Page 25 of 26 FirstFirst ... 1523242526 LastLast
Results 241 to 250 of 256

Thread: Population admixture structure and demographic history of North East Asians

  1. #241
    Registered Users
    Posts
    44
    Sex
    Location
    China
    Ethnicity
    Han-Manchuria
    Y-DNA (P)
    O1b-M95

    China
    Robbeets et al. collected the ancient genomes of 5 coastal sites in Korea, 4 of which were on the southern coast, close to Japan, and the other (Taejungni) on the west coast. These 5 ancient genomes showed heterogeneity, or heterogeneous mixing. Among them, three ancient genomes harbor a higher proportion of Jomon ancestry. This paper believes that Jomon has expanded, and the other two ancient genomes harbor a lower proportion of Jomon ancestry, including Taejungni and Ando. With reference to the supplementary information of the Triangulation paper, with qpAdm, Taejungni can be modeled not only as "Jomon + UXJD", but also as "Jomon + Angangxi", which has a higher P_Value. The ancients of Angangxi(昂昂溪) are 4,000 years old. Angangxi is located in Qiqihar City of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China. It belongs to the Nenjiang Plain and is close to the Amur River. With f3-stat, Taejungni is the closest to Xianbei, and the Xianbei ancient people also originated in the Amur region. With qpAdm, Ando can also be modeled by Angangxi. Using f3-stat, Ando is the closest to Angangxi. Therefore, the ancients of the Yellow River and west Liao River are not necessary for modeling.

    I think that Jomon had an expansion 7000 years ago, and their gene flow even affected the Devilgate area. The corresponding Jomon related y-D/C1-M8 appeared in South Korea, but the inland of Northeast Asia should be rarely affected. On the other hand, it is difficult for Jomon to remain pure, and Jomon’s influence should not be exaggerated. The genetic distance between modern Koreans and Taejungni may be very close.

    https://www.researchgate.net/publica...sian_languages
    IMG_20210914_134914.jpg

  2. The Following User Says Thank You to Howard23 For This Useful Post:

     Ryukendo (09-14-2021)

  3. #242
    Registered Users
    Posts
    841
    Sex

    Quote Originally Posted by Howard23 View Post
    The genetic distance between modern Koreans and Taejungni may be very close.
    It may be so, but the Y-DNA of the present study's specimen from Taejungni appears to be atypical for present-day Koreans. Kwon et al. 2015 have found C2b-L1373 in only 0.7% (5/706) of a pooled sample of Koreans from Seoul (n=573) and Daejeon (n=133). Furthermore, two of two examples of C-L1373 from Korea on the current YFull tree belong to rare basal subclades (C-ACT1932 and C-Y176542, respectively) that have not been found anywhere besides the area along the coast of the Asian continent extending from Liaoning through Korea to the mouth of the Amur and in the Japanese Archipelago. The TMRCA between the more basal of these two clades (C-ACT1932) and "Altaic" subclades of C-L1373 is currently estimated to be 16100 (95% CI 17400 <-> 14800) ybp, and the TMRCA between the less basal of these two clades (C-Y176542) and the frequently observed "Altaic" subclades of C-L1373 is currently estimated to be TMRCA 14300 (95% CI 15700 <-> 12900) ybp. These genealogical splits should have occurred roughly around the time of the initial spread of humans into the American continent, perhaps even before that event.

    A greater number of specimens is needed before any sense can be made of these initial results. I would especially like to see a historical transect of specimens from the Korean Peninsula (especially the areas of northern Korea that have been governed by the Han Dynasty and the areas of southern Korea from which the Silla kingdom has expanded) in order to elucidate how and when the closely Chinese-related lineages that currently predominate among Koreans have come to do so.

