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Thread: Preview: Upcoming Ancient Greek Transect (Mesolithic to Medieval) from Biomuse

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    Preview: Upcoming Ancient Greek Transect (Mesolithic to Medieval) from Biomuse

    Thanks to my friends in Greektown, I've been alerted to a very exciting development in ancient DNA. It's called Biomuse, and it's a collaborative project focused on exploring pre-modern genomes from across Greece.

    In the project's own words:

    Quote Originally Posted by Biomuse
    The project aims to analyse a series of 50 humans, including their full genomes, who lived in Greece from the Mesolithic to the Byzantine period. Based on the study of their skeletal remains and the reconstruction of each individual’s visible and functional phenotype, we create their “individual biographies”, and transfer these reconstructions into existing or new exhibitions, museums and cultural venues. We propose a new approach to save, document, digitise, and share a previously underutilised source of human cultural and biological heritage information: namely, palaeogenomic and anthropological data taken directly from ancient humans.
    Here is the English language link to their attractive website:

    https://biomuse.eu/project/?lang=en

    The scientific teams leading the paper are, on the Greek side, the Laboratory of Physical Anthropology of the Democritus University of Thrace, and, on the German/international side, the Palaeogenetics Group of the University of Mainz. The scientists leading this project are the same folks that brought us the "Aegean palatial civilizations" paper (the one with Logkas, the Cycladics, and other cool Bronze Age genomes). As many of you know, I did take issue with what I felt was that paper's misleading insinuation that modern Greeks show 90% continuity with Logkas. This claim of extreme continuity tainted an otherwise interesting paper. Given a proper analysis of the transect the project is currently working on, I'm hoping such tendentious pretensions are not entertained in the future. We Greeks can be understandably sensitive about our ancestry given Balkan identity politics and recent history's litany of mishellenic racial theorists (from Nordicists like Guenther to replacement theorists like Fallmerayer), but overreaching or outright false claims of total replacement do not justify laughably implausible assertions of extreme continuity either. We need to be realistic about what's changed about Greeks since the classical era and beyond. There's no way any of us are 90% like anything that existed in the IA, let alone the BA. Let's hope future papers from the project avoid this kind of bunk.

    The Greek team has a video up on their Youtube channel, but it's in Greek so there's not much there to be gleaned for a general audience. Still, it's nice to put faces to names and to see the laboratory environment. The leaders of the Greek team in their element:

     










    Now for the fun stuff. The Biomuse project has employed graphic artists to present the research in an accessible, interdisciplinary, and stylish way, which I think is good PR for a sometimes rather dry subject. Although the project teases that it has scores of samples in the pipeline, the team has chosen to feature ten standout samples ("biographies") on the website. I've illustrated the good stuff below for your perusal:

    MESOLITHIC DODECANESE
     


    NEOLITHIC MACEDONIA
     


    ARCHAIC MACEDONIA
     






    ARCHAIC PELOPONNESUS
     




    ARCHAIC THRACE
     


    HELLENISTIC MACEDONIA
     


    LATE MEDIEVAL EPIRUS
     


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    That's all well and good, but what about the genetic affinity for each of these samples? Well, that information is not openly divulged, though the website does give an overly simplified graphic of what a selection of the samples are like when modelled with the "Big Three" European components (WHG, ANF, and Yamnaya):

     


    Naturally this is almost useless for Greeks since they are not like other Europeans and never have been (with a few possible exceptions at the proto[-historical] margins). Ancient, medieval, and modern Balkan and Aegean Greeks have West Asian ancestry the vast majority of other Euros don't have. That CHG/Iran Neo and Levant Neo has to go somewhere, so the Big Three model is just going to end up distributing it to ANF or steppe, I guess. The only thing informative we can glean from this graphic is that the Dodecanese Mesolithic sample likely resembled Anatolian HGs (like Pinarbasi) and not WHGs. This is what we expected anyway, so it's cool to see it confirmed. Also, the late Byzantine Epirote from Doliani clearly has more steppe than the other samples, which isn't surprising since a long-since Slavic-mixed mainland profile is what we'd expect for that place and time. The Archaic Greeks from Archontiko, Tenea, and Abdera pretty much look the same as far as basic components go.

