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Thread: Kalhana's Rajatarangini (Kashmir’s Game of Thrones)

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    Kalhana's Rajatarangini (Kashmir’s Game of Thrones)

    Relations between Hindu Shahi and Rulers of Kashmir:
    Through the lens of Kalhana in Rajatarangini
    (Kashmir’s Game of Thrones)
    Source: Rajatarangini by Kalhana, Jogesh Chander Dutt, Volume 1&2. Free at: archive.org

    1: A palace coup changing the Brahmin Hindu dynasty in Kabul. Alberuni famously confirms an early dynasty started by Kallar, a minister of the Turk Shahis.
    • Kalhana states that, “the treasurer robbed the queen of much wealth and built a town Bhandapura at Shahirajya. The reigning Shahiya disobeyed his order of building the town, on which he changed the name of the country to Kamalaka and gave it to Tomarana son of Lalliya (pg. 116).”

    • Now, a few things here. The queen here is the wife of King Shankaravarman who is serving as a regent for her young son King Gopalaverman 902CE. I don't know who Tomarana son of Lalliya is, but one thing this signifies is the presence of Kashmiri Kingdoms influence beyond the confines of the valley.

    • Later on Shahis have been mentioned by Kalhana as vessels of Kashmir. From the time of Jayapala (964-1001 AD).The help of Kashmir when Mahmud attacks and later on the Shahi family seeking refuge there underpins important ties between the two states.


    2: Hindu Shahis have marital relations with Loharas: “Simharajya, governor of fort Lohara (Poonch), married his daughter to the king (Kshemagupta). The girl's name was Didda and her mother's father was Shahi.(pg154)”

    3: Historians have detailed how with the help of a combined force of multiple Rajputs and the Kashmiri force sent under the minister Tunga (relative of Lohara), Trilochanpala fought with Mahmud of Ghazni at Margalla Hill pass present day Islamabad. Due to the negligence of Tunga (according to Kalhana and other historians), Trilochanpala loses.

    4: Now Kalhana says Trilochanpala flees to Hastika and tries to revive his fortunes there. He then states that the Hindu Shahi dynasty ends here. But in subsequent books he keeps on mentioning multiple members of the Shahi family present in the Lohara court and later during Harsha’s time.

    • One key example is during the reign of King Anantadeva 1028 AD, “Rudrapala and other sons of the Shahi became his favorite...Diddapala was happy with eight thousands a day. Anangpala was also fed by the King….Rudrapala married Asamati the beautiful and the oldest daughter of Induchandra king of Jalandhara. Her youngest sister Suryyamati was married by Rudrapala to the king.”(pg.179)

    • By marrying into royal families of both Trigarta (Jullunder) and Kashmir (Kalhana reports Shahi women as queens of later kings), Hindu Shahi families continued in Kashmir, albeit modest as compared to the past.

    • Kalhana also narrates the story of Vijja and Jayananda: advisors of King Kalasha 1063AD who ruled when his father Anantadeva abdicated the throne in his favor. One can read the whole story of why Kalasha was unpopular (pg.191). But this narration establishes that Shahis considered themselves Rajpoots [see attachment].
      Screen Shot 2020-10-04 at 11.51.25 AM.pngScreen Shot 2020-10-04 at 11.51.25 AM.png
      I think present day Rajput families in Kashmir, Himachal and North Punjab emerged out of the remaining members of this family merging with local existing Rajpoot clans rather than the well known Rajisthani Rajput line.


    5: The important thing I noted from reading Kalhana is the discrepancies in the Hindu Shahi story. He says on pg.173 that Shahi family went "extinct" but then literally on pg179 starts talking about Rudrapala and other Shahi family and how popular they were (also in his narrative notorious) in court. Then on pg 191, he talks about more Shahi princes as if they were never “extinct.” Maybe it has to do with how the original narrative of Rajatarangini was transcribed.

    6: Nonetheless, the narrative is no less than Kashmir’s version of Game of Thrones with rivalries, court intrigue, magic and a lot of helpful lessons.
    Last edited by Kapisa; 10-04-2020 at 09:30 PM.