    Is there not a single specimen from Jōmon-era Western Japan that has yielded useful amounts of endogenous DNA? Why do researchers always set up admixture models using these specimens from Eastern Japan, sometimes even only the specimen from the Funadomari site, which is located on the northern tip of Rebun Island (which is on average the northernmost island of Japan, although Cape Sōya at the northern tip of Hokkaidō extends slightly further to the north), less than 100 km from Sakhalin Island, Russia? I always find it to be a bit curious.

  4. The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Ebizur For This Useful Post:

     Howard23 (09-15-2021),  Ryukendo (09-14-2021)

  5. #243
    I have noticed that for the Ando people, where there is the O-M122 haplogroup, the Miaozigou variety of the Yangshao culture gets a higher p-value than Angangxi, therefore, ancestry related to Yellow River farmers is needed.

    Table S1 Modeling Neolithic Ando from South Korea as a result of admixture between lineages related to Jomon and mainland East Asians from the '1240k' dataset, using qpAdm.
    Pval Refs1 Refs2 C1 C2 SE1 SE2
    8,38E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Miaozigou 1,90E-02 9,81E-01 0,013 0,013
    6,80E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Angangxi 1,30E-02 9,87E-01 0,007 0,007

    I have noticed that the Miaozigou ancestry is even needed for the early Nagabaka individual from the Japanese archipelago of the Jomon period.

    NAG016 Japan 2026-1906 calBC Nagabaka Early Neolithic F low_quality

    Source Populations Ancestry Proportions Standard Errors
    Pval Refs1 Refs2 C1 C2 SE1 SE2
    2,74E-01 Funadomari_Jomon Miaozigou 7,80E-01 2,20E-01 0,372 0,372
    Last edited by Q-M242-is-Papuan-related; 09-14-2021 at 09:00 AM.

  6. #244
    I have noticed that the Angangxi people got the highest p-value when modeled with a 17,4% contribution from the Early Neolithic Fujian people (Liangdao2).
    However, it is hard to believe that southernmost rice agriculturalists made it to the cold Songnen plain unfit for rice cultivation even before the massive advent of rice cultivation in Shandong.
    Probably, better samples are needed. The population history of Northeast Asia is still poorly understood.

    Table S1 Modeling Angangxi from China as a result of admixture between lineages related to Jomon and mainland East Asians from the '1240k' dataset, using qpAdm.
    Pval Refs1 Refs2 C1 C2 SE1 SE2
    5,28E-01 Jalainur Fujian_EN 8,26E-01 1,74E-01 0,081 0,081

  7. #245
    Registered Users
    Posts
    265
    Sex

    Quote Originally Posted by Howard23 View Post

    I think that Jomon had an expansion 7000 years ago, and their gene flow even affected the Devilgate area. The corresponding Jomon related y-D/C1-M8 appeared in South Korea, but the inland of Northeast Asia should be rarely affected. On the other hand, it is difficult for Jomon to remain pure, and Jomon’s influence should not be exaggerated. The genetic distance between modern Koreans and Taejungni may be very close.
    Do you think that expansion was somewhere from the southern part of the Korean peninsula or from Japan towards Korea?

  8. #246
    However, it still appears that the so-called 'Upper Xiajiadian' ancestry already dominated Chulmun Ando individuals 3000-6000 BC in the Korean Peninsula. It is 'Upper Xiajiadian' that gives them the highest p-value, not 'Hongshan' or 'Angangxi'.

    Table S1 Modeling Neolithic Ando from South Korea as a result of admixture between lineages related to Jomon and mainland East Asians from the '1240k' dataset, using qpAdm.

