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Thread: Asia in the Horn. The Indian Ocean trade in Somaliland

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    Quote Originally Posted by drobbah View Post
    Somali oral history points to Sanaag as the medieval origin of majority of the Somali clans and the Futuh Al Habasha consistently showed that Somalis were nothing more than a nomadic camel herding periphery people.Yes certain clans lived within the Sultanate during the Imam's time including my own but it is clear the Walashma dynasty and many of the elites of these muslim states were not of Somali origin.I think what the Futuh called the clans of Harla lived there, this explains the animosity the Harlas had for Somalis in particular.The Imam did all he could to keep these two ethnic groups away from each other.Multiple times in the Futuh the animosity between these two groups comes up
    Futuh Al Habasha showed no such thing. Sanaag region are among the most arid regions of Somalia It is no surprise if more nomads would be living there.. First things first the name ''Soomaal'' itself was mainly just an occupational name for pastoralists not an ethnic name. At the time of Futuh's writing it was akin to the term bedouin. That is how it was applied. Kinda the same way Tumaal means Blacksmiths.

    This paper discusses this in great detail and goes into the etymology of the term and how it evolved following the 16th century collapse Effects of sixteenth century upheavals

    "But other fatal problems in the form of famines epidemics and the Oromo (Galla) invasion appeared on the horizon. In the end we have a social pattern very different from what we have before the the sixteetnh century upheavals. 'Since all other modes of life were brought to end, pastorialism became the pre-dominant one. As a result, the name, Somali, which was only an occupational name prior to Jihad, evolved into an ethnic name'"
    In Somali language people are still know by their occupations like Tumaal, Qudaal,Qotto(Farmer), etc. Dabatto (hunters) etc. Even to this day we make marked distinctions between Reer Gurra and Reer Magaal. With the former looking down on the latter.

    Furthermore Arab Faqih employed an Arab literary trope in his writings of Sedentary vs Nomadic. Which is a common narrative style in Arabia where you describe the Bedouin Arab population as distinct from the sedentary Arabs with streotypical characteristics: NOMADIC AND SEDENTARY LIFE IN THE TIME OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD

    None of this however marks any Linguistic/Ethnic disitinctions between populations only their mode of life of which is was what put them apart and gave them difference in personality. Sedentary people themselves were formerly nomadic. It also hard amend when the population living North Western Somaliland are the same people that live there today and there hasn't been any population change at all for the last 1000 years or more:Bantu, Galla and Somali Migrations in the Horn of Africa: A Reassessment of the Juba/Tana Area & The Origins of the Galla and Somali

    s. According to H. S. Lewis, early written sources suggest a picture that is entirely compatible with population stability and the
    hypothesis that the Somali were the main inhabitants of the Horn.
    The reference in Al-Idrisi to the Hadiye and in Ibn Sa'id to the Hawiye, on both occasions associated with the Benadir port of Merca, where the Hawiya live today, suggests that they have been in this area for at least 700 years.8 The references slightly later in the Futuh al-Habasha to Somali groups in north-western Somaliland indicates that the population in this area has also remained substantially unchanged since the sixteenth century, when the work was written
    A third relatively early document containing recognizable references to Somali groups is an Arabic chronicle detailing the wars between the Muslims of Adal and the Christians of Ethiopia.6 The Somali groups mentioned in the Futuh al-Habasha are generally ones which are still found in north-west Somaliland-the area which was once Adal or adjacent to it. These include the Yabarre, Bartirre, Marrehan, Geri, Habr Magadle, and various Dir groups. The evidence of this work, written between I540 and 1550, is, therefore, that the composition of the Somali population of north- west Somaliland has not changed substantially since then.7
    Many present clans are cited in Futuh , some without the "Soomaal" next to their clan name. As well as the the fact the Walashma and all the other states had Somali genealogical traditions. They literally trace their descent to Aw Barkhadle and (Al-Jabarti, and Aqeel Ibn Talib) Darood much like Somalis do today. The latter of whom which is buried in Sanaag. Same goes for Harla

    Camels are not everyday meat in the Horn. These animals are slaughtered “on feast days, religious occasions of special significance, and for the important occasions of births, marriages and deaths only.This suggests Ibn Battuta came during a medieval trade fair which probably attracted nomadic Somalis from the east but also different folks in the region (like the possibly Ethio-Semitic Harla).Also it is very likely non-Somali (Cushitic or heavlily Cushitic admixed) population lived in Zeila and Ibn Battuta wouldn't be able to differentiate between the different Horners, there's also no evidence that modern clans like Cisse,Samarone or Habar Awal are indigenous to this region and this falls in line with our own oral history.
    Camels were sighted in the vincity of Zeila and Mogadishu, what it does suggest nomads were living in these cities, trading with it etc.