    But I'd be lying if I said there isn't anything more to get excited about. There actually is something besides that dilettante graphic that can help us. In the aforementioned video, there's a West Eurasian PCA visible on Angelos Souleles' computer with some of these new Greek samples projected onto it! Good googly moogly, what fuckin' luck, eh?!

     


    Great Caesar's ghost, you can even make out what the hell everything says! Here's my madcap attempt to make sense of what's going on:



    First, a word of caution: this PCA could also suffer from projection bias, so take it with a healthy grain of salt. We'll have to see how the genomes actually behave when we get our hands on them!

    Some of the labels are clearly references to samples featured in the biographies above while others seem to be from non-featured sites/individuals. A few of the featured bios are seemingly not on this PCA either; if they are they're given cryptic names. Paliambeli Roditis is clearly there, clustering with the Neolithic Greeks as she should. I'm not sure if SNV is Vatses but it seems possible. A Mesolithic Pinarbasi-like sample would probably project in a similar way. Don't know what St5 or Sar1 are; presumably Neolithic Greece samples.

    If the Archontiko samples are there, they're not obviously marked. Check out this link for amazing imagery of Archontiko material finds:
    https://www.petersommer.com/blog/arc...tiko-macedonia

    This particular WE PCA has been around for years and isn't always the easiest one to make fine distinctions with, but the big takeaway here is obvious: most of these samples cluster amongst or just under the Sicilians/Maltese cluster, which is the space Mycenaeans and Emporiotes would inhabit on a simplistic PCA like this. No surprise to see all those Xs in that space. I don't know what Kas1 (maybe Kastoria?) or Zon1 are, but we do know that Tene2 is obviously the Tenea sample, so Kas1, Zon2, Aca4, and Aca5 are presumably similarly Mycenaean-like Greeks. I suspect that "Aca" might be a reference to classical-to-Hellenistic (5th-1st century BC) genomes from Akanthos ("Acanthus" in Latin), the ostensible skull sources of which were featured in this recent study about trepanation (in which both Aidonis and Papageorgopoulou were involved, even listing it on the Biomuse website). Could be wrong about that, but it's a good lead, I think. Aca1 is displaced toward the North/Central Italian area, interestingly.

    SLK1 might be reference to the Hellenistic Thessaloniki genome, and seems to plot with the Sicilians/Maltese, which makes sense for Hellenistic era. Also plotting with the East Meds is Abdera, which is VERY interesting as this girl was supposedly descended of Western Anatolians from Klazomenai who settled in Abdera (Thrace). If there were Western Anatolian Greeks in the Archaic period who clustered among modern Aegean Greeks and Southern Italians, that would be a huge development.

    "Dolia" must be the Late Byzantine Epirote warrior from Doliani and naturally clusters with modern mainland Greeks. The other sample that clusters among them is AgiGeo9. I'm guessing this site might be called Agios Georgios, but there are lots of sites in Greece named that so it's not helpful. "Agr1" is the easternmost shifted sample and might be from the same site as AgiGeo9.
    Last edited by Michalis Moriopoulos; 04-24-2022 at 08:50 AM.
    Ελευθερία ή θάνατος.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Michalis Moriopoulos View Post
    Thanks to my friends in Greektown, I've been alerted to a very exciting development in ancient DNA. It's called Biomuse, and it's a collaborative project focused on exploring pre-modern genomes from across Greece.

    In the project's own words:



    Here is the English language link to their attractive website:

    https://biomuse.eu/project/?lang=en

    The scientific teams leading the paper are, on the Greek side, the Laboratory of Physical Anthropology of the Democritus University of Thrace, and, on the German/international side, the Palaeogenetics Group of the University of Mainz. The scientists leading this project are the same folks that brought us the "Aegean palatial civilizations" paper (the one with Logkas, the Cycladics, and other cool Bronze Age genomes). As many of you know, I did take issue with what I felt was that paper's misleading insinuation that modern Greeks show 90% continuity with Logkas. This claim of extreme continuity tainted an otherwise interesting paper. Given a proper analysis of the transect the project is currently working on, I'm hoping such tendentious pretensions are not entertained in the future. We Greeks can be understandably sensitive about our ancestry given Balkan identity politics and recent history's litany of mishellenic racial theorists (from Nordicists like Guenther to replacement theorists like Fallmerayer), but overreaching or outright false claims of total replacement do not justify laughably implausible assertions of extreme continuity either. We need to be realistic about what's changed about Greeks since the classical era and beyond. There's no way any of us are 90% like anything that existed in the IA, let alone the BA. Let's hope future papers from the project avoid this kind of bunk.

