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Thread: "Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe"

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    "Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe"

    A new article published this week provide some interesting mtDNA results from 8,500 year old grave sites found in Syria. I don't claim to fully understand most of the paper, I did get enough out of it to pick up on one of tidbits of interest, being that paragroup N (from which my X2d1 line descends) is found present among these remains.

    Perhaps other members of this community can gleen more from this paper (linked) below.

    Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands

    http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/...l.pgen.1004401
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    This is adding to evidence from other fields that the first settlements of farmers in Europe probably largely came from a Levantine direction by sea rather than through from Anatolia past Istanbul into Thrace etc as people tend to presume.

    Quote Originally Posted by Geolocke View Post
    A new article published this week provide some interesting mtDNA results from 8,500 year old grave sites found in Syria. I don't claim to fully understand most of the paper, I did get enough out of it to pick up on one of tidbits of interest, being that paragroup N (from which my X2d1 line descends) is found present among these remains.

    Perhaps other members of this community can gleen more from this paper (linked) below.

    Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands

    http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/...l.pgen.1004401

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    Quote Originally Posted by alan View Post
    This is adding to evidence from other fields that the first settlements of farmers in Europe probably largely came from a Levantine direction by sea rather than through from Anatolia past Istanbul into Thrace etc as people tend to presume.
    was there a sea barrier at the time between europe and anatolia ? black sea was very small around 8000BC


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    Quote Originally Posted by alan View Post
    This is adding to evidence from other fields that the first settlements of farmers in Europe probably largely came from a Levantine direction by sea rather than through from Anatolia past Istanbul into Thrace etc as people tend to presume.
    I agree with you wholeheartedly. The earliest Neolithic farmers probably originated from the Eastern Mediterranean region, and is probably associated with the Mediterranean component. I think that at this time, the Caucasus component didn't yet exist, perhaps because the Mediterranean or Southwest Asian-like population at the time had not yet mixed or was in the beginning stages of interbreeding with the ANE population that arrived in Iran or the Caucasus to create the Caucasus component. Hence why Caucasus is found in comparatively lower frequencies than Mediterranean is, probably because the Caucasus component is connected to Late Neolithic farmers and historical migrations.

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    Quote Originally Posted by alan View Post
    This is adding to evidence from other fields that the first settlements of farmers in Europe probably largely came from a Levantine direction by sea rather than through from Anatolia past Istanbul into Thrace etc as people tend to presume.
    The early Europeans (Neolithisation)

    Barbara Bramanti, Joachim Burger, Ruth Bollongino

    The transition from the partly nomadic hunter-gatherer culture to a settled lifestyle based on farming is also known as the “Neolithic Revolution”. For 2,000 years, the Neolithic culture remained in its region of origin. After this, meaning about 9,000 years ago, it spread to western Anatolia and to the Aegean (see figure). Here at the latest, it splits into two trajectories, i.e. into the Mediterranean and into the Danube-Balkan route
    The Mediterranean colonisations took place by ship. Their paths led across southern Italy, the Tyrrhenian islands, the south ofFrance and north Africa as well as across the Iberian peninsula. It is highly likely that a version of the Mediterranean Neolithic about 7,000 years ago reached the Rhine and met the second route of the Balkan Neolithic. About 8,500 years ago, this second route stretched spasmodically from south-east Europe across central and northern Europe. Subsequently, the origins of the Central European Linearbandkeramik culture can be determined as going back 7,600 years. It has its beginnings in the north-west of Hungary /south-west of Slovakia respectively, and spread relatively quickly into central Europe. Only much later, approximately 6,100 years ago, were the low plains of northern Germany and other parts of northern Europe “neolithisised”.

    http://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Biologie/...thisation.html
    image.jpg

    The Mediterranean Neolithic[edit]
    This pottery style gives its name to the main culture of the Mediterranean Neolithic: Cardium Pottery Culture or Cardial Culture, or Impressed Ware Culture, which eventually extended from the Adriatic sea to the Atlantic coasts of Portugal and south to Morocco.[4]

    The earliest Impressed Ware sites, dating to 6400-6200 BC, are in Epirus and Corfu. Settlements then appear in Albania and Dalmatia on the eastern Adriatic coast dating to between 6100 and 5900 BC.[5] The earliest date in Italy comes from Coppa Nevigata on the Adriatic coast of southern Italy, perhaps as early as 6000 cal B.C. Also during Su Carroppu civilization in Sardinia, already in its early stages (low strata into Su Coloru cave, c. 6000 BC) early examples of cardial pottery appear.[6] Northward and westward all secure radiocarbon dates are identical to those for Iberia c. 5500 cal B.C., which indicates a rapid spread of Cardial and related cultures: 2,000 km from the gulf of Genoa to the estuary of the Mondego in probably no more than 100–200 years. This suggests a seafaring expansion by planting colonies along the coast. [7]