    Ibn Khaldhun himself noted while visiting Mogadishu is nomadic character of city Al-Muqaddim

    To the south of Zayla, on the western shores of the Indian Ocean, are spread out the villages of Berbera, following the southern coast all the way to the VI section. In the east they touch the land of the Zanj. Then there is the town of Mogadiscio (Maqdashu) which is overfilled with people and its standard of civilization is that of nomadic people. One also finds lots of merchants there.

    Besides them one finds the Barbara, of which the poet Imru'u-l-Qays speaks in his verses. Islam is nowadays very extended among them. They have a town on the Indian ocean called Mogadishu, which is often visited by Muslim merchants.
    According to Ibn Khaldun sedentary society is an advanced stage of nomadic life. Mogadishu was a city with a wall surrounding it.

    Can you demonstrate that another population was living in Zeila other than Somali? Wether Ciise , Samaroon or Habar Awal clans lived there one thing for certain is that Awdal region (Zeila) was mainly inhabited by Somalis, the name Awdal itself is implies it and the fact there has been no major movements bey Isaaq and Dir, they live relatively geographically restricted regions have been recorded in the futuh that way. So they are not new comers either.

    There is zero Evidence of any population replacement or admixture in any of these places. Linguistically, culturally or genetically. Nor is there any group that have had a history in living there. What you see from the sources is a high degree of population stability.


    Not true as I come from a clan (Jibriil Abokor) who were notorious for banditry and raiding caravans due to our strategic position in between Harar & Berbera and is one of the reasons why the Abyssinians in the 19th century built a fort at Jigjiga.Raiding is a normal part of Somali nomadic culture and nomads in others parts of the world.Settled populations in particular are very vulnerable to raiding by nomads without a state protecting them.
     


    You are ignoring the fact that the very caravans being raided was guided and protected by nomads themelves who were transporting things with camels.

    And Jigjiga itself was a town founded by Somali sheikhs in the 18th-19th century after Menelik captured Harar, the clergy moved there instead and established that town.

    The coast never really had any permanent settlements besides Zeila and anyone who has been to the coast would know why. Which is why majority of the medieval settlements are near mountains and places suitable for agriculture (dry river beds that turn into rivers during the raining season like my ancestral tribal home of Arabsiyo).Aw-Barkhadle which was the site of the forefather of the Walashma dynasty for example was probably fortified and quite large according to Mire.
    Both Berbera and Zeila was permanent coastal cities. Zeila was mainly the only one that could be considered major city besides Doggor. Permanent settlements can only happen in places that have rivers, lakes , arable land, food resources to sustain them. How would they have permanent settlements in Heis? Sool & Sanaag are otherwise arid dry regions. Biyo Gurre for examples is a river stream.

    AwBarkhadle was the capital city of Dakkar according to Sada Mire that housed a big popualtion which it needed a wall surounding it. But all the other settlements are completely lacking in walls surounding them. Only the settlements near the Ethiopian Highlands under constant attacks from Ethiopia

    Temporary trading fairs between nomads and foreigners in places near Berbera (Bandar Cabbas,Buluxaar etc) and in Sanaag like the city of Xiis.I think the vast majority of these farming locals in western & central Somaliland and the skilled city folks were not Somali, perhaps after Adal collapsed these populations were absorbed by the waves of even more migrating Somalis.Also farming and craftmanship was something Somalis culturally had disdain for and the vast majority of clans in Western Somaliland and Fafaan region only became semi-nomadic cultivators within the last 2 or 3 centuries.I never denied the presence of Somalis clans within the sultanate of Adal but they were not an important factor besides taking sides in civil wars between the muslim elite as mercenaries.
    There is no evidence for foreigners making settlements in Berbera at all. You are just resycling the same outdated arguments made by IM Lewis like you did previously on a different thread

    Craftsmanship and farming isn't something Somalis particularly look down on but it's something they can't afford practice because of their demand their otherwise arid environment puts on them and their subsequent substinence level.

    Artisan castes are common throughout the Horn of African in different Semetic and Cushitic speaking populations not something unique to Somalis.

    Herbert Lewis examines and actually explains their origins:

    Living among the Cushiles of Ethiopia and the Somalilands are “depressed” castes of hunters and artisans. Ad. E. Jensen (1959) assumes that these smiths and hunters are all related and represent a pre-Nilotic and pre-Cushitic Schich! that he calls Nigritic. He believes that they are Negroid peoples and specifically connects them with the Western Cushitic-speaking Bako peoples, who tend to be short and dark. Enrico Cerulli (1922, 1957) suggests that they are not all related to each other but that the hunting groups (at least) represent remnant pre-Cushitic hunters drawn from a number of sources. According to Trimingham (19S2), “They are remnants of former aboriginal negroid peoples who have not been absorbed and live amongst the peoples who subjected them as primitive hunters of performing despised and feared occupations such as smithery or magic.” These points of view not only reflect the “wave” theory of Ethiopian history, but also represent the tendency to treat all peoples who are not stereotypically “Hamitic” as older and more Negroid. The frequent application of this rule of thumb is untenable. Let us, instead, investigate the actual cultural and structural situation of these people.

