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Thread: 40,000BP hybrids from Pestera-Cu_Oase-Romania

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    40,000BP hybrids from Pestera-Cu_Oase-Romania

    As complement to Bernard's post http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthre...3495#post83495 on "COLD SPRING HARBOR, NY (GenomeWeb) – An international team has discovered recent Neanderthal ancestry in an ancient jaw sample from a modern human who lived in present-day Romania roughly 37,000 to 42,000 years ago, attendees heard at the Biology of Genomes meeting."

    We have a wiki item http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pe%C8%99tera_cu_Oase

    I suppose the given dates are non-calibrated.
    Last edited by palamede; 05-09-2015 at 03:22 PM. Reason: reference addition

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    Any indication that they will release the mtDNA haplogroup any time soon? My guess is that it will be U5. I'm pretty sure that it will be within mtDNA macro-haplogroup R.

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    I also posted on this news in the Human Evolution forum: http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthre...rthal-Ancestry

    The team is continuing to tease apart patterns from genetic profiles in the sample, including genotyping ... the Oase 1 individual's Y chromosome....

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    Quote Originally Posted by palamede View Post
    I suppose the given dates are non-calibrated.
    Oase 1 was directly 14C AMS dated to >35,200 years BP (OxA-11711) and 34,290, +970, -870 years BP (GrA-22810), which together provide a finite age of 34,950, +990, -890 years BP.
    http://www.researchgate.net/profile/...8cb9000000.pdf

    Using the second date in Calpal (http://www.calpal-online.de/), I get 37230 ± 1410 BC

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    Ann Gibbons, Science, Ancient DNA pinpoints Paleolithic liaison in Europe
    A young man who lived in Romania 37,000 to 42,000 years inherited as much as one-tenth of his DNA from a Neandertal ancestor, according to a new study of ancient DNA. Ever since spelunkers found a robust jawbone in a cave in Romania in 2002, some paleoanthropologists have thought that its huge wisdom teeth and other features resembled those of Neandertals even though the fossil was a modern human. Now, by sequencing informative parts of the Romanian man's genome, an international team of researchers has found that he had inherited 4.8% to 11.3% of his genome from a Neandertal who lived only 200 years or so previously, according to a talk this month at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. The finding confirms that Neandertals interbred with modern humans more than once, and it is the first evidence that the two types of humans had a liaison in Europe.

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    Ann Gibbons, Science, Ancient DNA pinpoints Paleolithic liaison in Europe
    Quote Originally Posted by Ann Gibbons
    To Erik Trinkaus, the jaw of the oldest modern human found in Europe has always looked strange. Its huge wisdom teeth and hefty, buttressed lower jaw reminded him of Neandertals, and he argued that this fossil, 37,000 to 42,000 years old, was the product of generations of mixing between modern humans and our extinct cousins. “It wasn't a popular idea,” admits Trinkaus, a paleoanthropologist at Washington University in St. Louis. Other paleoanthropologists insisted that the young man whose remains were found in 2002 in Peştera cu Oase cave in Romania was just a chunky example of our own species.

    Now, 15 years later, Trinkaus has been vindicated by ancient DNA. The young Oase man inherited as much as one-tenth of his DNA from a Neandertal ancestor, and that ancestor lived only 200 years or so previously, according to a talk this month at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York. “One of Oase's ancestors—its great-great-great-grandparent—is Neandertal,” reported Qiaomei Fu, a geneticist at the Chinese Academy of Sciences–Max Planck Society Joint Laboratory for Human Evolution in Beijing and a postdoc in the lab of population geneticist David Reich at Harvard Medical School. The finding is “important as the first direct evidence of a very recent admixture event in Europe,” says population geneticist Laurent Excoffier of the University of Bern.

    Europe just after the arrival of modern humans has long seemed a likely setting for such close encounters, given that Neandertals and modern humans overlapped there about 45,000 to 39,000 years ago. But until now, ancient DNA pointed to a different time and place for such a liaison. By sequencing the genomes of fossil Neandertals and comparing them with today's human genomes, paleogeneticists had found that living Europeans and Asians—but not Africans—have inherited just 1% to 4% of their DNA from Neandertals. DNA from fossils of two modern humans from what is now Russia also suggested that their Neandertal heritage was faint (see http://scim.ag/RussDNA). So researchers proposed that modern humans and Neandertals had rare and relatively early encounters, perhaps in the Middle East, when moderns swept out of Africa 60,000 to 50,000 years ago.