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    ^^ Ya, the Kashmiri power struggle would put GOT to shame. I mean those weird rulers did every kind of cruel activities; murder, treachery and incestry among relatives. Queen Didda was insane; she killed her own 3 grandsons to usurp the Kashmir throne for her maternal Lohara family. She established her brother's son Sangramaraja as the heir of Kashmir thus ending the Utpal dynasty though sometimes, they're mentioned as the continuum of the Utpal dynasty. King Harsha, one of the descendants of Sangramaraja, was insane and had incest relations with his daughters and female cousins. I mean these rulers put the name of Khasa tribe to shame.

    This goes the list of the two Lohara dynasty of the Kashmir. And they were all the descendants of Queen Didda's father and Lohara chief, Simharaja, who was the lord of the Khasas except Radda who ruled briefly. A table from wikipedia constructed from Aurel Stein (1900)'s work on Rajatarangini. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lohara_dynasty
    First Lohara dynasty rulers.PNG
    Khasa rulers of 2nd Loharas.PNG
    Last edited by kaazi; 10-05-2020 at 10:46 AM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by kaazi View Post
    ^^ Ya, the Kashmiri power struggle would put GOT to shame. I mean those weird rulers did every kind of cruel activities; murder, treachery and incestry among relatives. Queen Didda was insane; she killed her own 3 grandsons to usurp the Kashmir throne for her maternal Lohara family. She established her brother's son Sangramaraja as the heir of Kashmir thus ending the Utpal dynasty though sometimes, they're mentioned as the continuum of the Utpal dynasty. King Harsha, one of the descendants of Sangramaraja, was insane and had incest relations with his daughters and female cousins. I mean these rulers put the name of Khasa tribe to shame.

    This goes the list of the two Lohara dynasty of the Kashmir. And they were all the descendants of Queen Didda's father and Lohara chief, Simharaja, who was the lord of the Khasas except Radda who ruled briefly. A table from wikipedia constructed from Aurel Stein (1900)'s work on Rajatarangini. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lohara_dynasty
    First Lohara dynasty rulers.PNG
    Khasa rulers of 2nd Loharas.PNG
    I think some parts are just exaggerations or pure fiction. But I think historically if you read any dynastic story-like Shahnameh by Ferdowsi-its gonna be a mix of fiction and history. Kalhanas narrative is somewhere in between.
    He is not too fond of some of the Loharas. I am not too familiar with the Khasas. Would love to know if today's Khasa tribe lives in Kashmir as well? He gives the genealogy of Loharas and says they were Kshatriyas.
    He also bashes the Shahi princes who he says called themselves Rajputs.
    In terms of Didda he narrates she changes at the end and becomes a benevolent monarch for example she gives jagirs to Brahmins, erects temples and helps the people of the valley.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kapisa View Post
    I think some parts are just exaggerations or pure fiction. But I think historically if you read any dynastic story-like Shahnameh by Ferdowsi-its gonna be a mix of fiction and history. Kalhanas narrative is somewhere in between.
    He is not too fond of some of the Loharas. I am not too familiar with the Khasas. Would love to know if today's Khasa tribe lives in Kashmir as well? He gives the genealogy of Loharas and says they were Kshatriyas.
    He also bashes the Shahi princes who he says called themselves Rajputs.
    In terms of Didda he narrates she changes at the end and becomes a benevolent monarch for example she gives jagirs to Brahmins, erects temples and helps the people of the valley.
    Kalhana's rajtarangini is far worse than fiction, its fiction with an overlay of the axe-to-grind kind of story-telling.
    By the way, the ruins of Loran are present in the Peer Panjals, near Poonch and the few villages around speak an archaic Pothwari, which they call Old Poonchi.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kapisa View Post
    3: Historians have detailed how with the help of a combined force of multiple Rajputs and the Kashmiri force sent under the minister Tunga (relative of Lohara), Trilochanpala fought with Mahmud of Ghazni at Margalla Hill pass present day Islamabad. Due to the negligence of Tunga (according to Kalhana and other historians), Trilochanpala loses.

    4: Now Kalhana says Trilochanpala flees to Hastika and tries to revive his fortunes there. He then states that the Hindu Shahi dynasty ends here. But in subsequent books he keeps on mentioning multiple members of the Shahi family present in the Lohara court and later during Harsha’s time.
    There was probably another battle, fought in the Peer Panjals, near Loran, leading to a siege by Sultan Mehmood which had to be lifted without the defenders conceding.