    In virtually every Cushitic group there are endogamous castes based on occupational specialization (such caste groups are also found, to some extent, among the Ethiopian Semites). The names of these groups differ, their physical characteristics vary greatly, and they speak only the languages of their “hosts” or of other nearby Cushitic or Semitic peoples. Neither in language nor in physical traits is there any way to group the members of these castes as “Negroid” or “Bushmanoid.” (Admittedly, some groups appear different from their “hosts.” The manjo of Kafa are one example. But the manjo do not look like other depressed peoples. They resemble, somewhat, their Western Cushitic-speaking neighbors to the south.) Goldsmith and I. M. Lewis (1958) say that the hunter and artisan castes among the Somali show no obvious physical differences from the “noble” Somali, speak the same language, are culturally similar, and that there are no “strong traditions” of their having had a separate origin.
    You know what all of these Cushitic/Semetic speaking groups have in common? Their substinence economy as Herbert Lewis puts it.

    Take for example all the Yibir, Tumaal and Midgaan groups they all say they was forced into doing it by their overlord clans. They all claim descent from the same noble clans but say they were weak lineages.

    I'M Lewis & Enrico Cerulli ignored this and created their own nonsense narrative of Migrating obsorbing nomads or remant negroid groups when they infact are not remant groups at all. They went out of their way to blood test themA Preliminary Investigation of the Blood Groups of the Sab Bondsmen of Northern Somaliland What they found is that they were virtually identitical to the noble Somali clans.

    But the time of Awdal and Ajuuran this was different, there was agricultural surplus and the population had the abillity to diversify their occupation. So craftsmanship, masonry , population density , urbanization could be sustained this way. They no longer had to concern themselves with producing/finding food or even water.

    Take for example when Richard Burton visited Harar in he noted that the Somalis living there were engaged in different craft occupations?

    Burton’s description of the population of the city of Harar shows there were 2500 Somalis engaged in different
    activities (Burton, R., 1956). The spatial organization of the city and the quarters also has some ethnic
    stratification. Accordingly, the Somalis were predominantly found in the Suqtat Bari, engaged in occupations such as handicraft, smithery and leatherwork.
    Why do you suppose this is? Because they could afford to.

    When you plummet down to substinence level you can only afford a few crafts people to make necessary things and the above population have to focus on producing food. So they forced a section within their own population to do it and made up some rational for it to keep them there.
    Thats when the bondsmen and client-cultivator relationships emerged to manage their meager substinence.

    All the archeological evidence shows is a widespread lifestyle change only because of the collapse of the state and the ensuing upheaval. It only lasted between Late 16th-18th. Within the last 2 or 3 centuries what you saw was only reimergence and revival of Islam in Somalia and saw the same shift that happened in the middle ages happen again. Not a late cultural trend.

    “...The emergence of organized Sufism allowed these religious men to exercise autocratic powers unknown to secular men in the fragmented politics of clan organization.”

    Moreover, most of the Islamic education centers were located in settlements in agricultural areas and around water wells, and many of these were later transformed into villages, towns, and cities. In this way, Sufi orders transformed pastoral society into settled communities engaged in agriculture and/or trade.
    Last edited by Mirix; 05-17-2021 at 07:35 PM. Reason: Save info for somewhere else

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    This trend of Urban state collapse ensued widespread abandonement, and re-nomadization can be seen in even Arab and Berber history.NOMADIC AND SEDENTARY LIFE IN THE TIME OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD

    As they call it Bedouinization

    However, at certain period, urban authority declined and its celebrated socio-economic stability was disintegrated. During such situation, nomadism would grow again, the Bedouins consolidated themselves, and authority shifted from urban leadership back to the tribal confederation, a gradual process which, of course, did not happened at once. It would led to the desertion of some settlements and the coercion of some of the urban population to migrate to better cities or to undergo nomadic life in the desert; in other words a process of bedouinization. Such situation had happened three centuries prior to the appearance of Islam in the Hejaz, due to the weakening of border powers, especially in South Arabia. Bedouin’s raids in the border regions and tribal clashes occurred more frequently, forced peripheral settlements to leave agriculture and to accept pastoralism.45
    Last edited by Mirix; 05-17-2021 at 08:51 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Mirix View Post
    Artisan castes are common throughout the Horn of African in different Semetic and Cushitic speaking populations not something unique to Somalis.
    Very true. I've pointed this out over the years on this very forum myself. There is a reason there are "Ari Blacksmith" and "Ari Cultivator" samples. This is a common practice all over the Horn, even among Omotics. Many scholars have noted this. Even the wiki page for the Madhiban shows the following:



