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Thread: Population admixture structure and demographic history of North East Asians

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    Population admixture structure and demographic history of North East Asians

    Two partially contradictory preprints on the formation of populations of Northeast Asia have been published. It is noteworthy that the question of the Ural-Samoyed populations was not reflected in both preprints.

    Genomic insights into the differentiated population admixture structure and demographic history of North East Asians


    Abstract
    North China and South Siberia, mainly populated by Altaic-speaking populations, possess extensive ethnolinguistic diversity and serve as the crossroad for the initial peopling of America and western-eastern trans-continental communication. Yet, the complex scenarios of genetic origin, population structure, and admixture history of North-East Asia remain to be fully characterized, especially for Mongolic people in China with a genome-wide perspective. Thus, we genotyped genome-wide SNPs for 510 individuals from 38 Chinese Mongolic, Tungusic, and Sinitic populations to explore the sharing alleles and haplotypes within the studied groups and following merged it with 3508 modern and ancient Eurasian individuals to reconstruct the deep evolutionary and natural selection history of northern East Asians. We identified significant substructures within Altaic-speaking populations with the primary common ancestry linked to the Neolithic northern East Asians: Western Turkic people harbored more western Eurasian ancestry; Northern Mongolic people in Siberia and eastern Tungusic people in Amur River Basin (AR possessed dominant Neolithic Mongolian Plateau (MP) or ARB ancestry; Southern Mongolic people in China owned obvious genetic impact from Neolithic Yellow River Basin (YR farmers. Additionally, we found the differentiated admixture history between western and eastern Mongolians and geographically close Northeast Hans: the former received a genetic impact from western Eurasians and the latter retained the dominant YRB and ARB Neolithic ancestry. Moreover, we demonstrated that Kalmyk people from the northern Caucasus Mountain possessed a strong genetic affinity with Neolithic MP people, supporting the hypothesis of their eastern Eurasian origin and long-distance migration history. We also illuminated that historic pastoral empires in the MP contributed considerably to the gene pool of northern Mongolic people but rarely to southern ones. We finally found natural signatures in Mongolians associated with alcohol metabolism. Generally, our results not only illuminated that complex population migration and admixture of Neolithic ancestral sources from the MP or ARB played an important role in the spread of Altaic-speaking populations and Proto-Altaic language, which partly supported the Northeast Asia-origin hypothesis, but also demonstrated that the observed multi-sources of genetic diversity contributed significantly to the modern existing extensive ethnolinguistic diversity in North-East Asia.

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1...07.19.452943v1


    Triangulation supports agricultural spread of the Transeurasian languages



    Abstract
    The origin and early dispersal of speakers of Transeurasian languages, i.e., Japanese, Korean, Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic, is among the most disputed issues of Eurasian population history. A key problem is the relationship between linguistic dispersals, agricultural expansions and population movements. Here we address this question through ‘triangulating’ genetics, archaeology and linguistics in a unified perspective. We report new, wide-ranging datasets from these disciplines, including the most comprehensive Transeurasian agropastoral and basic vocabulary presented to date, an archaeological database of 255 Neolithic and Bronze Age sites from Northeast Asia, and the first collection of ancient genomes from Korea, the Ryukyu islands and early cereal farmers in Japan, complementing previously published genomes from East Asia. Challenging the traditional ‘Pastoralist Hypothesis’, we show that the common ancestry and primary dispersals of Transeurasian languages can be traced back to the first farmers moving across Northeast Asia from the Early Neolithic onwards, but that this shared heritage has been masked by extensive cultural interaction since the Bronze Age. As well as marking significant progress in the three individual disciplines, by combining their converging evidence, we show that the early spread of Transeurasian speakers was driven by agriculture.

    https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-255765/v1

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    Paternal and maternal admixture history of northern East Asians