    Test = Ando; Pright = OG

    Source Populations Ancestry Proportions Standard Errors
    Pval Refs1 Refs2 C1 C2 SE1 SE2
    9,45E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Upper Xiajiadian 1,24E-01 8,76E-01 0,069 0,069
    8,84E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Houli 1,02E-01 8,98E-01 0,072 0,072
    8,46E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Yangshao 1,89E-01 8,11E-01 0,067 0,067
    6,15E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Hongshan 1,73E-01 8,27E-01 0,071 0,071
    5,57E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Angangxi 2,60E-02 9,74E-01 0,036 0,036

    Chulmun Ando individuals can be modeled in different ways:
    12,4% Rokutsu Jomon 87,6% 'Upper Xiajiadian'
    10,2% Rokutsu Jomon 89,8% Houli people from Shandong
    18,9% Rokutsu Jomon 81,8% Yangshao
    17,3% Rokutsu Jomon 82,7% Hongshan
    2,6% Rokutsu Jomon 97,4% Angangxi people from the Songnen plain.

    Though it is anachronistic, it is the so-called 'Upper Xiajiadian' ancestry that causes the highest p-value for 3000-6000 BC Chulmun Ando individuals. Therefore, it is not improbable that the so-called 'Upper Xiajiadian' ancestry was being formed in the Korean peninsula and its vicinity since the Chulmun period. Houli from Shandong and Yangshao got slightly lower p-values in this kind of a model. 4000-year-old Angangxi people from the Songnen plain got a considerably lower p-value. Therefore, higher Angangxi in modern individuals possibly reflects the influence of different Manchu peoples. It is also notable that Hongshan people as a source got a lower p-value than Yangshao people in this kind of a model, though the Hongshan culture is closer to the Korean peninsula than the Yangshao culture in terms of geography. Probably, it reflects the importance of influence on neolithic Korea from Shandong via the Liaodong peninsula.
    Last edited by Q-M242-is-Papuan-related; 09-14-2021 at 10:56 AM.

  9. #247
    Quote Originally Posted by Q-M242-is-Papuan-related View Post
    However, it still appears that the so-called 'Upper Xiajiadian' ancestry already dominated Chulmun Ando individuals 3000-6000 BC in the Korean Peninsula. It is 'Upper Xiajiadian' that gives them the highest p-value, not 'Hongshan' or 'Angangxi'.

    Table S1 Modeling Neolithic Ando from South Korea as a result of admixture between lineages related to Jomon and mainland East Asians from the '1240k' dataset, using qpAdm.

    Test = Ando; Pright = OG

    Source Populations Ancestry Proportions Standard Errors
    Pval Refs1 Refs2 C1 C2 SE1 SE2
    9,45E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Upper Xiajiadian 1,24E-01 8,76E-01 0,069 0,069
    8,84E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Houli 1,02E-01 8,98E-01 0,072 0,072
    8,46E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Yangshao 1,89E-01 8,11E-01 0,067 0,067
    6,15E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Hongshan 1,73E-01 8,27E-01 0,071 0,071
    5,57E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Angangxi 2,60E-02 9,74E-01 0,036 0,036

    Chulmun Ando individuals can be modeled in different ways:
    12,4% Rokutsu Jomon 87,6% 'Upper Xiajiadian'
    10,2% Rokutsu Jomon 89,8% Houli people from Shandong
    18,9% Rokutsu Jomon 81,8% Yangshao
    17,3% Rokutsu Jomon 82,7% Hongshan
    2,6% Rokutsu Jomon 97,4% Angangxi people from the Songnen plain.

    Though it is anachronistic, it is the so-called 'Upper Xiajiadian' ancestry that causes the highest p-value for 3000-6000 BC Chulmun Ando individuals. Therefore, it is not improbable that the so-called 'Upper Xiajiadian' ancestry was being formed in the Korean peninsula and its vicinity since the Chulmun period. Houli from Shandong and Yangshao got slightly lower p-values in this kind of a model. 4000-year-old Angangxi people from the Songnen plain got a considerably lower p-value. Therefore, higher Angangxi in modern individuals possibly reflects the influence of different Manchu peoples. It is also notable that Hongshan people as a source got a lower p-value than Yangshao people in this kind of a model, though the Hongshan culture is closer to the Korean peninsula than the Yangshao culture in terms of geography. Probably, it reflects the importance of influence on neolithic Korea from Shandong via the Liaodong peninsula.
    GDI002 Changhang Changhang South Korea Chulmun 4689-4891 calBC
    GDI008 Changhang Changhang South Korea Chulmun 4701-4545 calBC
    GDI009 Changhang Changhang South Korea Chulmun 4668-4463 calBC

