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Thread: Ainu People

  1. #51
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    Quote Originally Posted by Agamemnon View Post
    This is certainly very interesting as far as the linguistics and archeology are of concern, since many have hypothesised that the Jomon culture originally came from SE Asia.

    Regarding the Ainu, they look like a merger of the Jomon-derived Satsumon culture and the Paleosiberian Okhotsk culture (so they're linked to the neighbouring Native American-like Siberians such as the Itelmen & Nivkh).
    Fascinating stuff!

    BTW, do you know where Ainu people end up on most PCA maps? Also, do they have any special affinities to Australo-Melanesians and/or Amerindians?

    And last but not least, what Y-DNA haplogroups do you think the Jomon carried?
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  3. #52
    ^I'd guess whatever the Ryukyuans share along with the other Japonic and Ainu groups, because they likely lack the Okhotsk-admixture wave in the Ainu and already have the highest Jomon ancestry amongst Japonic-speakers. As such, they are unlikely to carry any Okhotsk-originating ydna in any significant frequency as do the Japanese.

    The Ryukyuans being the closest Japonic group to the Jomon auDNA-wise also makes sense when looking at how they have frequency peak for D1b amongst Japonic peoples as well at 55% (highest outside the Ainu, who have it at 87.5%).

    C-M217 is the likely Okhotsk culture correlate, as it is present in groups at least partially descended from the Okhotsk culture inhabiting along the Okhotsk Sea and Amur-river basin and only really present in the Ainu in significant frequencies and in seemingly Ainu-admixed Japanese.

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  5. #53
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    Quote Originally Posted by VytautusofAukstaitija View Post
    C-M217 is the likely Okhotsk culture correlate, as it is present in groups at least partially descended from the Okhotsk culture inhabiting along the Okhotsk Sea and Amur-river basin and only really present in the Ainu in significant frequencies and in seemingly Ainu-admixed Japanese.
    YFull currently estimates the TMRCA of C2-M217 to be 34,000 [95% CI 31,500 <-> 36,700] ybp. This is comparable to the estimated TMRCA of NO-M214 (TMRCA 36,800 [95% CI 34,300 <-> 39,300] ybp), D1a1-M15 (TMRCA 33,500 [95% CI 30,700 <-> 36,400] ybp), O-M175 (TMRCA 30,800 [95% CI 29,000 <-> 32,700] ybp), or QR/P1-P284 (TMRCA 30,700 [95% CI 29,300 <-> 31,900] ybp). I would guess that the original carrier of C2-M217 probably lived in some Upper Paleolithic culture in East Asia, most likely somewhere around the Yellow Sea or the Sea of Japan.

    C2-M217 among present-day Japanese (among whom it accounts for somewhere between 2% and 6% of all Y-DNA) appears to be of heterogeneous origins, with a great deal being obviously descended from recent immigrants from China and Korea. (In at least one case of which I am aware, the name of the direct patrilineal ancestor from late 16th century Joseon is recorded and known, as he was taken to Japan when Japanese forces withdrew from the Korean Peninsula at the conclusion of the Imjin War.) A small part of C-M217 in Japan (e.g. members of C-M86, which Hammer et al. 2006 observed in two individuals from Kyūshū and one individual from Shikoku) is related somehow to many Tunguses, Oirats, and Kazakhs. The remainder of C-M217 in Japan (e.g. C2b1a-F1699*) may either be of ancient local ancestry or descended from people of the Okhotsk culture or their close relatives.

    Most cases of C-M217 in modern Japan appear to be results of Chinese and Korean admixture rather than Okhotsk/Paleo-Siberian admixture mediated by the Ainu people.

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