    I think present day Rajput families in Kashmir, Himachal and North Punjab emerged out of the remaining members of this family merging with local existing Rajpoot clans rather than the well known Rajisthani Rajput line.
    Not at all! A Rajasthani-origin theory would be just mythical for most of the Pothwari(and I would include most of the Jammu and Poonch Rajputs in that lot as well) Rajputs, Especially the Janjuas.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Rahuls77 View Post
    There was probably another battle, fought in the Peer Panjals, near Loran, leading to a siege by Sultan Mehmood which had to be lifted without the defenders conceding.



    Not at all! A Rajasthani-origin theory would be just mythical for most of the Pothwari(and I would include most of the Jammu and Poonch Rajputs in that lot as well) Rajputs, Especially the Janjuas.
    Yes: Kalhana mentions that battle. Basically after knowing King of Kashmir helped Trilochapala he tried multiple times to take over Kashmir. One battle documented in muslim sources is around 1030AD. He tried to move towards Kashmir through the old pass through Pir Panjal from the Poonch route. That route is arduous and due to heavy snow he had to flee.

    I agree with you that Rajisthan origin theory of must NW Punjabi Rajputs is fictional. I think you misread what I said. My argument I guess is that there existed Rajputs in the North from old times (Kalhana calls Loharas Kshatriyas). Hindu Shahi group basically merged with these Rajputs and formed the ancestry of Pothwari Siwalik Rajputs. I am not sure how Hindu Shahi emerged first but later princes for sure called themselves Rajput as I mentioned in the original blog.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kapisa View Post
    I think you misread what I said. My argument I guess is that there existed Rajputs in the North from old times (Kalhana calls Loharas Kshatriyas). Hindu Shahi group basically merged with these Rajputs and formed the ancestry of Pothwari Siwalik Rajputs. I am not sure how Hindu Shahi emerged first but later princes for sure called themselves Rajput as I mentioned in the original blog.
    This is exactly what I believe. In Kahuta, most of the Janjua clan has descended from Raja Mal, who converted to Islam and is known to his descendants as Dada Peer Kala. He was likely a descendant of Raja Jayapal, of the Hindu Shahi Dynasty, and married the only child, a daughter of a local Chief Raja Mat, the place came to be known as Matore, and the Janjuas inherited the land around it, from where they expanded across this belt. The funny part is that my mother's ancestor was his cousin, and they adopted or had a Brahman identity, some known as Bamniyals and a few Raniyals. They lived in and around Matore for centuries until 1947. My cousin once told me that they even had the Samadhi of that ancestor besides the Mazaar of Dada Peer Kala.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kapisa View Post
    I think some parts are just exaggerations or pure fiction. But I think historically if you read any dynastic story-like Shahnameh by Ferdowsi-its gonna be a mix of fiction and history. Kalhanas narrative is somewhere in between.
    He is not too fond of some of the Loharas. I am not too familiar with the Khasas. Would love to know if today's Khasa tribe lives in Kashmir as well? He gives the genealogy of Loharas and says they were Kshatriyas.
    He also bashes the Shahi princes who he says called themselves Rajputs.
    In terms of Didda he narrates she changes at the end and becomes a benevolent monarch for example she gives jagirs to Brahmins, erects temples and helps the people of the valley.
    Copied from my post here: https://anthrogenica.com/showthread....l=1#post706124

    The medieval Khasa history of the Indian and Pakistani Kashmir

    The Lohara chief Simharaja and his family (later the Lohara dynasty of Kashmir) in fact belonged to the Khasa tribe. His daughter Queen Didda of Utpal dynasty killed her own grandsons and established her brother's son Simharaja as the ruler of the Kashmir throne, thus the beginning the rule of Lohara dynasty in Kashmir.

    Since Sir Marc Aurel Stein (1900)'s 1st volume "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 1" in google books is not showing up, so I quoted the same through Thakur, Laxman S. (1990). "The Khaśas: An Early Indian Tribe". In K. K. Kusuman (ed.). "A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume". He states the family of Lohara chiefs were from the Khasa tribe who had marital relations with Hindu Shahi rulers of Kabul (present day Afghanistan capital) as stated by the Stein (1900) Volume 1. He further states the Rajapuri (present day Rajouri, J&K) rulers were from the Khasa tribe who had marital relations with Kshatriya rulers of Kashmir [valley/Srinagar].

    Laxman S. Thakur (1990): "The Khaśas: An Early Indian Tribe". In K. K. Kusuman (ed.). "A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume".