    Finally, we explored gendered dimensions of the population history of studied northern East Asians. All 362 Mongolians were assigned into 204 terminal matrilineal haplogroups. Haplogroup D was the most predominant lineage (27.07%), followed by B (11.60%), F (10.77%), Z (8.01%), G (7.73%), C (6.91%), A (6.08%), N (5.25%), and M7 (5.25%), other haplogroups (HV, H, I, M8, M9, M10, M11, R, T, U, W, and Y) were sporadically distributed in studied Mongolians with frequencies of no more than 1.66%. Target Mongolic-speaking Daur people were assigned into 19 unique matrilineal lineages. Haplogroup B was the most dominant lineage (26.32%), followed by G (15.79%), F (10.53%), D (10.53%), and A (10.53%), in addition, haplogroups C, N, M8, M11, and R were observed once respectively. Haplogroups B (2/10), C (1/10), D (3/10), F (1/10), M8 (1/10), N (1/10), and R (1/10) were observed in studied Tungusic speakers. All 119 Han Chinese were assigned to 94 terminal matrilineal haplogroups. Haplogroup D was the most common lineage (23.53%), followed by B (12.61%), F (10.08%), M7 (9.24%), N (7.56%), Z (6.72%), G (6.72%), A (6.72%), and C (5.88%), other haplogroups (M8, M9, M10, M11, T, U, and Y) were sporadically distributed in Tungusic individuals with frequencies of no more than 3.36%. Among 175 male Mongolians, we identified 80 terminal paternal lineages with frequencies ranging from 0.0057 to 0.0629 (O2a1c1a1a1a1e: 11). The most frequent paternal haplogroup in target Mongolians was O2 (49.14%), followed by C2 (22.86%), O1 (12.00%), and N1 (6.29%). Furthermore, haplogroups D1, E, I, G, Q, and R were sparsely distributed in studied Mongolian populations. We observed the distributions of haplogroups C2, N1, O1, and O2 in Mongolic-speaking Daur individuals and haplogroups C2, O1, and R in studied Tungusic groups. Sixty Han Chinese men were assigned into 42 diverse paternal lineages. Haplogroup O2 was the most prevalent lineage (45.00%), followed by C2 (26.67%), N1 (10.00%), O1 (10.00%), Q (5.00%), D1 (1.67%), and J (1.67%).

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    Context could be better given about methodology involving the Qing 8-Banner System, explaining endogamy/exogamy rules in and out of urban/rural garrisons?

    Curiously I casually read there would actually be a reduction in male Mongolian population during the Qing due to having manpower exhausted in wars like the Taiping Rebellion
    Last edited by Sklvn; 07-22-2021 at 12:43 AM.

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    Is there any information about the ydna haplogroups of the new samples in this study? I couldn't fin any, I also couldn't fin any decent PCA with the samples.
    The most fascinating part to me are the Jomon-like individuals from Neolithic South Korea.

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    Quote Originally Posted by siberoberingian View Post
    Is there any information about the ydna haplogroups of the new samples in this study? I couldn't fin any, I also couldn't fin any decent PCA with the samples.
    The most fascinating part to me are the Jomon-like individuals from Neolithic South Korea.
    Unfortunately, both articles focus on autosomal aDNA and do not study Y-DNA at all. At least until the early Iron Age, Y-DNA correlates quite well with archaeological cultures. In particular, it may be for this reason that the conclusions of both articles contradict each other and do not seem convincing.

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    The qpAdms here seem to be done kinda hastily, and the populations chosen seem kinda like they were meant to force the data to fit some mold especially for the Transeurasian paper... Why Hongshan and Upper Xiajiadian for Koreans and Japanese?? No more fine-grain outgroup rotation qpAdm for early Koreans and Japanese? The actual contributor is almost certainly different...

    I also hope the meme about Transeurasian doesn't spread any further, not because it is bad genetics but because it is not accepted by professional linguists using the comparative method. Nevertheless the samples are gonna be very useful indeed.
    Last edited by Ryukendo; 07-22-2021 at 08:17 PM.
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    Not to mention that they simply cannot escape the fact that unadmixed early Tungusics, Turkics and Mongolics and their relatives (e.g. Xianbei) are simply not that closely related to East Asian agriculturalists of the Amur River Basin or to any East Asian agriculturalist population really, they all are more related to the continuum between China_AR_EN and Mongolia_N_East/North and other populations that never took up farming, than to any populations more south of that. Japanese and Koreans on the other hand are more southern than even Boshan. It just doesn't fit with the idea that a shared common farming population gave rise to all these groups.
    Quoted from this Forum:

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    " No, you are in the wrong... I really hope that you are not jumping on my thread with intent to harass me, just like other "receiving comitee", that unites in classic bullying unity, which makes me sad about such people, deprived of love etc.... "

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    Quote Originally Posted by Shuzam87 View Post
    Paternal and maternal admixture history of northern East Asians