    The Greek team has a video up on their Youtube channel, but it's in Greek so there's not much there to be gleaned for a general audience. Still, it's nice to put faces to names and to see the laboratory environment. The leaders of the Greek team in their element:

     










    Now for the fun stuff. The Biomuse project has employed graphic artists to present the research in an accessible, interdisciplinary, and stylish way, which I think is good PR for a sometimes rather dry subject. Although the project teases that it has scores of samples in the pipeline, the team has chosen to feature ten standout samples ("biographies") on the website. I've illustrated the good stuff below for your perusal:

    MESOLITHIC DODECANESE
     


    NEOLITHIC MACEDONIA
     


    ARCHAIC MACEDONIA
     






    ARCHAIC PELOPONNESUS
     




    ARCHAIC THRACE
     


    HELLENISTIC MACEDONIA
     


    LATE MEDIEVAL EPIRUS
     


    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

    That's all well and good, but what about the genetic affinity for each of these samples? Well, that information is not openly divulged, though the website does give an overly simplified graphic of what a selection of the samples are like when modelled with the "Big Three" European components (WHG, ANF, and Yamnaya):

     


    Naturally this is almost useless for Greeks since they are not like other Europeans and never have been (with a few possible exceptions at the proto[-historical] margins). Ancient, medieval, and modern Balkan and Aegean Greeks have West Asian ancestry the vast majority of other Euros don't have. That CHG/Iran Neo and Levant Neo has to go somewhere, so the Big Three model is just going to end up distributing it to ANF or steppe, I guess. The only thing informative we can glean from this graphic is that the Dodecanese Mesolithic sample likely resembled Anatolian HGs (like Pinarbasi) and not WHGs. This is what we expected anyway, so it's cool to see it confirmed. Also, the late Byzantine Epirote from Doliani clearly has more steppe than the other samples, which isn't surprising since a long-since Slavic-mixed mainland profile is what we'd expect for that place and time. The Archaic Greeks from Archontiko, Tenea, and Abdera pretty much look the same as far as basic components go.

    But I'd be lying if I said there isn't anything more to get excited about. There actually is something besides that dilettante graphic that can help us. In the aforementioned video, there's a West Eurasian PCA visible on Angelos Souleles' computer with some of these new Greek samples projected onto it! Good googly moogly, what fuckin' luck, eh?!

     


    Great Caesar's ghost, you can even make out what the hell everything says! Here's my madcap attempt to make sense of what's going on:



    First, a word of caution: this PCA could also suffer from projection bias, so take it with a healthy grain of salt. We'll have to see how the genomes actually behave when we get our hands on them!

    Some of the labels are clearly references to samples featured in the biographies above while others seem to be from non-featured sites/individuals. A few of the featured bios are seemingly not on this PCA either; if they are they're given cryptic names. Paliambeli Roditis is clearly there, clustering with the Neolithic Greeks as she should. I'm not sure if SNV is Vatses but it seems possible. A Mesolithic Pinarbasi-like sample would probably project in a similar way. Don't know what St5 or Sar1 are; presumably Neolithic Greece samples.