    The Khasa chiefs of Rajapuri intermarried freely with the Kshatriya rulers of Kashmir. Simharaja, the Khasa chief of the Lohara and married the daughter of Sahi Kings of Kabul. The chiefs of the Lohara are distinctly named as belonging to the Khasa tribe.22 Stein, further observes that the Khasas are identical with the modern Khakha tribe, to which most of the petty hill chiefs and gentry in the Vitasta valley below Kashmir belong.23 Babur has also suggested that the name Kashmir may have been derived from 'Kas' a hill tribe living in the neighbourhood of Kashmir.24
    Laxman S. Thakur (1990); the whole Vishalata valley (from Banihal Pass to Chenab) were inhabited by Khasas.
    Laxman S. Thakur (1990): "The Khaśas: An Early Indian Tribe". In K. K. Kusuman (ed.). "A Panorama of Indian Culture: Professor A. Sreedhara Menon Felicitation Volume".

    In numerous passages of the Rajatarangini20, we find references to the Khasas indicating their north-western affiliations. Aurel Stein's note to his translation of verses 312-7 of Book I gives the following information:21

    ... The rulers of Rajapuri, the modern Rajauri described as 'lords of the Khasas' and their troops as Khasas.... The passages VII, 177, 1074 show that the whole of the valley leading from Banahal to the Chandrabhaga (Chenab)... in the Chronicles bear the name Vishalata, was inhabited by Khasas.
    Laxman S. Thakur (1990) screenshot of the og book;
    Attachment 40038

    This is from the Sir Marc Aurel Stein (1900)'s 2nd volume "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2". His work is a translation of original 12th century CE Kashmiri text "Rajatarangini" written by a native Kashmiri Pandit scholar Kalhana during the rule of Jayasimha - the last Lohara ruler of Kashmir. In the Vol2, Stein quotes that Khasas inhabited the lands between Kastavar (present day Kishtwar, J&K) in the south east to Vitashta valley (present day Jhelum valley https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jhelum_River) in the west forming a semicircle arch. He further states that the Rajapuri (present day Rajouri) and Lohara were ruled by the Khasa families. The Lohara chief's family later succeeded the Kashmir [valley] throne in the 11th century CE. Most of the petty hill chiefs of the Vitashta Jhelum valley south-west of Kashmir valley were from the modern Khakha tribes, who were turbulent like their ancestral Khasa hill tribe.

    M.A. Stein (1900) "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2".

    Races on Kasmir borders.
    80. The ethnography of the territories immediately adjoining Kasmir can be traced quite clearly from the notices of the Rajatarangini. In the south and west the adjacent hill-regions were occupied by Khasas. Their settlements extended, as shown by numerous passages of the Chronicle, in a wide semicircle from Kastavar in the south-east to the Vitasta Valley in the west.7 The hill-states of Rajapuri and Lohara were held by Khasa families; the dynasty of the latter territory succeeded to the rule of Kasmir in the eleventh century. I have shown elsewhere that the Khasas are identical with the present Khakha tribe to which most of the petty chiefs in the Vitasta Valley below Kasmir and in the neighbouring hills, belong. We have already seen that the Khakhas have until very recent times worthily maintained the reputation which their forefathers enjoyed as marauders and turbulent hillmen.
    Screenshot of above from OG Stein (1900) book:
    Attachment 40039

    Stein (1900) Vol2 states that an independent Khasa lord resided at Banahal/Banihal Pass which falls within Vishalata valley (not to be confused with the Vitasta Jhelum), which is the gateway to the Kashmir valley.
    M.A. Stein (1900) "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2".

    Immediately at the foot of Banahal Pass in the territory of Visalata, we find a castle of a Khasa lord who gave shelter to Bhiksacara and the time was evidently independent.
    Megha Sharma (2019) Vol.9 Issue 6, "The region of Kashmir in Ancient Literature with special mention to Tribes" ISSN NO: 2249-2976 Pramana Research Journal (url:https://www.pramanaresearch.org/gallery/prj-p1082.pdf) quoted that Khasas lived between Vitasta (Jhelum river) to Kastavata (Kishtwar-Chenab river) south and west of Pir Panjal range, as it was mentioned in the Nilamata Purana, a 6th-8th century CE Kashmiri text, compiled by Kashmiri Pandit scholar Ved Kumari Ghai.