    DAJ001 Taejungni Taejungni South Korea Chulmun 761-541 calBC
    AND001 Ando Ando South Korea Chulmun 6300-3000 BC
    AND004 Ando Ando South Korea Chulmun 6300-3000 BC
    TYD006 Yŏndaedo Yŏndaedo South Korea Chulmun ca. 5000 BC?
    TYD007 Yŏndaedo Yŏndaedo South Korea Chulmun ca. 5000 BC?
    TYJ001 Yokchido Yokchido South Korea ~2000 BC?

    Changhang individuals seem to be more precisely dated and probably represent an older layer than more 'Upper Xiajiadian'-like Ando and Yŏndaedo individuals.
    If Jomon-influenced individuals from Korea and Japan are not counted, then Changhang seems to share more alleles in common with a Mongolic Shiwei individual GG3 from the Gangga site. His C2-M217 haplogroup is related to Buryats, Yughur, Kazakh, Mongols and the Rouran people.


    It is very surprising that the Jomon-related 4000-year-old Early Nagabaka individual already possessed Miaozigou ancestry, though Miaozigou ancestry is not present in Changhang Korean individuals.

    NAG016 Nagabaka Nagabaka_early Japan Early Neolithic 2026-1906 calBC

    Pval Refs1 Refs2 C1 C2 SE1 SE2
    2,74E-01 Funadomari_Jomon Miaozigou 7,80E-01 2,20E-01 0,372 0,372
    4,80E-02 Funadomari_Jomon Yumin 7,93E-01 2,07E-01 0,395 0,395
    3,75E-02 Funadomari_Jomon Fujian_EN 8,72E-01 1,28E-01 3,445 3,445

    Pval Refs1 Refs2 C1 C2 SE1 SE2
    2,64E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Miaozigou 7,18E-01 2,82E-01 0,105 0,105
    2,21E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Yumin 8,81E-01 1,19E-01 0,055 0,055
    1,85E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Fujian_EN 8,80E-01 1,20E-01 0,058 0,058


    This Miaozigou-like contribution is probably the Chokhopani-related contribution that participated in the creation of the Japanese people in the Ikawazu Jomon paper by Takashi Gakuhari. According to the above model, this Miaozigou-like contribution had already started to arrive to the Japanese archipelago during the Late Jomon period and also became a constituent of the 'Upper Xiajiadian'-related component of the Chulmun period in Korea. Compared to Yangshao, Miaozigou is richer in Tibetan-like DNA that split before the separation of Boshan and Liangdao2. It is not improbable that this older DNA could be an older layer before Boshan, and it was also present in Inner Mongolia where Miaozigou formed.


    The Miaozigou culture was also infuenced by the culture distantly related to the Beixin culture in Shandong.
    There are no samples from the Beixin culture, therefore, Miaozigou samples should be used.
    Last edited by Q-M242-is-Papuan-related; 09-14-2021 at 03:46 PM.

  10. #248


    Yangshao and Hougang phase I populations (A) expanded westwards to Xinjiang, with descendants in ( Hetao of Inner Mongolia, northern Shanxi, Gansu and eastern Qinghai, E) Siba and (F) Xinjiang Neolithic. Expansion with millet agriculture southwards from Hetao gave rise to (G) Yingpanshan, I) Baodun (Sichuan Plain), (R) Yunnan Neolithic and (J) Karuo in Tibet. Neolithic cultures of northeastern China include C) Hongshan and (D) Dawenkou.

    Hougang phase I culture influenced the formation of the Hongshan and Miaozigou cultures.
    Hougang phase I culture was related to the Beixin culture of Shandong.
    The Beixin culture influenced the Korean peninsula via the Liaodong peninsula.