    Many don't even know that the Beta Israel were historically such a "low-caste" vocational group known for things like stonemasonry and carpenting which is why they were ostracized and probably also why they formed their own unique form of local Orthodoxy. Whatever Southern-Ethiosemitic population lived in the northwest most likely as a minority would most definitely have had pretty much the same view of artisans and the like that Somalis did. It is uniform across the Horn. It seems our ancestors generally had a particular disdain for people who practiced anything other than food-producing (farming and pastoralism). Even the Reer Magaal (city people), fisherman/sailors and merchants were looked down upon by nomadic, rural Somalis but those groups never managed to crystallize into their own sort of caste and their nomadic kin still acknowledged them as "noble" Somalis.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Awale View Post
    Very true. I've pointed this out over the years on this very forum myself. There is a reason there are "Ari Blacksmith" and "Ari Cultivator" samples. This is a common practice all over the Horn, even among Omotics. Many scholars have noted this. Even the wiki page for the Madhiban shows the following:



    Many don't even know that the Beta Israel were historically such a "low-caste" vocational group known for things like stonemasonry and carpenting which is why they were ostracized and probably also why they formed their own unique form of local Orthodoxy. Whatever Southern-Ethiosemitic population lived in the northwest most likely as a minority would most definitely have had pretty much the same view of artisans and the like that Somalis did. It is uniform across the Horn. It seems our ancestors generally had a particular disdain for people who practiced anything other than food-producing (farming and pastoralism). Even the Reer Magaal (city people), fisherman/sailors and merchants were looked down upon by nomadic, rural Somalis but those groups never managed to crystallize into their own sort of caste and their nomadic kin still acknowledged them as "noble" Somalis.
    Herbert Lewis examines the nature of it in better detail. It's worth a read.

    The way sedentary Somalis(Reer Magaal) look down and view nomadic Somalis(Reer Guura) is an interesting case study . Between nomadic and sedentary societies, there is a symbiotic relationship.

    Drobbah has been reading the works by Hamiticphiles like I'M Lewis they believe in wave theory and Caucasoid pastoral hamite invaders. Anyone who isn't stereotypically Hamitic must be foreign remnants absorbed Hamitic nomadic invaders or some nonsense like that. Literally pesudeo history and science from the 18th century colonial historiography is being resurrected and applied here.
    Last edited by Mirix; 05-17-2021 at 12:44 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Awale View Post

    As for the Madhiban, I know who you're talking about and he's not the only "low-caste" Somali I've seen; like I said, they look like normal Somalis from what I've seen but hopefully we'll get more samples in time. Mind you, I am of the opinion that at least the Tumaal are possibly assimilates from Ethiopia. In fact, I think LE Cushites like Somalis quite possibly got our whole caste-system concept from the Highlands within the last 2,000-3,000 years. For example, the Somali word for "metal ("bir") clearly shares a root with the word for "metal" in Ethiosemitic languages. Metallurgy seemingly entered the Horn around 1000 BCE with the Protoethiosemites and probably spread to Cushites like Somalis via Habeshas or from other Cushites who were influenced by Habeshas. But the possible assimilation of these castes likely happened so long ago that it'll likely bear no fruit to rummage through their DNA nowadays as I've seen so far but we'll see with more samples.
    Actually word Bir for metal is Proto-Afroasiatic and it shares roots in many different AA languages.
    http://web.aou.edu.lb/research/Docum...rticle%204.pdf
    Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *bir-
    Meaning: metal
    #Semitic: *bi/urt- 'metal artifact'
    #Egyptian: byr 'metal’
    #Chadic: *bir- 'iron'
    #Agaw: bir- 'metal'
    #SahoAfar: bir-t- 'iron'
    #Somali: : bir- 'metal'

    I don't believe Tumaals are assimilates either , the word Tumaal for (Blacksmiths) are common in Proto-Sam and even occur in Rendille. Who also have Tumaals as well.


    If they were remnants groups or assimilates it would show in their DNA since they been held to be endegamous.

    . Some sab informants also, referring to well documented cases, maintain that they are of the same stock as the Somali but descend from small, numerically weak lineage groups which were reduced to servitude by more powerful enemies.9 In support of these claims, Midgaan informants have produced genealogies tracing descent from Dir, the founder of the Dir clan family, generally regarded as the oldest Somali stock.10 Some Tumaal trace descent from
    he oldest trace descent from Daarood, founder of the noble Daarood Somali clan family.