    Megha Sharma (2019): "The region of Kashmir in Ancient Literature with special mention to Tribes" Vol.9 Issue 6

    The Khasa tribe occupied the areas to the south and west of the Pir Pantsal range between the middle course of the Vitasta in the west and Kastavata in the east.xxx
    Sharma (2019) then writes that the Rajauri chiefs were the "lord of the Khasas" and these Khasas were a hilly tribe who lived in proximity to the Kashmir region [valley].
    Megha Sharma (2019): "The region of Kashmir in Ancient Literature with special mention to Tribes" Vol.9 Issue 6

    The rulers of Rajauri are also mentioned as lord of Khasas in Rajatatrangini.xxxi The Khasas are mentioned alongside the Kulutas, the Tanganas and the Kashmiras in Brhat Samhita. It can be safely concluded that this tribe is a hilly tribe and was in close proximity to the region of Kashmir which could be make out from the constant references given in Rajatarangini.
    The semi-circle arch where the Khasa inhabited looks as in the below map. The Jhelum river in the west and Chenab river in the east marked by blue, places where Khasa were mentioned marked by red, the overall semi-circle arch between this two rivers; Jhelum and Chenab is marked by yellow; the small principality of Karnah, Kupwara, were the Khasas resided marked by pink.
    Attachment 40040

    Stein (1900) Vol2 further continues to state the ruling family of Rajapuri/Rajouri who were presently [at the time of Stein's writing in 1900 CE] Muhammedanized Rajput chiefs [Muslim Rajput rulers] descended from the [medieval] Khasa rulers of Rajapuri/Rajouri.

    M.A. Stein (1900) "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2".

    Rajapuri
    .. Rajapuri took its name from its capital which is repeatedly mentioned by Kalhana, and undoubtedly occupied the position of the present town of Rajauri.17 The ruling family belonged to the Khasa tribe. Its descendants were the Muhammadanized Rajput chiefs who retained this territory down to the present century.
    These chiefs of Lohara hill-state obtained the Kashmir throne on the end of the 10th century and unified both Lohara and Kashmir [valley]. [meaning they displaced the Utpal dynasty of Kashmir through Utpal Queen Didda's installation of her Lohara nephew Sangramaraja as the ruler of the Kashmir throne.] The capital of this hill-state was at Lohara (present day Lohrin, near Poonch, Jammu & Kashmir as verified by Stein before 1900 CE) and their territory included Parnotsa (present day Poonch, J&K).

    M.A. Stein (1900) "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2".

    Lohara
    On the north-west Rajapuri was adjoined by the territory of LOHARA.18 The chief valley belonging to this hill-state was the present Loh*rin which we have already visited when examining the Tos*maidan route. Lohara became important for Kasmir from the end of the tenth century onwards when a branch of its ruling family obtained the Kasmir throne. Subsequently this branch succeeded also to Lohara which thus became united with Kasmir under the same ruler. As the ancestral home and stronghold of the dynasty, the castle of Lohara has played a great part during the last reigns related by Kalhana. The chiefs of Lohara are distinctly named as belonging to the Khasa tribe.

    Lohara seems to have included in those times also the town and district of PARNOTSA, corresponding to the present Punch or Prunts (the Kasmiri form), in the lower valley of the Tohi (Tausi).19
    Screenshot of 2 above quotes from OG Stein (1900) book:
    Attachment 40041

    The ruling Bomba (modern day Bhamba) clans of Karnaha/Karnav/Karnau (present day Karnah, Kupwara, J&K) who were the allies of the Khakha chiefs of Vitasta valley (present day Jhelum valley) were also from the Khasa tribe. They were petty chiefs under the Kashmir rulers but independently ran their kingdom till they were conquered by Sikhs [under Jammu Dogra Maharaja Gulab Singh] after 1846.

    M.A. Stein (1900) "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2".

    Karnaha
    This tract which is now known as Karnav or Karnau, bore the old name of KARNAHA. It seems to have been held by small chiefs nominally tributary to Kasmir even in later Hindu times.26 It is but rarely mentioned in the Chronicle. The inhabitants were Khasas,27 who are representated by the modern Bomba clans still holding Karnav. Their Rajas were practically independent till the Sikh conquest and often harried the north-western parts of Kasmir.28 The last irruption of the Karnav Bombas and their allies, the Khakha chiefs of the Vitasta Valley, occurred as late as 1846.
    Screenshot of above from OG Stein (1900) book:
    Attachment 40042

    Chamba Rajputs of present day Himachal Pradesh also married with the Lohara rulers of the Kashmir. So, there is at least some medieval Khasa ancestry among these hill Rajputs who intermarry with other hill Rajputs.