    As samples of Hougang phase I culture and Beixin culture are not available, the only way to model them is the Miaozigou culture.

    Table S1 Modeling mainland Japanese from Ryukyu island as a result of admixture between lineages related to Jomon and mainland East Asians from the '1240k-Illumina'datasets, using qpAdm.
    Source Populations Ancestry Proportions Standard Errors
    Pval Refs1 Refs2 C1 C2 SE1 SE2
    4,09E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Angangxi 4,90E-02 9,51E-01 0,011 0,011
    1,63E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Upper Xiajiadian 9,60E-02 9,04E-01 0,009 0,009
    1,20E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Miaozigou 1,09E-01 8,91E-01 0,010 0,010

    Table S1 Modeling Nagabaka_early from Japan as a result of admixture between lineages related to Jomon and mainland East Asians from the '1240k' dataset, using qpAdm.
    Source Populations Ancestry Proportions Standard Errors
    Pval Refs1 Refs2 C1 C2 SE1 SE2
    2,74E-01 Funadomari_Jomon Miaozigou 7,80E-01 2,20E-01 0,372 0,372
    4,80E-02 Funadomari_Jomon Yumin 7,93E-01 2,07E-01 0,395 0,395
    3,75E-02 Funadomari_Jomon Fujian_EN 8,72E-01 1,28E-01 3,445 3,445

    Pval Refs1 Refs2 C1 C2 SE1 SE2
    2,64E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Miaozigou 7,18E-01 2,82E-01 0,105 0,105
    2,21E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Yumin 8,81E-01 1,19E-01 0,055 0,055
    1,85E-01 Rokutsu Jomon Fujian_EN 8,80E-01 1,20E-01 0,058 0,058

    Our results suggest the need for a major re-evaluation of existing interpretations of the prehistory of the southern Ryukyus. Instead of an origin in Taiwan or the Philippines, the DNA of the prehistoric inhabitants of the Nagabaka site shows that they were probably originated in the Jōmon world to the north. The Okinawa islands 250 km to the north are the most likely source, but a longer voyage from Japan cannot be ruled out. As explained in SI 12, the stratigraphy of the Nagabaka site provides no evidence for a hiatus in occupation between the Early and Late Neolithic phases. We have samples from both the Early (‘Nagabaka_early’) and Late (‘Nagabaka_late’) Neolithic phases on Miyako island. Our DNA data likely supports continuity between the Early and Late Nagabaka samples (SI 13 Figs. 3 and 7); although the former was low in coverage and might be subject to some degree of West Eurasian contamination (See qpAdm admixture modelling in SI 16), the latter can be safely identified as harbouring a characteristic Jōmon genetic profile (SI 13 Figs. 3 and 8).

    NAG007 Japan - Nagabaka Late Neolithic M O1b2a1a1a O-CTS1875 D4d
    https://www.yfull.com/tree/O-K14/

    At least this O-47z O-K14 branch could have come to the Jomon people with a contribution of Miaozigou-like DNA, which could have been characteristic of the Beixin culture that was distantly related to the Hougang phase I culture. The Hougang phase I culture influenced the formation of the Miaozigou culture.
    Last edited by Q-M242-is-Papuan-related; 09-14-2021 at 05:24 PM.

  11. The Following User Says Thank You to Q-M242-is-Papuan-related For This Useful Post:

     Max_H (09-15-2021)

  12. #249
    The Northward Expanding of Shuangdun Culture and the Formation of Beixin Culture——A Discussion from the "Beixin Culture" of the Zhangshan Site, Jining City
    Han Jianye(Beijing 100191)
    The so-called "Beixin culture" component,unearthed from J1 at the Zhangshan site of Jining city,is actually arguable to be of the Shuangdun culture.The Shuangdun cultural manifestation had expanded northward to the south of Mt.Tai and Mt.Yi,occupying an area from today's southwestern to central southern Shandong province.The integration of the Houli culture (that is, Boshan_EN) and the north-expanding Shuangdun culture gave a rise to the form of Beixin culture.Especially,the known Peiligang cultural componenet within Beixin must have developed indirectly from Shuangdun.

