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Thread: New U5 mtDNA ancient samples

  1. #1
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    New U5 mtDNA ancient samples

    Haak et al. published 19 U5 full sequences from ancient remains in their paper "Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe." I reviewed the U5 mtDNA samples to see which are still found in modern populations and which are extinct. Note that "extinct" in this context means not yet found in modern people, but it is possible that some of these lineages exist but have not yet been discovered. In any case, an "extinct" lineage is one that is extremely rare, if not actually extinct. I also speculated on which subclades of U5 might have an eastern European Hunter Gatherer (EHG) and Yamnaya/Proto-Indo-European origin, and which ones might have had a western Western Hunter Gatherer (WHG) origin.

    Lasardis described the Motala samples as Scandinavian Hunter-Gatherer (SHG) and found that the autosomal DNA evidence suggested SHG may not be a source for modern Europeans.

    Five of the U5 ancient samples are from the Motala site in Sweden dated at about 7700 ybp. Motala1 and Motala3 are in a proposed new subclade of U5a1 that I'm calling Group L, defined by G5460A. There are 3 modern samples in this group including 1 from Germany and 1 from Finland. Motala1 is ancestral to this group (ignoring 16093) while Motala3 appears to be an extinct lineage of U5a1 Group L. Motala4 and Motala6 represent 2 different extinct lineages U5a2d*, and Motala9 is an extinct lineage of U5a2*.

    DEB36 is another extinct U5a1* lineage from the LBK culture in Germany dated at 7200 ybp.

    SVP44 from Samarra Russia dated at 7600 ybp is U5a1d* with an extra mutation at 16241 not yet found in modern U5a1d samples,

    SVP50 and SVP52 are Yamnaya samples from Samarra Russia dated at 5100 ybp and both are U5a1a1 ancestral.

    BZH12 is from Benzigerode-Heimburg, Germany dated at 4200 ybp and is U5a1a2a ancestral.

    ESP3 Unetice Culture 3800 ybp is ancestral for U5a1i1a and is common in northern Europe and there are also samples from Hungary and Sri Lanka. U5a1i* is samples from India and Denmark, and U5a1i1* has a sample from Lebanon, so I think it is likely that U5a1i originated in eastern Europe HG and was present among speakers of proto-Indo-European.


    ESP5-Corded Ware, Germany is dated at 4400 ybp and is U5a2d* with 6 extra CR mutations. It shares 4 of 6 with a modern sample from Portugal, JQ702144, but ESP5 appears to be extinct.

    <b>U5b Ancient Samples</b>

    BENZ14 from the Bernburg culture, Germany, dated at 5000 ybp and is ancestral U5a2b4. We have 14 modern samples in this group from Ireland, France, Denmark and Norway. It seems possible that U5a2b4 was WHG in origin.

    Mina18a is from Spain dated at about 5750 ybp and is pre-U5b1i* and shares 2 extra mutations with two modern people from Ireland who are also Pre-U5b1i*. Mina18a also has a mutation at 16209 which is unique so it may represent and extinct lineage of this pre-U5b1i* group.

    OSH9 is from the Rossen culture in Germany dated at about 6400 ybp and is an extinct lineage of U5b1b* with two unique CR mutations C6644T & A14053G. It's interesting to have another sample of U5b1b* because U5b1b is very widespread geographically and occurs at high frequency in some regions, but it is not very diverse with only two named subclades U5b1b1 and U5b1b2, and a single modern U5b1b* sample from Russia.

    QLB6B is from Baalberge, Germany dated at about 5700 ybp and is ancestral U5b2a2. We have 83 modern U5b2a2 samples mostly from Germanic areas of northern Europe (Denmark, UK, Germany, Poland, Scandinavia).

    QUEVIII6 is from Germany dated at about 4000 ybp and is pre-U5b2a1b. We have 16 modern U5b2a1b samples mostly from Germanic Europe.