    M.A. Stein (1900) "Kalhana's Rajatarangini: a chronicle of the kings of Kasmir, Volume 2".

    Campa
    The Rajas of Camba, the ancient CAMPA, on the other hand, figure often in the Kashmir Chronicle.3 Their territory has since early times comprised the valleys of the sources of the Ravi between Kangra, the ancient Trigarta, and Kasthavata. The ancient Rajput family which rules this hill-state to the present day, often intermarried with the Lohara dynasty which reigned in Kasmir.
    Conclusion:
    Medieval rulers of Rajauri, Banahal, Karnaha and the Lohara dynasty of Kashmir (originally from Lohrin near Poonch), were Khasas and they had blood relations with Hindu Shahi rulers from Kabul and other Kashmiri rulers.

    The majority of Khasas of Kashmir in the medieval time lived between modern Jhelum valley to the west and Kishtwar valley in the east at the hill regions south and west of Pir Panjal range.

    Modern Khakha Muslim Rajputs of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan, Bomba/Bhamba clans of Karnah, Kupwara, Jammu & Kashmir as well as Rajput rulers of Rajouri, J&K = descended from Khasas

    Many other royal clans such as Himachal Pradesh Chamba Rajputs, and local families in these Jhelum - Kishtwar regions which now is divided between India and Pakistan have completely absorbed these 6th to 10th century CE Khasas since no one refers themselves as "Khas" in the modern time.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Kapisa View Post
    Yes: Kalhana mentions that battle. Basically after knowing King of Kashmir helped Trilochapala he tried multiple times to take over Kashmir. One battle documented in muslim sources is around 1030AD. He tried to move towards Kashmir through the old pass through Pir Panjal from the Poonch route. That route is arduous and due to heavy snow he had to flee.

    I agree with you that Rajisthan origin theory of must NW Punjabi Rajputs is fictional. I think you misread what I said. My argument I guess is that there existed Rajputs in the North from old times (Kalhana calls Loharas Kshatriyas). Hindu Shahi group basically merged with these Rajputs and formed the ancestry of Pothwari Siwalik Rajputs. I am not sure how Hindu Shahi emerged first but later princes for sure called themselves Rajput as I mentioned in the original blog.
    Saying one has Kshatriya origins doesn't mean anything in my opinion. It doesn't show any ethnic affiliations. Those Lohara & Rajouri families were petty hill chiefs of Khasa tribal origin. In many cases, Rajput and Kshatriya word are vaguely thrown to any non-Brahmin upper caste with rulership/landowning/administrative power. In fact, we all have noticed how there are lots of attempts by lots of communities to upgrade their caste and claim the Vedic Kshatriya/Brahmin descent as far as possible or claim the mainstream Rajput descent for other ruling families by forging their genealogies. It clearly has to do with socio-political positioning motive.
    Last edited by kaazi; 10-05-2020 at 05:51 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by kaazi View Post
    Saying one has Kshatriya origins doesn't mean anything in my opinion. It doesn't show any ethnic affiliations. Those Lohara & Rajouri families were petty hill chiefs of Khasa tribal origin. In many cases, Rajput and Kshatriya word are vaguely thrown to any non-Brahmin upper caste with rulership/landowning/administrative power. In fact, we all have noticed how there are lots of attempts by lots of communities to upgrade their caste and claim the Vedic Kshatriya/Brahmin descent as far as possible or claim the mainstream Rajput descent for other ruling families by forging their genealogies. It clearly has to do with socio-political positioning motive.
    Agreed. I have pointed to the semi fictional nature of the narrative. It also goes to show how a lot of genealogies came into being: later historians like Kalhana or court bards in their praises of the king made up a lot of stories. What I wanted to show was the influence of Kashmir in the broader region of NPunjab_Gandhara, which was surprising for me tbh. I grew up near hill forts and temples of at Malot, Amb and Kafirkot which show an architectural style with distinct fusion of Kashmiri/Naga and Gandharic/Greek elements. They were built around late Shahi times.

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