    In the middle and lower Huai River Valley, Shuangdun (7300–6800 B.P.) and Shunshanji (8,500–7000 B.P.) are two representative Middle-Late Neolithic cultures, respectively. In the Shuangdun cultural sites, the analyses of seeds and starch grains emphasized the gathering of wild tuberous plants and rice was cultivated on a small scale (Dong et al., 2014; Cheng et al., 2016). As no millet remains were found, Shunshanji is supposed to have relied on rice farming, although a wide range of plant resources was detected by starch grain analysis including, e.g., Coix lacryma-jobi, Triticeae, Oryza sativa, and Trichosanthes kirilowii, indicating that gathering was still the main strategy (Yang et al., 2016; Luo et al., 2020).

    Shuangdun is the representative site of the Shuangdun Culture. Radiocarbon dating and stratigraphy showed that the Shuangdun site was dated back to 7300–6800 B.P. (Anhui Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and the Museum of Bengbu, 2008). Sherds with special symbols, stone tools, clay sculptures, and abundant animal bones were discovered during the excavation in 1991–1992 and 2014 (Institute of Archaeology of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and Museum of Bengbu, 2016). Phytoliths extracted from the sediments revealed that rice was the most common crop, while broomcorn millet appeared occasionally (Luo et al., 2019). At Yuhuicun, cultural remains recognized as the Shuangdun Culture (ca. 7000 B.P.) were uncovered during the excavation in 2017.
    https://www.frontiersin.org/articles...20.633724/full

    Phytoliths reveal the earliest interplay of rice and broomcorn millet at the site of Shuangdun (ca. 7.3–6.8 ka BP) in the middle Huai River valley, China [2019]
    Luo, Wuhong; Gu, Chunguang; Yang, Yuzhang; Zhang, Dong; et al.
    https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/s...US201900254349
    The middle Huai River valley, located in the climatic, cultural and agricultural transitional zone in the central-eastern China during the Neolithic, occupies an important position in the study of the origins, development and spread of rice and millet farming in China. Previous studies indicate that rice agriculture has extended to the middle Huai River valley since 8.5 ka BP, and rice domestication was in the early stage between 8.5 and 7.5 ka BP, while the earliest evidence of millet remains discovered in this region was as late as ca. 5.0 ka BP. However, the process of rice domestication after 7.5 ka BP in this region, and when and where foxtail millet and broomcorn millet first extended respectively into this valley and interplayed with rice during the Neolithic period are still unknown. In this study, phytolith analysis of the soil samples from the Shuangdun site during the archaeological excavation, which is a representative site of the Shuangdun Culture in the middle Huai River valley dating back to 7.3–6.8 ka BP, reveals evidence of crops in the middle Huai River valley, China. Our results show that rice with japonica characteristics was the dominant crop at the Shuangdun site, which had a higher domestication rate than that at the Shunshanji site during 8.5–7.5 ka BP in terms of the morphological and morphometric analyses of rice bulliform and double-peaked glume cells, while broomcorn millet only occupied a small proportion of the total amount based on analysis of the quantity and ubiquity of phytoliths. Our data extend the record of broomcorn millet use in the middle Huai River valley by nearly 2000 years. The analysis in this paper not only provides significant evidence for illustrating the transformation of crop structure and the domestication process of rice in the middle Huai River valley, but also brings some clues for mapping the spatiotemporal route for the spread of rice and millets in central-eastern China during the Neolithic.