    Finally, we explored gendered dimensions of the population history of studied northern East Asians. All 362 Mongolians were assigned into 204 terminal matrilineal haplogroups. Haplogroup D was the most predominant lineage (27.07%), followed by B (11.60%), F (10.77%), Z (8.01%), G (7.73%), C (6.91%), A (6.08%), N (5.25%), and M7 (5.25%), other haplogroups (HV, H, I, M8, M9, M10, M11, R, T, U, W, and Y) were sporadically distributed in studied Mongolians with frequencies of no more than 1.66%. Target Mongolic-speaking Daur people were assigned into 19 unique matrilineal lineages. Haplogroup B was the most dominant lineage (26.32%), followed by G (15.79%), F (10.53%), D (10.53%), and A (10.53%), in addition, haplogroups C, N, M8, M11, and R were observed once respectively. Haplogroups B (2/10), C (1/10), D (3/10), F (1/10), M8 (1/10), N (1/10), and R (1/10) were observed in studied Tungusic speakers. All 119 Han Chinese were assigned to 94 terminal matrilineal haplogroups. Haplogroup D was the most common lineage (23.53%), followed by B (12.61%), F (10.08%), M7 (9.24%), N (7.56%), Z (6.72%), G (6.72%), A (6.72%), and C (5.88%), other haplogroups (M8, M9, M10, M11, T, U, and Y) were sporadically distributed in Tungusic individuals with frequencies of no more than 3.36%. Among 175 male Mongolians, we identified 80 terminal paternal lineages with frequencies ranging from 0.0057 to 0.0629 (O2a1c1a1a1a1e: 11). The most frequent paternal haplogroup in target Mongolians was O2 (49.14%), followed by C2 (22.86%), O1 (12.00%), and N1 (6.29%). Furthermore, haplogroups D1, E, I, G, Q, and R were sparsely distributed in studied Mongolian populations. We observed the distributions of haplogroups C2, N1, O1, and O2 in Mongolic-speaking Daur individuals and haplogroups C2, O1, and R in studied Tungusic groups. Sixty Han Chinese men were assigned into 42 diverse paternal lineages. Haplogroup O2 was the most prevalent lineage (45.00%), followed by C2 (26.67%), N1 (10.00%), O1 (10.00%), Q (5.00%), D1 (1.67%), and J (1.67%).
    Do we have specific mtdna clades or will they be uploaded to yfull?

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    They admit this themselves:

    Contemporary Tungusic as well as Nivkh speakers in the Amur form a tight cluster
    204 (Extended data Fig. 5). Neolithic hunter-gatherers from Baikal, Primorye and the
    205 southeastern Steppe as well as farmers from the West Liao and Amur all project within this
    206 cluster (Extended data Fig. 7)....

    ...Amur-like ancestry thus likely represents
    210 the original genetic profile of Neolithic hunter-gatherers covering Baikal, Amur, Primorye,
    211 the southeastern Steppe and West Liao...

    ... As Amur-related ancestry can be traced back to speakers of Japanese and Korean, it
    219 appears to be the original genetic component common to all speakers of Transeurasian
    220 languages...


    ...Neolithic Ando, Yŏndaedo and Changhang can be modeled as an admixture of Jomon
    225 with a high proportion of Hongshan ancestry, while Yokchido on the southern coast of Korea
    226 harbours nearly 95% Jomon ancestry. Taejungni can only be modelled as an admixture of
    227 Jomon with Upper Xiajiadian ancestry, suggesting another wave of eastward gene-flow into
    228 Korea in the Bronze Age (SI 16). We therefore associate the spread of farming to Korea with
    229 two waves of Amur and Yellow River gene-flow, modelled by Hongshan for the Neolithic
    230 introduction of millet farming and by Upper Xiajiadian for the Bronze Age addition of rice
    231 agriculture.

    232 Analysing the genomes from Yayoi farmers (SI 12), we found that, like Taejungni, they
    233 can be modelled as indigenous Jomon ancestry admixed with Bronze Age Upper Xiajiadian
    234 ancestry.
    So all Korean and Japanese agriculturalists descend from Liao River agriculturalists and not Amur River foragers. But pastoralists of NE Asia like AR_IA, AR_Xianbei and Upper Xiajiadian culture are almost 100% Armur_HG/Armur_River_EN/Boisman derived! Super easy to see from Ning et. al: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-16557-2. Furthermore they make a very big leap: Upper Xiajiadian are pastoralists, not rice farmers! How could genetic contributions from a pastoralist society be associated with the introduction of rice to Korea? Just quoting the introduction of wikipedia: "The Upper Xiajiadian culture (simplified Chinese: 夏家店上层文化; traditional Chinese: 夏家店上層文化; pinyin: Xià jiā diàn shàngcéng wénhuà) (c. 1000-600 BC[1]) was a Bronze Age archaeological culture in Northeast China derived from the Eurasian steppe bronze tradition.[2]"
    Last edited by Ryukendo; 07-22-2021 at 08:18 PM.
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    "Which superman haplogroup is the toughest - R1a or R1b? And which SNP mutation spoke Indo-European first? There's only one way for us to find out ... fight!"

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    Quote Originally Posted by Ryukendo View Post
    The qpAdms here seem to be done kinda hastily, and the populations chosen seem kinda like they were meant to force the data to fit some mold especially for the Transeurasian paper... Why Hongshan and Upper Xiajiadian for Koreans and Japanese?? No more fine-grain outgroup rotation qpAdm for early Koreans and Japanese? The actual contributor is almost certainly different...

    I also hope the meme about Transeurasian doesn't spread any further, not because it is bad genetics but because it is not accepted by professional linguists using the comparative method. Nevertheless the samples are gonna be very useful indeed.
    Transeurasian really is nothing but a time-wasting goosechase if you'd ask me, its one of those things that only make sense through an extreme tunnelvision.

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