    Various writers have suggested that the sab represent the remnants of pre-Somali peoples conquered by Hamitic So
    They show that there is no significant difference in the distribu- tion of the ABO and MN groups in our sample and in a
    sample of I,OOO noble Somali. The contingency table for the Rhesus group does not accord so exactly, but the difference is small and may be due to the size of our sample. As far as the results go, the blood-group composition of sab sample is thus virtually identical with that of the Somali. While it would be dangerous to generalize from so small a sample (54 individuals), our results suggest that in serological characters there is no difference between those of the sab and those of noble Somali.
    The simple fact there is in no differentation shows how recently they became bondsmen and supports their own traditions of coming from the same stock as the various noble clans. That and apart from their specialist trade skills are culturally identitical.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Mirix View Post
    Actually word Bir for metal is Proto-Afroasiatic and it shares roots in many different AA languages.
    http://web.aou.edu.lb/research/Docum...rticle%204.pdf
    Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *bir-
    Meaning: metal
    #Semitic: *bi/urt- 'metal artifact'
    #Egyptian: byr 'metal’
    #Chadic: *bir- 'iron'
    #Agaw: bir- 'metal'
    #SahoAfar: bir-t- 'iron'
    #Somali: : bir- 'metal'
    This is very interesting and thanks for sharing but do you have a source for PAA? I mean... it's a pre-agricultural language so I'd be pretty surprised if it had a word for metal.

    Quote Originally Posted by Mirix
    The way sedentary Somalis(Reer Magaal) look down and view nomadic Somalis(Reer Guura) is an interesting case study . Between nomadic and sedentary societies, there is a symbiotic relationship.
    The same attitude is found everywhere. Even in Sudan the nomads look down on the settled people and vice versa and of course this has definitely been the case in the Middle-East. Nomads tend to see settled people as "enslaved" by the land due to their inability to easily move around and also don't like how much more rigid their social organization tends to be whereas settled people see them as things like thieving, war-like and "barbaric" because nomads do often extort and raid them.

    Quote Originally Posted by Mirix
    Drobbah has been reading the works by Hamiticphiles like I'M Lewis they believe in wave theory and Caucasoid pastoral hamite invaders. Anyone who isn't stereotypically Hamitic must be foreign remnants absorbed Hamitic nomadic invaders or some nonsense like that. Literally pesudeo history and science from the 18th century colonial historiography is being resurrected and applied here.
    Wherever all this comes from it is incredibly unfounded for more than a few reasons:

    • Seems unaware that even Proto-Somalis were agro-pastoral and familiar with farming that likely had its roots in Ethiopia, hence why even the south had durra as a historically staple crop much like in various Cushitic parts of Ethiopia.
    • Seems to gloss over the fact that regions east of the northwest like Sanaag, Bari and Nugaal also have a history of coastal and hinterland towns as well as silk-route trade and seafaring like the regions to their west.
    • Seems unaware that coastal town settling and seafaring are historically foreign concepts to Southern Ethiosemites like Hararis, Argobbas and Amharas but, ironically, not to Somalis.


    So the whole 100% nomadic pastoral Somalis with no familiarity with farming and settled culture who expand west late into the game falls flat on its face. Not to mention a whole myriad of other stuff like the Futuh not really implying the things about demography claimed in this thread and the fact that there were several Somalis among the elites of the army like how both the left and right flanks of his army were led by Somalis. The left by his sister's husband, Mattan, of the Marehan and the right by his cousin via his aunt, Mohammed bin Ali, who is recounted as the chieftain of a Somali tribe called "Zarba" and led a left flank mostly comprised of Harlas. There's also Nur ibn Mujahid who took up the mantle after the Imam whose supposedly Marehan roots were not established by Somalis but western scholars like Enrico Cerulli and this German fellow who studied manuscripts in Harar. Not to mention that the Imam himself, whatever he was, was most likely not a Southern-Ethiosemite (SES) but of some sort of LE Cushitic origin given that he practiced the custom of "trial by fire" which is found among formerly Waaqist Somalis and Afars but not any SES groups like Hararis and Argobbas:

    It is a common practice by the Afar and the Somali to prove the truth of a
    witness by resorting to trial by fire when they face grave matters. The Afar method as
    discussed by Trimingham was throwing oneself into fire or less often placing a red
    hot iron axe between the hands of the suspected person, for example in theft and
    make him hold it for a while to be decided by the judge who bases his verdict upon
    the state of the hands of the suspect. Surprisingly, the Imam used the first method
    during the sack of Lalibela.41 In an attempt to corroborate the discussion by
    Trimingham, I came across the same information in the Futuh and in Tekletsadik
    Mekuria‟s book mentioned earlier. In both of these works, it is reported that by the
    time Gragn reached the Rock Hewn churches of Lalibela, priests were gathered in
    great number ready to die for their religion. Gragn then had the articles of wood piled
    up and set on fire in one of the churches, apparently not the Rock Hewn churches,
    wishing to see what they would do. He put them to the test and instructed them to
    select one person from the Christians and one from the Muslims, presumably to
    prove the true religion. Then, the chief of the priests made himself ready to throw
    into a raging blaze fanned deliberately. But before that, a certain lady who were told,
    was a nun, took the initiative and threw herself into the fire and ultimately half of her
    face was burnt before Gragn instructed his followers to pull her out.
    - source