    If the Archontiko samples are there, they're not obviously marked. Check out this link for amazing imagery of Archontiko material finds:
    https://www.petersommer.com/blog/arc...tiko-macedonia

    This particular WE PCA has been around for years and isn't always the easiest one to make fine distinctions with, but the big takeaway here is obvious: most of these samples cluster amongst or just under the Sicilians/Maltese cluster, which is the space Mycenaeans and Emporiotes would inhabit on a simplistic PCA like this. No surprise to see all those Xs in that space. I don't know what Kas1 (maybe Kastoria?) or Zon1 are, but we do know that Tene2 is obviously the Tenea sample, so Kas1, Zon2, Aca4, and Aca5 are presumably similarly Mycenaean-like Greeks. I suspect that "Aca" might be a reference to classical-to-Hellenistic (5th-1st century BC) genomes from Akanthos ("Acanthus" in Latin), the ostensible skull sources of which were featured in this recent study about trepanation (in which both Aidonis and Papageorgopoulou were involved, even listing it on the Biomuse website). Could be wrong about that, but it's a good lead, I think. Aca1 is displaced toward the North/Central Italian area, interestingly.

    SLK1 might be reference to the Hellenistic Thessaloniki genome, and seems to plot with the Sicilians/Maltese, which makes sense for Hellenistic era. Also plotting with the East Meds is Abdera, which is VERY interesting as this girl was supposedly descended of Western Anatolians from Klazomenai who settled in Abdera (Thrace). If there were Western Anatolian Greeks in the Archaic period who clustered among modern Aegean Greeks and Southern Italians, that would be a huge development.

    "Dolia" must be the Late Byzantine Epirote warrior from Doliani and naturally clusters with modern mainland Greeks. The other sample that clusters among them is AgiGeo9. I'm guessing this site might be called Agios Georgios, but there are lots of sites in Greece named that so it's not helpful. "Agr1" is the easternmost shifted sample and might be from the same site as AgiGeo9.
    SLK1 is probably Sparta Lacedaemonian. He is more Steppe influenced than the core group which is basically Mycenaean like.
    Aca1 and Abdera are also more Steppe influenced with Abdera having also more West Asian influence it seems judging by its shift in that direction.
    Aca1 I believe is one of the Archaic Macedonian samples and most probably the oldest one, the woman from Agios Panteleimonas.

    I don't know what is AgiGeo9 but it's very Steppe shifted and close to the Medieval sample from Doliani Epirus which is basically modern Greek like.

    Also Agr1 has a strange position on the PCA. Could it be the Hellenistic sample from Thessaloniki with its dark skin allels, very different than anything from that region prior and after him?

    Edit: Aca1 also seems to be very similar to those Logkas BA samples giving away probable continuity from the MBA to EIA which was altered later on and gave way to the Mycenaean-like profile.
    EIA Macedonia was still largerely Paeonian, Thracian and possibly Brygian. This changed during the fifth century BCE when the Macedonian kingdom under Alexander I conquered the entire region and expelled the other tribes.
    Last edited by Aspar; 04-24-2022 at 09:47 AM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Aspar View Post
    SLK1 is probably Sparta Lacedaemonian. He is more Steppe influenced than the core group which is basically Mycenaean like.
    Aca1 and Abdera are also more Steppe influenced with Abdera having also more West Asian influence it seems judging by its shift in that direction.
    Aca1 I believe is one of the Archaic Macedonian samples and most probably the oldest one, the woman from Agios Panteleimonas.

    I don't know what is AgiGeo9 but it's very Steppe shifted and close to the Medieval sample from Doliani Epirus which is basically modern Greek like.

    Also Agr1 has a strange position on the PCA. Could it be the Hellenistic sample from Thessaloniki with its dark skin allels, very different than anything from that region prior and after him?

    Edit: Aca1 also seems to be very similar to those Logkas BA samples giving away probable continuity from the MBA to EIA which was altered later on and gave way to the Mycenaean-like profile.
    EIA Macedonia was still largerely Paeonian, Thracian and possibly Brygian. This changed during the fifth century BCE when the Macedonian kingdom under Alexander I conquered the entire region and expelled the other tribes.
    If we consider Macedonian the most divergent or basal split within the Hellenic languages, wouldn'it make more sense to think that it was still located somewhere in ancient Macedonia but the populations were mixed or dominated by other Balkanic people? Or do you think that Macedonian is a more standard Doric variety with a heavier non-Greek substratum?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Granary View Post
    If we consider Macedonian the most divergent or basal split within the Hellenic languages, wouldn'it make more sense to think that it was still located somewhere in ancient Macedonia but the populations were mixed or dominated by other Balkanic people? Or do you think that Macedonian is a more standard Doric variety with a heavier non-Greek substratum?
    I think these latest results just confirm that the Macedonians were a Doric tribe.