    The DNA from Oase 1, a lower jaw without a skull, complicates that picture, Fu reported at the Biology of Genomes meeting. Working in a team led by paleogeneticist Svante Pääbo of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, she and her colleagues captured 2.2 million base pairs of the fossil's DNA. Then, they sequenced 78,055 locations where the genomes of Neandertals and modern humans are known to differ. They found that the Oase man had far more Neandertal DNA—composing 4.8% to 11.3% of his genome—than either the ancient modern humans from Russia or living Europeans and Asians, Fu said.

    What's more, the young man had inherited the Neandertal DNA in “large chunks,” including several segments more than 50 million base pairs long; one chunk spanned half the length of chromosome 12. Those unbroken stretches of Neandertal DNA suggest that the interbreeding must have been just four to six generations back. If the mixing had been more ancient, the long DNA segments would have been broken up by the reshuffling of chromosomes that takes place every generation. “This is quite amazing,” Fu said in her talk. “We're quite excited about that.”

    If modern humans and Neandertals had several successful matings, why do living humans' genomes record only the earlier event? An answer emerged when Fu traced how this Oase man and other early modern fossils link to later peoples. One of the early modern fossils from Russia, a 36,000- to 39,000-year-old arm bone known as Kostenki 14, is genetically similar to present-day Europeans. In contrast, the DNA of the Oase fossil, although it is from Europe, more closely resembles ancient Asians than Kostenki or living Europeans, Fu reported. The team concluded that the Oase man himself was an evolutionary dead end, who did not pass his DNA along to living Europeans. Members of the team have declined to comment further, because their report is in press.

    Fu's was “an impressive talk,” says population geneticist Andrew Clark of Cornell University, and suggests that “there were many interbreeding events.” But the recent mixing surprises some. “I thought that interbreeding would be a lot less likely at 40,000 years when there were so few Neandertals left,” says Chris Stringer of the Natural History Museum in London. “I have to admit Erik has been proved right.”

    Trinkaus wasn't surprised when he saw a copy of the manuscript. “It confirms things a bunch of us have been saying for a long time.”

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    Quote Originally Posted by Bernard View Post
    If modern humans and Neandertals had several successful matings, why do living humans' genomes record only the earlier event? An answer emerged when Fu traced how this Oase man and other early modern fossils link to later peoples. One of the early modern fossils from Russia, a 36,000- to 39,000-year-old arm bone known as Kostenki 14, is genetically similar to present-day Europeans. In contrast, the DNA of the Oase fossil, although it is from Europe, more closely resembles ancient Asians than Kostenki or living Europeans, Fu reported. The team concluded that the Oase man himself was an evolutionary dead end, who did not pass his DNA along to living Europeans. Members of the team have declined to comment further, because their report is in press.
    Another Y-DNA haplogroup C sample perhaps?
    Paternal: R1b-U152 >> L2 >> FGC10543, Pietro della Rocca, b. 1559, Agira, Sicily, Italy
    Maternal: H4a1-T152C!, Maria Coto, b. ~1864, Galicia, Spain
    Mother's Paternal: J1+ FGC4745/FGC4766+ PF5019+, Gerardo Caprio, b. 1879, Caposele, Avellino, Campania, Italy
    Father's Maternal: T2b-C150T, Francisca Santa Cruz, b.1916, Garganchon, Burgos, Spain
    Paternal Great (x3) Grandfather: R1b-U106 >> L48 >> CTS2509, Filippo Ensabella, b.~1836, Agira, Sicily, Italy

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    Quote Originally Posted by Richard A. Rocca View Post
    Another Y-DNA haplogroup C sample perhaps?
    It is likely that this individual will belong to either Y-DNA haplogroup C or I. IJ is also a possibility I think. When it comes to mtDNA he is likely to be either R or U.

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    Quote Originally Posted by J Man View Post
    It is likely that this individual will belong to either Y-DNA haplogroup C or I. IJ is also a possibility I think. When it comes to mtDNA he is likely to be either R or U.
    He was a genetic dead-end: "In contrast, the DNA of the Oase fossil, although it is from Europe, more closely resembles ancient Asians than Kostenki or living Europeans, Fu reported." By Ancient Asian(s) they may mean Ust Ishim.

    This first article about Oase confused him with Kostenki and said he was "already quite European". So, I doubt Oase will have mtDNA U, and any Y DNA associated with WHG/ANE.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Krefter View Post
    He was a genetic dead-end: "In contrast, the DNA of the Oase fossil, although it is from Europe, more closely resembles ancient Asians than Kostenki or living Europeans, Fu reported." By Ancient Asian(s) they may mean Ust Ishim.

    This first article about Oase confused him with Kostenki and said he was "already quite European". So, I doubt Oase will have mtDNA U, and any Y DNA associated with WHG/ANE.
    We shall see.

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