    The author of the above source theorizes that the Imam was of some form of Cushitic origin (Beja-Afar) at the minimum based on some of the evidence like the above he could dig up. It's honestly very interesting though how much he surrounded himself, family wise, with Somalis. Brother-in-law, a cousin and possibly even a nephew (Amir Nur). And they were all not irrelevant. One commanded his army's left wing, the other the right wing and the other took over the mantle of leadership after his death.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Awale View Post

    So the whole 100% nomadic pastoral Somalis with no familiarity with farming and settled culture who expand west late into the game falls flat on its face. Not to mention a whole myriad of other stuff like the Futuh not really implying the things about demography claimed in this thread and the fact that there were several Somalis among the elites of the army like how both the left and right flanks of his army were led by Somalis. The left by his sister's husband, Mattan, of the Marehan and the right by his cousin via his aunt, Mohammed bin Ali, who is recounted as the chieftain of a Somali tribe called "Zarba" and led a left flank mostly comprised of Harlas. There's also Nur ibn Mujahid who took up the mantle after the Imam whose supposedly Marehan roots were not established by Somalis but western scholars like Enrico Cerulli and this German fellow who studied manuscripts in Harar.
    First of all walaal Mattan bin Uthman was a Gerri Koombe, the Marexaan leader was "a treacherous Somali" by the name of Hiraabu Goita Tewedros, Sultan Muhammad bin Ali was a Harla.....
    Secondly the battle formation you are describing never happened the way you are describing it.There are two occasions I recall where the chronicler mentions how the army was divided. Also Nur ibn Mujahid wasn't Somali let alone Darood.This is nothing more than Kacaan revisionist history to please the last Somali dictator Afweyne.


    Then he [the imam] tied to a red standard to a spear and entrusted it to his brother-law Mattan bin Uthman bin Khaled, the Somali, their chieftain, their knight, and the most courageous and bravest of them all.There rallied to him 110 knights and 3000 infantry, along with the tribe of Harti, the tribe of Jairan and the tribe of Mazra, all of whom were Somalis

    He tied a third standard, yellow and red combined, to the spear which he entrusted to the wazir Nur ibn Ibrahim.The tribes of Shewa, and the tribes of Hargaya rallied to him.At that time their chieftain was Muhammad bin Ibrahim,the brother of the Imam; and the army of Jarir whose chieftain was the half-brother of the Sultan Umar Din from his mother
    So, after that, the muslims stood their ground.The tribe of the Somalis said 'it was the Harla that gave us away, while the tribe of Harla said, it was the Somali tribe that gave us away.

    The Imam split his forces into three divisions: all the Somalis were in one division whose command he entrusted to Mattan; another division was made up of the [tribe of] Harla whose command he gave to the Sultan Muhammad, son of the Imam's maternal aunt; and the other division was made up of the Malasai, a people used to incursions and to a thorough-going Jihad, upon whom he could rely rely in battle: herois leaders, over whom was the Imam, who ordered them to stand resolute so that they never became disunited. At the time when the Muslims deserted, seeking their own country, these stood firm

    You mean this Zarba? Even this quote seems to suggest that nomadic Somalis lived alongside Harla non-Somali citizens (farmers & city-dwellers) within the Sultanate with the vast majority of the Somalis living in what they called the "country of the Somalis".

    For the moment I am [The Imam] going to a district called Zarba to pacify the country, to make peace between the citizens and the Somalis, and to mobilize an army
    In the same way the tribe of Zarba came up from Harla with their lord the Sultan Muhammad with 20 knights and 300 footsoldiers
    Not to mention that the Imam himself, whatever he was, was most likely not a Southern-Ethiosemite (SES) but of some sort of LE Cushitic origin given that he practiced the custom of "trial by fire" which is found among formerly Waaqist Somalis and Afars but not any SES groups like Hararis and Argobbas:
    [/CENTER]
    The Imam was a Balaw (probably Arabized Beja) with an Afar mother.There's nothing Somali about him or any of the Walashma Sultans besides sometimes giving their female relatives in marriage to Somali chieftains for alliance purposes.

    His name was Ura'i Abu Bakr, from the Mahawara, of the tribe of Balaw.This is one of the Abysinnian tribes descended from the first Balaw who was their ancestor who had gone gone down to the country of Sa'ad Din from their own country Tigre, in the time time of Sa'ad Din who then married him to one of his daughters.His name was Balaw Abdallah.She bore him children children od whom each boy was called Ura'i and each girl Ba'tiya

    Now Awale, why don't you answer this simple question.Where is the land of the Somalis mentioned numerous times in the Futuh? Why did the Sultans of Zeila (Walashma dynasty) differentiate themselves from the Somalis if they ruled over at minimum a presumably Somali city?