    It seems likely that U5a1a, U5a1d and U5a1i originated in EHG who later blended with Neolithc peoples from southwest Asia to form the Yamnaya and who later returned to Europe as part of the migration from the Steppe. The Swedish Motala samples mostly represent extinct mtDNA U5a1 and U5a2 lineages, and the two Motala U5a1* Group L samples are part of a lineage that survives but is rare in Europe today, so this seems consistent with a samll SHG contribution to modern Europeans.
    Last edited by GailT; 02-28-2015 at 11:40 PM.

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    Would you say that it is probably safe to say now that as a general rule that this is probably the case?

    U5a=EHG
    U5b=WHG

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    Quote Originally Posted by J Man View Post
    Would you say that it is probably safe to say now that as a general rule that this is probably the case?

    U5a=EHG
    U5b=WHG
    No, I don't think so. Some U5a subclades seem to be associated with western Europe, and some U5b subclades seem to have been in eastern Europe at an early date.
    Last edited by GailT; 03-01-2015 at 02:24 PM.

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    Hey Gail, have you had a look at the non-U Yamnaya mtDNA lineages? Which part of the Near East do they appear to be from? Anatolia, Caucasus, Iran, or some other place?

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    Thanks alot GailT!!!! You're the foremost expert on U5 at Anthrogencia. I've noticed there's a disproportional amount of U5 carriers here.

    I'm very surprised that with the small amount of modern U5 FMS samples that some shared private mutations with ancient ones. We can't make many conclusions about SHG, WHG, EHG, etc U5 survival yet because we have so few. Wouldn't you agree that if you picked out 10 random FMS U5s from modern Europe, that it would be hard for them to find matches in your modern data set?

    I only did 23andme and HV1+2 at FTDNA and have two private mutations; 215G and 1393A, I could have more. No U5b2a2 at FTDNA has 215G. If I was an ancient person would you say my variant of U5b2a2b1 is extinct? Most people have unfounded private mutations right?

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    The "Ancient mtDNA reference" has plenty of U5s with private mutations. It'd be interesting to see if what you can find with your modern data base. Do you have a modern database for other haplogroups?

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    The U5b1b* is the most interesting thing to me. Almost all modern ones are U5b1b2 or U5b1b1, yet our only ancient one is neither. There's A 4,000ybp U5b1b from Spain but its study didn't give the sample's mutations. It may have been FMS and also U5b1b*.

    Plenty ancient U5bs have 16189C! which is a common mutation and defines U5b1b-h. Although only two have the combined 16189C! and 16192C!, meaning they're likely U5b1b1a-f and are both from Mesolithic Poland. None have 16320T which defines U5b1b1b the only other U5b1b1 clade. U5b1b2 is defined by HV2 mutations so we're out of luck there in terms of ancient mtDNA.

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    I wouldn't be surprised if some ancestral U5b2b2 lineages died out in Norway/Scandinavia, and are now only found in the British Isles (and eventually around the Anglo-speaking world).

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    Quote Originally Posted by GailT View Post
    [..]
    OSH9 is from the Rossen culture in Germany dated at about 6400 ybp and is an extinct lineage of U5b1b* with two unique CR mutations C6644T & A14053G. It's interesting to have another sample of U5b1b* because U5b1b is very widespread geographically and occurs at high frequency in some regions, but it is not very diverse with only two named subclades U5b1b1 and U5b1b2, and a single modern U5b1b* sample from Russia.
    [..]
    I am (with geno 2.0) U5b1b*
    I never did, however ,another tests with my mtDNA .
    What should I do ?
    Paternal: R1b-U152+ L2+ 7664023 et al., Pandolfo Guidi, b. ~1515, Ostra Vetere, Marches, Italy
    Maternal: U5b1b*, Delicata Frascone, b. ~1740, Sora, southern Lazio, Italy

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    Quote Originally Posted by Alessio B. Bedini View Post
    I am (with geno 2.0) U5b1b*
    I never did, however ,another tests with my mtDNA .
    What should I do ?
    Try uploading your results to mthap first, and see if any extra mutations were found in the Geno 2.0 results.

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