the north in the last centuries or so to push out Oromos. It's an outdated view. There is no way to prove it and no evidence to back it because Somalis were already spread out across a wide expansive territory and has not only sources but the various dialects/langauges, place names to show for it prior to the Oromo expansions in the 16th century, for thousands of years even, furthermore there is no record of Oromo living anywhere in the horn prior to their 16th century migrations and Kitab Al Zunuj has been discredited as a fabrication written by an Arabized Swahili by the name of Fathili Bin Omari who was a court judge in the 19th century British protectorate with deliberate falsifications that were intended to invalidate established traditions and justify child bride slavery against colonial interruptions and it contradicts various early sources. No other evidences wether archeologically, linguistically, genetically or history wise supports it.

    Also the whole Galla myth of Origin was not even based on Somali oral traditions at all. They misinterpreted the word Gaal(Camel) or Gaalo(Infidel) with Galla(Oromo). And when I'M Lewis investigated the so called ''Galla'' graves in Western Somaliland he found that they contained recent Somali remains.

    The manuscript about Gadabursi clan history written by Adal historians and about their ancestor Imam ‘Ali Si’id (Samaron) fighting as the only leader of the Western Flank in the army of Sultan of Awfat, Sa'd ad-Din in the 15th century , even though the document was clearly talking about how were fighting against Abyssinian Christian imperialists and Infidels(Non-Muslims). I'M Lewis somehow twisted it to make it seem like they were fighting Oromo(Galla) and this was evidence of supposed Somali expansions. Even though this war is also recorded by Al-Maqrizi and no mentions of Galla is given, its all about fighting Abysinnia.

    The Oromo themselves were an ever expading people this well recorded in both in the Awdal historic medieval documents published by Paulitschke and Enrico Cerruli. Tarikh Al-Mujahideen (History of Mujahids) and Tarikh Al-Mulik(History of Kings). Besides Bahreys 1593 work ''History of Gallas" who was an eyewitness to their expansions and various portugese documents.

    From their homeland of Boran they reached as far as the coast of Eritrea and Zeila was plundering people and settlements. Like Mos stated. But only Ugas 'Ali Makahil in year 1575 manage to drive them away from Awdal and Zeila and Karanle was strong enough to keep them off between Jigjiga and Harar. South Showa, Harar surounding regions, Hobaad etc fell to the Oromos . At one point they managed to penetrate the Wall of Harrar itself in year 1577 and this was recorded in Tarikh Al Mujahideen. Somali peasant farmers(Qotto) in Hararghe were assimilate by Afran Qollo confederation of Oromo and you can see this in their fluid Oromo-Somali identity and the breakdown of their clans which contain several dir, darood and hawiye clan lineages.

    If some believe that Somalis came from Sanaag in the east, then how does one explain them being recorded far west (Dir) and far south(Hawiye) in early sources. And then as far as SouthEast as Bali which was founded by Hawiye migrants from Merka accompanying Sheikh Hussein in the 12th century converted the local Jidda clan and Gorgeda. Both groups have a long history there. The name Bali means lake in the Somali language and is a sacred man made lake. The same Somali clans mentioned in the Western Regions still live in the same general area, there hasn't been any populations change or major movements at all since their recordings.

    Also foreign writers & researchers working in different capacities, time frames, seperately are not Darood revisionists and employed by Siad Barre. Medieval documents written down centuries ago published by foreign academics are not Kacaan revisionism. Ethnic Somalis being genetically homogenous across a diverse geographic locations, and related to eachother and speak dialects of the same language and regard themselves as coming from the same descent traditionally, is also not Kacaan revisionism by Siad Barre or about myth of Homogeneity.
    Last edited by Angoliga; 05-20-2021 at 01:24 AM. Reason: Terms of Service Violation (3.14) - Personalization/accusatory language edited out

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    Quote Originally Posted by Mirix View Post
    Everything i posted in reply to you is backed by medieval documents and manuscripts. The fact that Harla is Darood is not even Darood revisionism either it is literally a field mission report in to Awsa IslHornAfr 6th Field Mission Report
    I've just had a quick look at this document, and its conclusion is actually the opposite of what you are claiming. Harla is described as a grouping that 1) considers itself to be Afar, 2) speak Afar language and 3) have possibly adopted a Somali genealogy as late as 16th century:

    Among the texts collected by the Dardortě branch, a new historical source has also been retrieved during
    the field mission29. It refers to the genealogy of the family and to their migration to Awsa, their territorial
    expansion in search of grazing and to the war arisen against the Awsa people. The text confirms that they
    dried the lake which in the time of their arrival occupied the region of Awsa, to farm30
    . The lineage from
    the Ḥaralla tribe is well attested in this text: the name of the tribe is given in the two variants Ḥarallā and
    Ḥarla that in the text are reported by a certain Yūsuf, collector of the mosque of Šayḫ Ādam which is
    situated at the border of Yemen, on the seaport of Moḫā. The eponymous founder of the clan, Ḥarallā, is
    said to have three brothers: all their children scattered between Awsa, Harar, and Berbera. Going back to
    the ancestors of the clan, a forefather of Ḥarallā, Dārūt, eponymous founder of the famous Somali tribe of
    the Darood, is said to be from Mecca in the text, and then to have moved to Zaylaʻ. His father was the
    well known Ismāʻīl b. Ibrāhīm al-Ǧabartī, from Zabīd, whose ancestors are believed to descend directly
    from the Banū Hašim and the Qurayš.

    The Kabirto and the Dardortě, descendants of the Ḥarallā, seem to consider themselves ʻAfar and speak
    ʻAfar language, so it’s somehow surprising to see in their genealogy the presence of the ancestor of one of
    the major Somali clan. In the Chronicle of ʻAmdä Ṣəyon (14th century) the Ḥarlā are mentioned as an
    independent and sedentary population. In the Futūḥ al-Habaša, many names of Ḥarlā’s clans are still
    understandable in ʻAfar and the group is always distinguished from the Somali, so it is possible to
    suppose that their integration in the Somali lineage is later than the 16th century (date of the redaction of
    the Futūḥ).
    The fact that Futuh groups all Somalis together irrespective of clans (Habar Magaadle, Geri, Harti..etc) as a distinct group, then goes on to do the same for Harla, Arabs and Malasay, each being distinguished as a unique grouping, is clear indication that Harla were not Somali, let alone Darod Somali.

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