    Older Neolithic cultures existed already at this time in eastern Greece and Crete, apparently having arrived from the Levant, but they appear distinct from the Cardial or Impressed Ware culture. The ceramic tradition in the central Balkans also remained distinct from that along the Adriatic coastline in both style and manufacturing techniques for almost 1,000 years from the 6th millennium BC.[8] Early Neolithic impressed pottery is found in the Levant, and certain parts of Anatolia, including Mezraa-Teleilat, and in North Africa at Tunus-Redeyef, Tunisia. So the first Cardial settlers in the Adriatic may have come directly from the Levant. Of course it might equally well have come directly from North Africa, and impressed-pottery also appears in Egypt. Along the East Mediterranean coast Impressed Ware has been found in North Syria, Palestine and Lebanon.[9]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardium_Pottery
    image.jpg

    http://armchairprehistory.com/2010/0...e-into-europe/

    image.jpg

    The National Geographic has a good article on yet another paper on "Maritime route of colonization of Europe".

    "In a new study, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Stamatoyannopoulos and his colleagues analyzed the DNA of individuals from modern Mediterranean populations to reconstruct the migration patterns of their ancient ancestors.

    The genetic data showed that the people from the Near East migrated into Anatolia-modern—day Turkey—and then rapidly west through the islands of Greece and Sicily, before making their way north into the center of the continent.

    "The gene flow was from the Near East to Anatolia, and from Anatolia to the islands," Stamatoyannopoulos said. "How well the genes mirror geography is really striking."

    http://news.nationalgeographic.com/n...ithic-science/

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    http://www.pnas.org/content/early/20...11111.abstract

    image.jpg
    Last edited by Heber; 06-11-2014 at 10:21 AM.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Heber View Post
    The National Geographic has a good article on yet another paper on "Maritime route of colonization of Europe".

    http://news.nationalgeographic.com/n...ithic-science/
    From the NG article:
    ---
    The new data show that people living around the Mediterranean today have common ancestors in Anatolia. But then the genes diverge, with Greek islands like the Dodecanese archipelago and Crete forming a sort of genetic bridge to the rest of Greece, Sicily, Italy, and north into Europe.
    ---

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    Quote Originally Posted by Heber View Post
    The early Europeans (Neolithisation)

    Barbara Bramanti, Joachim Burger, Ruth Bollongino

    The transition from the partly nomadic hunter-gatherer culture to a settled lifestyle based on farming is also known as the “Neolithic Revolution”. For 2,000 years, the Neolithic culture remained in its region of origin. After this, meaning about 9,000 years ago, it spread to western Anatolia and to the Aegean (see figure). Here at the latest, it splits into two trajectories, i.e. into the Mediterranean and into the Danube-Balkan route
    The Mediterranean colonisations took place by ship. Their paths led across southern Italy, the Tyrrhenian islands, the south ofFrance and north Africa as well as across the Iberian peninsula. It is highly likely that a version of the Mediterranean Neolithic about 7,000 years ago reached the Rhine and met the second route of the Balkan Neolithic. About 8,500 years ago, this second route stretched spasmodically from south-east Europe across central and northern Europe. Subsequently, the origins of the Central European Linearbandkeramik culture can be determined as going back 7,600 years. It has its beginnings in the north-west of Hungary /south-west of Slovakia respectively, and spread relatively quickly into central Europe. Only much later, approximately 6,100 years ago, were the low plains of northern Germany and other parts of northern Europe “neolithisised”.

    http://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Biologie/...thisation.html
    image.jpg

    The Mediterranean Neolithic[edit]
    This pottery style gives its name to the main culture of the Mediterranean Neolithic: Cardium Pottery Culture or Cardial Culture, or Impressed Ware Culture, which eventually extended from the Adriatic sea to the Atlantic coasts of Portugal and south to Morocco.[4]

    The earliest Impressed Ware sites, dating to 6400-6200 BC, are in Epirus and Corfu. Settlements then appear in Albania and Dalmatia on the eastern Adriatic coast dating to between 6100 and 5900 BC.[5] The earliest date in Italy comes from Coppa Nevigata on the Adriatic coast of southern Italy, perhaps as early as 6000 cal B.C. Also during Su Carroppu civilization in Sardinia, already in its early stages (low strata into Su Coloru cave, c. 6000 BC) early examples of cardial pottery appear.[6] Northward and westward all secure radiocarbon dates are identical to those for Iberia c. 5500 cal B.C., which indicates a rapid spread of Cardial and related cultures: 2,000 km from the gulf of Genoa to the estuary of the Mondego in probably no more than 100–200 years. This suggests a seafaring expansion by planting colonies along the coast. [7]