    After this, one of the foremost Sultans called Ura'i Abun camed to the Imam.When the country had been torn by disputes, he had gone to live with the Somalis.He became reconciled with the Imam and the latter gave him a district for his support.
    After this, the Sultan Abu Bakr, son of the Sultan Muhammad bin Azr from the stock of Sa'ad Din, stood up against Garaad Abun.He raised against him a band of Somalis whom he had recruited from among the riff-raff and highwaymen
    [The Imam] doubled back towards the country of the Somali evil-doers.The Somalis were routed, and the Imam Ahmed followed them almost to the sea, a day's march.He plundered their territory thoroughly and devasted it.Then he turned round and went back
    The Somalis wearied of the looting of their possessions and the the ravaging of their country, so they accom[[anied their ruler Hirabu and went to see the Imam and all of them became reconciled with him in a convenant that was sincere and agreeabe
    Hiraabu chieftain of the Somali tribe of Marexaan, killed one of the equerries of the Sultan Umar Din when he was in Nagab.The Imam heard about what Hiraabu had done, and he said to the Sultan. This Somali has acted treacherously towards you and killed your equerry.So the Imam and the Sultan with him, prepared himself for an expedition and set out and arrived at the country of the Somalis, as far as Kidad. Hiraabu, meantime had fled and was hiding in his own country.......The Sharifs (Ba'Alawi) reached him in the region of the Hawiya
    In the meantime the Somali tribes, since they taken booty and collected horses,mules,oxen,donkeys,slaves and fabrics held a metting by themselves.They said, "We have taken vast booty, so now let us go to the Imam and urge him to make the way clear for us to return to our country.If he agrees then there is no harm done. if he refuses, then we shall run away to our country, without his permission
    [/SIZE]



    Also have you noticed some of these Somalis carried what we in modern times would consider Habesha Orthodox names? Names like Hiraabu Goita Tewedros or the leader of the Habar Magaadle Garaad Dawit.What do you make of it?
    Last edited by drobbah; 05-17-2021 at 03:35 PM.
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    Oromos destroyed a lot settlements in the north west of the Somali region. That’s why you see the xeer ciise; war dances; and, many tales of Oromo raiders related to that period. The Oromos are said to have reached or raided as far as the coast. Some Somali clans reverted to nomadism because the Oromos used to attack settlements at night and only a moving, mobile defenders could thwart them.

    As for Futuh, no, it doesn’t paint the Somalis as an irrelevant nomadic-mercenary group. I am not sure of a single scholar who came to that opinion.
    Last edited by Moos; 05-17-2021 at 07:21 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by drobbah View Post
    Also Nur ibn Mujahid wasn't Somali let alone Darood.This is nothing more than Kacaan revisionist history to please the last Somali dictator Afweyne.
    Nur himself was certaintly Somali there is actual medieval record to back it, it has zero to do with Afweyne revisionism. . He qouted you a German scholar and Enrico Cerulli that studied Ethiopian and Harar manuscripts were infact Nur Ibn Mujahids clan is mentioned as Duha Suhawayn and traditions relating him to Merehan. Cerulli Excerpt from Storia della Somalia. L'Islām in Somalia. Il Libro degli Zeng

    And even in the Ethiopian Royal chronicles in Amharic they the state that his clan was Suhawyan (Hodan Bari)

    Also Nur from Suhawyan tribe. Son of Mugahid
    The Chronicle of King Gälawdewos Furthermore the author in hist translation added in his notations that this was a Somali clan.



    I]You mean this Zarba? Even this quote seems to suggest that nomadic Somalis lived alongside Harla non-Somali citizens (farmers & city-dwellers) within the Sultanate with the vast majority of the Somalis living in what they called the "country of the Somalis".[/I]
    Soomaal like i explained before was an occupational name for Pastoralists it wasn't an ethnic name at the time of Futuhs writing and i refer you to this paper that discusses this in great detail, explores the etymology and the evolution of the name post 16th century:
    But other fatal problems in the form of famines epidemics and the Oromo (Galla) invasion appeared on the horizon. In the end we have a social pattern very different from what we have before the the sixteetnh century upheavals. 'Since all other modes of life were brought to end, pastorialism became the pre-dominant one. As a result, the name, Somali, which was only an occupational name prior to Jihad, evolved into an ethnic name'"
    Effects of sixteenth century upheavals


    It was akin to the word bedouin and you forget the fact that some Somali clans mentioned in Futuh that are present today were not even mentioned as Soomaal.

    Explain me this to me if Harla was seperate from Geri , Harti and Merahan at the time how come they trace the same descent as them from Ogaden Darood Ancestors?