    Their language was also very Archaic Doric Greek. What is interesting is the very name Macedonia which it seems to be a Doric transcript of the name Mygdonia where the shift from Y to A is a very recognisable Doric characteristic as well as the palatalization of G.

    In that regard, the Dorics seem to have invaded the region and appropriated the name Mygdonia but without having incorporated different non Doric Greek tribes in their ranks considering that Aca4 and Aca5 which are 6th century BC Macedonians basically Mycenaean like.

    They were probably considered barbarian not because of incorporating non Greek people in their ranks but because their language and society was very Archaic one.

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    Wondering the ydna of these archaic Greeks. I am pretty sure some of them were EV13. Also, very curious about the ydna and autosomal of the Hellenistic man from Thessaloniki. Might had been like modern Dodecanese Greeks who knows.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Aspar View Post
    I think these latest results just confirm that the Macedonians were a Doric tribe.

    Their language was also very Archaic Doric Greek. What is interesting is the very name Macedonia which it seems to be a Doric transcript of the name Mygdonia where the shift from Y to A is a very recognisable Doric characteristic as well as the palatalization of G.

    In that regard, the Dorics seem to have invaded the region and appropriated the name Mygdonia but without having incorporated different non Doric Greek tribes in their ranks considering that Aca4 and Aca5 which are 6th century BC Macedonians basically Mycenaean like.

    They were probably considered barbarian not because of incorporating non Greek people in their ranks but because their language and society was very Archaic one.
    I'm not privy on the history of Archaic era Macedonia but why do you think it was Alexander I specifically that conquered the region? Also do you think both Upper and Lower Macedonia were non Greek at the time(6th century BCE)?
    Also given you are sure about the Doric element, would those conquerors have come from Epirus, the closest Doric speaking region? Mythology says they came from Argos but that seems a bit unlikely insofar as the common people are concerned.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Granary View Post
    I'm not privy on the history of Archaic era Macedonia but why do you think it was Alexander I specifically that conquered the region? Also do you think both Upper and Lower Macedonia were non Greek at the time(6th century BCE)?
    Also given you are sure about the Doric element, would those conquerors have come from Epirus, the closest Doric speaking region? Mythology says they came from Argos but that seems a bit unlikely insofar as the common people are concerned.
    Its during the time of Alexander I that the entire region of Lower Vardar/Axius was incorporated into the Macedonian kingdom based on the archaeological findings( the locally produced stater coins disappeared and the Macedonian coins and artifacts took over) and according to most historians although the Doric Greeks were already living nearby in the vicinity of the region by the 8th century BCE according to ancient Greek testimonies for the foundation of the Macedonian kingdom. According to some historians the Macedonians entered the Macedonian region when they descended down the Pindus mountains. Whether they came from Epirus or some other region is difficult to say but as you noted according to very Alexander I based on Herodotus writings, the Macedonian ruling dynasty comes from the Peloponnese.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Aspar View Post
    Its during the time of Alexander I that the entire region of Lower Vardar/Axius was incorporated into the Macedonian kingdom based on the archaeological findings( the locally produced stater coins disappeared and the Macedonian coins and artifacts took over) and according to most historians although the Doric Greeks were already living nearby in the vicinity of the region by the 8th century BCE according to ancient Greek testimonies for the foundation of the Macedonian kingdom. According to some historians the Macedonians entered the Macedonian region when they descended down the Pindus mountains. Whether they came from Epirus or some other region is difficult to say but as you noted according to very Alexander I based on Herodotus writings, the Macedonian ruling dynasty comes from the Peloponnese.
    I guess it's possible that the kings came from Argos but the people from Epirus or some fringe mountainous region in Thessaly, if the bulk of the Greeks came from Argos you'd question why didn't they replicate the polis style of governance there like the Chalkidiki colonies did.

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    My very rough two cents:

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    Very cool!....Can't wait to see the Y-DNA results!

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