    6. Rice
    The Kojiki calls the earthly world "Toyoashihara no chiaki no nagaihoaki no mizuho no kuni," while the Nihon shoki calls it "Chiihoaki no mizuho no kuni," IV appelations idealizing it as an ideal land where forever ripen bountiful ears of rice. Further, the Kojiki and Nihongi include the motif of rice within both names and attributes of figures in the lineage from Amaterasu to the first emperor Jimmu, thus indicating how closely rice cultivation was linked to kingship. For example, Amaterasu cultivates rice in her sacred paddies on the Plain of High Heaven. And the names of her child Oshihomimi and his younger brother Amenohohi --- who was sent on the first mission to Izumo in preparation for the "transfer of the land"V --- both include the character ho, which means "rice ears." Oshiho means "stalwart rice ears" or "teeming rice ears," while hohi means the "spiritual power of the rice ears".

    The child of Oshihomimi was Ho no Ninigi, the grandchild of Amaterasu who finally descended to Japan, and his name likewise means something akin to "luxuriantly ripening ears of rice." The place where Ho no Ninigi descended was called Takachiho-mine, or "high-thousand rice-ears peak," with the similar meaning of a place where innumerable ears of rice are piled up. Finally, the three children produced by Ho no Ninigi and Konohanasakuya-bime[Glossary: konohanasakuyahime_no_mikoto] (Kamuatakashitsu-hime), namely, Hoderi, Hosuseri, and Hoori (also called Hikohohodemi), all contain the common "ho," which originally did not mean "fire,"VI but "rice ear," with the result that their three names mean "rice-ear-shining" (hoderi), "rice-ear advancing" (hosuseri or hosusumi), and "rice-ear breaking" (hoori, from being so heavily weighted down with the ripe rice grain).

    Further, the child of Hoori (Hikohohodemi) was Ugayafukiahezu[Glossary: ugayafukiaezu_no_mikoto], whose offspring were named Itsuse, Inahi, Mikenu, and Wakamikenu (also called Toyomikenu). These deities' names all contain elements related to rice and foodstuffs; for example, the se of Itsuse came from the primitive word sa which meant the spirit of the rice grain, and thus indicated "divine rice." The hi of Inahi, on the other hand, was the same hi (bi) of the word musibi, which referred to the creative power of becoming and thus indicated the rice spirit, while the mike of Mikenu meant "food," or "food offering."

    Also, in the second alternate "one writing" relating the "descent of the heavenly grandchild" in the Nihon shoki,VII Amaterasu orders Amanokoyane and Futotama to "take the rice from my gardens in the Plain of High Heaven and present it to my offspring," thus indicating that the divine rice from heaven was entrusted by Amaterasu to Oshihomimi. However, since it later came about that Ho no Ninigi descended in place of Oshihomimi, it appears that in the end, rice was brought to the earthly world by Ninigi.

    According to a fragmentary passage from the Hyuga no kuni fudoki[Glossary: fudoki], at the time Ho no Ninigi descended from heaven, the earth was in a condition of chaos, with "a darkened sky lacking any distinction of night and day, so that people lost their way and could not discriminate things." But Ho no Ninigi plucked a thousand stalks of rice and scattered the unhulled grain in the four directions, whereupon "the sky was brightened, and the sun and moon shone brightly," thus showing that rice and king were viewed as equivalent, both conceived as possessing the power to change darkness to light and chaos to order.

    Further, the third alternate "one writing" provided by the NihongiVIII as a description of Ho no Ninigi's descent relates that Ho no Ninigi's wife Kamuatakashitsu-hime "selected a field by divination, giving it the name Sanada. From the rice of that field she brewed sweet rice wine of heaven, which she gave [him] to drink. And using the rice of the field Nunata, she prepared cooked rice which she gave him to eat." In short, sake and steamed rice were produced from the rice grain and presented as offerings to the ruler of the divine land, reflecting a concept similar to that evident in the previous passage.