    Harla Genealogy:






    Some people even now try to switch up the story when this medieval document came up from Yemen and hypothesize that Somalis assimilated Daroods, but if that is true how come Geri , Harti and Merehan are included in the genealogy as cousins of Harla when all three of them are mentioned in Futuh as Soomaals and as Darood? See all that you are left with is contradictions if you really believe what you believe..

    How come Hararis call Somalis Tumur(Tumaal) and the remnant Harla between Harar and Jigjiga speak the artisan caste dialect? It all proves the fact these distinctions were not even Ethnic at all but occupational. Which is what Somalis were known by at the time.

    The Imam was a Balaw (probably Arabized Beja) with an Afar mother.T here's nothing Somali about him or any of the Walashma Sultans besides sometimes giving their female relatives in marriage to Somali chieftains for alliance purposes.
    The imam was neither Afar nor Beja: Infact he was Hawiye Karanle Balow on his father side and harla on his mother side. An Ethiopian scholar obtained information from Ahmed as Sami a famous Harari scholar. He is the one who has been collecting Arabic manuscrips and collecting traditions in Harar. Tradition collaborated with written source.

    The well-known Ethiopian Historian Takla Sadiq Makuria has devoted a short chapter [1973-74) to the question of origin of the Gragn and the identity of the malasay in his rough monograph on the Gragn Wars (1973/19749. In it he draws on the evidence from Arab Faiqh of the Short Chronicle and the Chronicle of Sarsa-Dengel Takla was also able to draw on the oral tradition of Harar. Through mediation of Dagazmac Wargnah he interviewed Ahmad Ali Sami, a traditional scholar in Harar. This indicates that Gran's father comes from the Hawiya(Somali tribe) in the Ogaden; a genealogy of eight generations before Gran is known in this tradtion
    MÄLÄSAY: SELBSTBEZEICHNUNG EINES HARARINER OFFIZIERSKORPS UND IHR GEBRAUCH IN ÄTHIOPISCHEN UND ARABISCHEN CHRONIKEN



    Karanle Genealogy:




    Karanle still live in the former town Hoobad in Hararghe although half of them by now have been assimilated oromo expansionists into Warra Karalle . Both Garaad Abuun and Imam Ahmed came from hereditary lineage of Reer Garaad thats how we know its authentic because it supports whats written.

    Afar for example had nothing to do with Awdal was complete seperate entity from it. Not a single Afar clan is mentioned in any of the text itself let alone Beja are mentioned. They have many clans. None are mentioned. But Pastoral Somali clans and Harla daroods are mentioned in abundance. Even with their occupational names. Even in other medieval manuscripts no mentions of them but they do mention Somalis and invading oromos.

    You know why? Because Afar was a seperate kingdom called Danakil way in the North , independant and seperate from Adal and was allied with Abyssinia. According to portuguese writers at that time : Even the Doba group further north for example was fighting independetly from Adal and got subdued by Abyssinians: but Danakil was strict friends with them An Universal History: From the Earliest Accounts

    Contingoues to the Kingdom of Adel to the west , lies the Kingdom of Dancali ,the soverign of which is a Mahometan (Muslim), The king of it is a Mahommedan , but in strict alliance and friendship with , or , tributary to the Abyssinian emperor.

    Historians have identified Dancali/Danakil with that of Saho and Afar by the red sea coast in Eritrea.

    Whereas areas further to the the east like bari sanaaag (Cape Guardafui) was part of Awdal sultanate according to portuguese writers:

    The kingdom of Adel ( as they say ) is a big kingdom , and it extends over the Cape of Guardafuy , and in that part another rules subject to it

    And Bari and Nugaal valley for example display numerous stone ruins. You know where? deep into interior regions of Somali territories around lakes etc and springs.

    Also have you noticed some of these Somalis carried what we in modern times would consider Habesha Orthodox names? Names like Hiraabu Goita Tewedros or the leader of the Habar Magaadle Garaad Dawit.What do you make of it?
    It is not surprising it actually proves the opposite of what you are trying to posit, some Somalis were forcefully Christianized by Amhara during the IFat/Adal wars and others came back into the fold when the Muslims suceeded restoring control over their lands.

    Both of them were probably rebellious for that reason. Other nomads rebelled because they didn't have supplies or the economic means to go into prolonged war and sided with the traditional Walashma rulers in opting for peace and whereas others like Geri (Mataan) and Harti , Hawiye etc were supportive and allies with the reformers like the Imam and Mahfuz.

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    Somalis were a periphery people,were not a majority of the Imam's forces especially in the later stages of the war.Yes, some Somalis nomadic clans lived within the Sultanate during that period but the vast majority lived outside of it, which the Futuh calls the country of the Somalis.

    Continue on without me walaalayaal!
    Last edited by Moderator; 05-20-2021 at 12:59 PM. Reason: Terms of Service Violation (3.14) - Personalization/accusatory language edited out

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