    Older Neolithic cultures existed already at this time in eastern Greece and Crete, apparently having arrived from the Levant, but they appear distinct from the Cardial or Impressed Ware culture. The ceramic tradition in the central Balkans also remained distinct from that along the Adriatic coastline in both style and manufacturing techniques for almost 1,000 years from the 6th millennium BC.[8] Early Neolithic impressed pottery is found in the Levant, and certain parts of Anatolia, including Mezraa-Teleilat, and in North Africa at Tunus-Redeyef, Tunisia. So the first Cardial settlers in the Adriatic may have come directly from the Levant. Of course it might equally well have come directly from North Africa, and impressed-pottery also appears in Egypt. Along the East Mediterranean coast Impressed Ware has been found in North Syria, Palestine and Lebanon.[9]

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardium_Pottery
    image.jpg

    http://armchairprehistory.com/2010/0...e-into-europe/

    image.jpg

    The National Geographic has a good article on yet another paper on "Maritime route of colonization of Europe".

    "In a new study, published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Stamatoyannopoulos and his colleagues analyzed the DNA of individuals from modern Mediterranean populations to reconstruct the migration patterns of their ancient ancestors.

    The genetic data showed that the people from the Near East migrated into Anatolia-modern—day Turkey—and then rapidly west through the islands of Greece and Sicily, before making their way north into the center of the continent.

    "The gene flow was from the Near East to Anatolia, and from Anatolia to the islands," Stamatoyannopoulos said. "How well the genes mirror geography is really striking."

    http://news.nationalgeographic.com/n...ithic-science/

    image.jpg

    http://www.pnas.org/content/early/20...11111.abstract

    image.jpg
    we must then assume, that otzi and his band of alpine brothers where in europe much early than anything you presented!


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    Quote Originally Posted by vettor View Post
    we must then assume, that otzi and his band of alpine brothers where in europe much early than anything you presented!
    Otzi lived much later about 3,300 BCE.

    One interesting conclusion of this study is that the Island hoppers of Crete were probably the ancestors of the Minoans.

    Two different analyses came to the same conclusion. First, the farmers moved from Cappadocia in central Turkey to its south-west coast. From there, they island-hopped across Dodecanese islands like Kos and Patmos to Greece. As well as colonising the Greek mainland, another group settled on Crete, and established Europe's first advanced civilisation, the Minoan, 5000 years ago. From there, they headed west to Sicily and the southern tip of Italy.

    http://www.newscientist.com/article/...l#.U5i1Pnm9KSP

    image.jpg
    Last edited by Heber; 06-11-2014 at 08:01 PM.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Heber View Post
    Otzi lived much later about 3,300 BCE.

    One interesting conclusion of this study is that the Island hoppers of Crete were probably the ancestors of the Minoans.

    Two different analyses came to the same conclusion. First, the farmers moved from Cappadocia in central Turkey to its south-west coast. From there, they island-hopped across Dodecanese islands like Kos and Patmos to Greece. As well as colonising the Greek mainland, another group settled on Crete, and established Europe's first advanced civilisation, the Minoan, 5000 years ago. From there, they headed west to Sicily and the southern tip of Italy.

    http://www.newscientist.com/article/...l#.U5i1Pnm9KSP

    image.jpg
    How does Stuttgart (Neolithic EEF) play into in this timeline?

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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    How does Stuttgart (Neolithic EEF) play into in this timeline?

    "The Mediterranean colonisations took place by ship. Their paths led across southern Italy, the Tyrrhenian islands, the south ofFrance and north Africa as well as across the Iberian peninsula. It is highly likely that a version of the Mediterranean Neolithic about 7,000 years ago reached the Rhine and met the second route of the Balkan Neolithic. About 8,500 years ago, this second route stretched spasmodically from south-east Europe across central and northern Europe. Subsequently, the origins of the Central European Linearbandkeramik culture can be determined as going back 7,600 years. It has its beginnings in the north-west of Hungary /south-west of Slovakia respectively, and spread relatively quickly into central Europe. Only much later, approximately 6,100 years ago, were the low plains of northern Germany and other parts of northern Europe “neolithisised”.

    I guess the Stuttgart (Neolithic EEF) belonged to the second route LBK group.
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