    As the embodiment of the rice grain, Ho no Ninigi thus represented not only the ancestor of the imperial family, but also the spirit of rice and grains presented from heaven to the world of human beings. In this context, it should be noted that the rice cultures around Southeast Asia frequently treat rice as a sacred grain unique in status compared to other agricultural products. Many of those cultures also personify the spirit of the rice as a goddess, calling it "grain mother," or "mother of the rice."6

    The divine genealogy from Amaterasu to Jimmu is intimately linked to rice, thus revealing a conceptual identification of rice with kingship. Forming the basic structural motif of the kingship myths of Kojiki and Nihongi, this linkage identifies the king (i.e., tennô) with the rice spirit, thus suggesting one factor that motivated the identification of the imperial ancestral deity Amaterasu with the goddess "rice mother."
    https://www2.kokugakuin.ac.jp/ijcc/w...matsumura.html

    Boshan, Cishan an Peiligang cultures were related millet farmers. The Cishan culture influenced the formation of the Hougang phase I culture that influenced the Miaozigou culture. The Peiligang culture influenced the rice-cultivating Shuangdun culture, which formed the Beixin culture on the Houli substratum (Boshan_EN).
    Last edited by Q-M242-is-Papuan-related; 09-14-2021 at 06:43 PM.

  13. The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Q-M242-is-Papuan-related For This Useful Post:

     Howard23 (09-15-2021),  Max_H (09-14-2021)

  14. #250
    Registered Users
    Posts
    44
    Sex
    Location
    China
    Ethnicity
    Han-Manchuria
    Y-DNA (P)
    O1b-M95

    China
    Quote Originally Posted by Max_H View Post
    Do you think that expansion was somewhere from the southern part of the Korean peninsula or from Japan towards Korea?
    Jomon originated in the Japanese archipelago. I think It is just because they were isolated on the islands for a long time that their unique genetic profile can be formed. Even during the last glacial maximum, the Japanese archipelago might not be connected to the Korean Peninsula. But this paper says that Jomon has never been isolated. The cultural exchange between Jomon and South Korea seems to have started as early as 10,000 years ago.

    From the supplementary information of the Triangulation preprint:

    One individual from the Late Neolithic Yokchido site on the southern coast of Korea shows a high affinity to individuals with Jōmon ancestry (SI 13 Fig. 3) and was modelled as harbouring as much as 95% Jōmon ancestry, suggesting population migration from Japan to Korea.

    The Japanese islands were never isolated from the Eurasian continent and, in particular, there is considerable archaeological evidence for contact and exchange between Kyushu and southern Korea in both the Palaeolithic and Neolithic. In the Neolithic, these relations are often interpreted as localised and limited exchange between deep-sea fishing groups. Our present results, however, suggest a quite different model of extensive admixture between Jōmon and Korean Chulmun populations. Many archaeologists have previously concluded that, despite interaction between Kyushu and Korea, a basic cultural or ethnic boundary was maintained. Several scholars have proposed that this boundary was also linguistic; because of linguistic differences, ‘the meaning of Jōmon pottery was not understood’ on the peninsula. Our results suggest such conclusions are overly simplistic. Jōmon individuals who voyaged to Korea did not necessarily make Jōmon pottery if they stayed on the peninsula for any length of time; those individuals could have simply adopted the local ceramics in use in Korean Neolithic societies.

  15. The Following User Says Thank You to Howard23 For This Useful Post:

     Max_H (09-15-2021)

Page 25 of 26 FirstFirst ... 1523242526 LastLast

Similar Threads

  1. Replies: 5
    Last Post: 01-13-2021, 01:27 PM
  2. Replies: 0
    Last Post: 03-24-2019, 02:09 AM
  3. The Irish DNA Atlas: Revealing Fine-Scale Population Structure and History.
    By JohnHowellsTyrfro in forum Autosomal (auDNA)
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: 12-10-2017, 06:23 AM
  4. Replies: 1
    Last Post: 08-07-2017, 06:59 PM
  5. Genetic Structure of the East Asians
    By BMG in forum Autosomal (auDNA)
    Replies: 2
    Last Post: 07-20-2015, 02:04 PM

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •